Schizophrenia – social explanation, types of validity -

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16 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

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Clinical Psychology

Social explanations of schizophrenia;


different types

Sociocultural explanations

People diagnosed with
schizophrenia tend to be the lower
socioeconomic groups and live in
the poorest areas of cities

can you
think of any reasons for this?

Thus social and psychological
factors may be important

Sociocultural explanations

Sociogenic hypothesis

poor social
conditions create stresses that trigger
schizophrenia in some people

Stressful life events

Brown and Birley (1968)

about 50% of
patients experienced a stressful event in
the 3 weeks prior to an episode

This suggests that stressful experience
may trigger the schizophrenic episode

Sociocultural explanations

Stressful life events longitudinal study

Hirsch et al (1996) analysed life events
experienced by 71 schizophrenic patients over 4
years and found that the cumulative effect of
stressful life events in the 12 months prior to a
schizophrenic episode has a significant effect

This suggests that it is the total stress rather than
one stressful event that acts as a trigger

Sociocultural explanations

Family relationships

Some psychologists suggest that family
relationships with ‘abnormal’
communication styles may create highly
stressful environments

McGlashan (1994) suggested that
expressed emotion (EE) comprises critical
or emotionally over
involved attitudes and
behaviours displayed by one or more
parents to their schizophrenic offspring


Family relationships


Research into EE suggests that family
dynamics are an important predictor of
relapse of positive

Brown el al (1972) and Vaughn et al (1976)
established the detrimental effects of
ineffective medication and high face
face contact (over 35 hours per week) on
relapse rates of patients living in high

Sociocultural explanations

Family relationships

cross cultural


et al (1987) found that high
EE in
Indian families is also associated with

that the significantly better
outcome for Indian patients compared to a
London cohort was due to the lower
proportion of high
EE relatives in the
Indian study

Sociocultural explanations

Family relationships

STRESS in the

Levene et al (1996) assessed the stress
experienced by families coping with
schizophrenic patients

that the “Perceived Family
Burden Scale”, an instrument measuring
patient behaviour and family stress,
demonstrates greater predictive power for
early relapse in schizophrenia than

Types of validity

Criterion validity


When the result of a study matches the
result from another study which has been
conducted at the same time

Applied to the DSM

if a diagnosis using
the DSM criteria matches another
diagnosis given at the same time, the
DSM diagnosis is likely to have
concurrent validity

Types of validity

Criterion validity


The same as concurrent validity


results of studies conducted at
a different time are compared

Applied to the

if a diagnosis using
the DSM criteria matches another
given at an later time,
the DSM
diagnosis is likely to have