Biomedical Engineering

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15 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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Bioengineering

Introduction to Engineering

EGN1

March 4, 2013

Dr. Hornstein

What is Engineering?


The major goal of engineers is to improve
our quality of life.


Take known technologies and improve them

OR


Create new technologies

What is bioengineering?

Biology

Materials

engineering

Mechanical

engineering

Electrical

engineering

Computer

engineering

Nuclear

engineering

Chemical

engineering

Biology

Engineering


Any area of
biology


mixed with


any area of
engineering


in any
proportion

Video: Biomedical engineering

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8ATbQ0ygfaE

Video: Biomedical engineering
careers

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xAy
-
0ewEzeg

1,000 B.C.:

Archeologists
uncovered a 3,000
-
year
-
old mummy from Thebes
with a wooden prosthetic
big toe

Egyptians used
hollow reeds to look
and listen to the
internal goings on of
the human anatomy

1816:

modesty prevented French
physician Rene Laennec from
placing his ear next to a young
woman’s bare chest, so he rolled
up a newspaper and listened
through it, triggering the idea for
the stethoscope.

Early Medical Devices

Civil War Amputation Kit

Arrow Extractor

Early Dental Devices

Tooth
Extractor

Root canal tools

Drill for cavities

1895
: Wilhelm
Roentgen discovered
x
-
rays, initially used
for the diagnosis of
bone fractures.

1906
: Einthoven developed
the electrocardiogram (ECG)

1920s
: Refrigeration for
blood storage

1929:

Drinkler invents
“Iron lung” for artificial
respiration

1935
: Gibson develops heart
-
lung
machine, an artificial device for
shunting blood flow outside of the
patient by bypass the heart and lungs
to allowing for more effective heart
surgery (i.e. heart could be stopped)

1931
: Electron microscope
developed, providing the first real
ability to visualize sub
-
cellular
structures

1954
: First use of the artificial
tissue replacements (DeBakey)

1955
: Invention of the pacemaker, an
implantable assist device to recreate
the natural rhythm of the heart to
initiate natural contractions (Zoll)

Biology

Mechanical

engineering

Electrical

engineering

Computer

engineering

Ultrasound is an imaging
technique that detects an object
based on how well it “echoes”
sound waves.

Used to detect
heart defects,
age of fetus,
position in uterus,
twins.

Also used to thermally
apply medications to
injuries.

Biology

Materials

engineering

Chemical

engineering

Cell and Tissue Engineering
allows us to repair or replace
the function of natural tissue
with bioengineered substitutes.

Create tissue substitutes from
living cells and synthetic
materials.

All imaging and diagnostic
techniques


Help with medical diagnosis


Assist in research for better cures


EKG machines


MRI


Ultrasound imaging


Example: Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Biology

Electrical

engineering

Computer

engineering

Nuclear

engineering

Chemical

engineering

Cochlear Prostheses

http://www.cochlearimplant.com/

Biomimetics


Mimicking biological systems to create new
technologies

Examples of Engineers in

Medicine and Biology

Biology

Materials

engineering

Mechanical

engineering

Electrical

engineering

Computer

engineering

Nuclear

engineering

Chemical

engineering

Biomaterials
engineering

Biology

Materials

engineering

Do you know of
a family
member that
has a
biomaterial?

Bioelectrical engineering

Biology

Electrical

engineering

Biocomputer engineering


Computer Science: computer databases,
programs, bioinformatics


Computer Engineering: computer design
for CAT scanners


Basically, any time you need a computer
program or computer chip

Biology

Computer

engineering

Bioinformatics and Genomics


Bioinformatics = computer science + biomedicine


Discover genetic basis for disease (cancer, diabetes)


Develop new diagnostic devices (cDNA chip)




cDNA Array

Biology

Computer

engineering

Biochemical engineering

Biology

Chemical

engineering

Biomechanical engineering

Biology

Mechanical

engineering

Bionuclear engineering

Biology

Nuclear

engineering

What Do I Need to Study?

Traditional Approaches #1 and #2


Choose one major and one minor from
traditional disciplines:


1.

Engineering Side: Electrical Engineering,
Mechanical, Chemical, Materials, Nuclear,
Computer Science …


2.

Life Science Side: Molecular and Cellular
Biology, Physiology, Cell Biology, Microbiology …


Anticipate possible need for one more year to
double major to achieve career objectives

Major in the area you like better ...


"If you could be either an engineer or a
biologist, but not both, which would it
be?"


Major in that field ... and minor in the
other.


Yes, you can go to Biomed. Eng. grad school
from either the Life Sciences or Engineering


… but not if you do not have the basics …
calculus, physics, chem, biochem, at least
some beginning engineering coursework
and some beginning life science coursework