Legacy Sectors and Organizational Growth - DK International ...

skillfulbuyerΠολεοδομικά Έργα

16 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

50 εμφανίσεις

1

Longitudinal thinking

and

Facilitator and Course Coordinator:

Vinayshil Gautam PhD, FRAS(London)

(Founder Director IIM K; Leader Consulting Team IIM S)

A Al_Sager Chair Professor and First Head,

Management Department, IIT D

Chairman, DKIF









The future of any organization depends on
how well it is able to relate itself to its
givens and use that knowledge to project
growth.


Also, calls for longitudinal thinking


The longitudinal thinking can effect different
components of the organization differently,
because, the givens can vary in each component



(Burton et al., 2002;
Eisenhardt

et al., 1990b).

2


There is no ideal organizational structure


Structures can be placed along the
continuum from mechanistic to organic




Entrepreneurial choices about
organizational structures and processes are
driven by founders’ prior experiences in
specific companies


Beckman (2006)

3

As the organization grows, it evolves
into a more organic structure.

Past affiliations are an important and
understudied component of founders.

Should modify the parameters which
induced a change in the structure

Should imbibe positive points of the
previous structure

Should mesh in with the previous structure

The past of the organization

4


The present state is a result of the
past state and the future state would
be the result of the present state
---

nothing begins
ab initio.


Tool to analyse organizational
structure


Account for the constraints and
facilitations provided by the
environment



5


Can help to establish a useful pattern
or trend between a dependent and an
independent factor over time.


Can reveal the impact of other
surrounding or circumstantial or
peripheral factors


There are 2 underlying sub processes


Longitudinal study(mapping the givens)


Longitudinal analysis (structure,
aggregate, classify)

6

Organizational
Structure

Bureaucracy

Span of control

Job satisfaction

Work design

Organizational
Process

Organizational
policies

Information
processing factors

Knowledge
management

Change
management

Organizational
factors

Organizational
Growth

Technology

Innovative
capability

7


The trajectory of
organizational growth
can be plotted as



c

is the legacy variable


Represents the appropriate definition of
the situation


Longitudinal Thinking
can reveal ‘c’ i.e.
the factors that impact the dynamics of the
relation between y and x

8

y =
mx

+ c


c

emerged as a result of


Molding influences during the early stages of
growth


Contextual factors


Personality variables


Process variables


Has to be factorized/scientifically
decomposed and selectively built upon


Done by
longitudinal thinking



9


Any choice the organization makes
invariably reflects


Its past experience


Its learning from its mistakes


Present state of affairs


Its vision for the future

10

Organizational legacy, or the
imprinting that comes from prior
work experience in different types
of organizations, is expected to
affect the subsequent
performance of the new firm in
systematic and predictable ways
(Feldman et al., 2006)

11


When an individual leaves an organization to
pursue an entrepreneurial venture, the new
firm’s initial endowment will be the knowledge
that is embedded in the parent organization.


Certain decisions central to the capabilities of
a new firm, are part of that knowledge


The design of the organization


The degree of hierarchy and span of control


The institutional routines


Organizational culture

Agarwal

et. al (2004)

12


A substantial percentage of the
founders in the successful Inc.500
gathered ideas for their new company
while working for their prior employer
in the same industry
1
.


The survival rate of new firms is
greater when the founders have prior
work experience in incumbent firms
2
.

1.
Bhide

(2000)

2.
Klepper

and Sleeper (2005)

13


Detailed examination of data and
evidence to reveal trends over time


Reveals patterns in target population’s
achievements, behavior etc over time


Comparison with trend analysis


Switch from trend to longitudinal is simple;
focus on the individual’s event


Gives a ‘before’ and ‘after’ picture

14


Comparison with cross
-
sectional
analysis


People making up the population change
according to who fits the criterion each
year


Longitudinal analysis looks at the same
people over time based on whether they
fit the criterion at the selected time

15

16


Correlation research study that
involves repeated observations of the
same items over long periods of time.


Observational in nature


Repeated observations at an individual
level


Enable to distinguish between short
-
term and long
-
term phenomena

17

Longitudinal
Study

Cohort Study

Panel Study

Retrospective
Study

Grouping done
after the data
is collected

18


Cohort


Group of people who share a common
characteristics or experience within a
defined period


Set of individuals entering a system at
the same time


It seeks to explain an outcome
through exploitation of differences
between cohort

19

Cohort Analysis

Prospective

Defines
the groups
before a study is
done

Nested Case

New case controls
are applied in to the
cohorts that were
defined before the
study began

Household Panel

Draw representative
samples of
households and
survey them

20


Organizational learning is the sum total of
the individual learning occurring in the
workplace
1


There is a marked shift to group learning


Cowan (1995) made use of the Native
American Medicine Wheel to describe this
model of organizational learning
2


Circular, longitudinal & integrative

1.
Argyris & Schon, 1996; Levitt & March, 1988; Normann, 1985; Weick
& Westley, 1996)

2.
Rhythms of Learning: Patterns That Bridge Individuals and
Organizations : David Cowan, 1995

21



Inner Process of Renewal


Continue Cycling the Wheel


New Visionary Ideas


Action and Implementation

Accept the Responsibility

How it will be Done ?


Making New Ideas

Leadership


Curiosity


Innocence


Conviction


Self
-
assurance


Integration


Wisdom


Sharing of Ideas and Views

22

New Premises for
Learning

Learning need
to be seen as
part of every
performance
and every
relationship
within an
organization.

We need to
move from a
linear view of
learning to one
that is circular
or spiral.

Movement
from Cross
-
sectional to
Longitudinal
thinking.
Learning can
occur on many
levels and in
different
directions.

Our view of
learning also
needs to
change from
one that is
compartmental
to one that is
integrative.
This means
valuing
Wisdom rather
than Expertise.

23



High
-
level planning activities


Establish the high
-
level goal


Scan the environment


Analyze the high
-
level goal


Develop strategies and tactics


Develop schedules and assign
responsibilities


24

We need a plan before planning


Based on the performance during the
performance appraisal term


Each individual compared to their own
beginning level


Assessment by means of


Process, effort, and participation as tools of learning.



Practice in generating and developing ideas.



Thinking skills, problems solving skills, and dexterity
skills.



Grades on basis of ‘learning to think’.

25

A pharmaceutical company and
the evolution of its
organisation structure


Study done on Swedish and Danish
biotechnology start
-
ups


Founders’ immediate prior experience
affects the performance of their new
venture.


Differentiation between financial
performance and product development


27

University
Researchers

From prominent
biotech firms

From
downstream
markets

From the
pharmaceutical
industry

28


Firms produce innovations
that have greater product
development potential

University
Researchers


Firms have better financial
performance

Pharmaceutical
industry


Firms perform well in
product innovation and
financial performance

From prominent
Biotechnology
firms



Firms do well in financial
terms only

From
Downstream
Markets

29


Human Capital variable


Work experience of the founders


Number of publications


Number of citations


Social Capital variable


Founding alliances: Early stage strategic
alliances


Later alliances

30


Innovative performance


Early stage inventive performance: No. of patents
granted to the firm


Number of active clinical trials in the firm’s portfolio
(
market potential
)


Financial performance


PMV (Post Money Value)


Market capitalization, calculated as the average daily
closing price in each year for a given firm, multiplied by
the number of stocks committed


Non
-
listed firms


Calculated per each round of capital inflow as the total
number of shares committed, multiplied by share values
paid by new investors


31

32

Organizational legacy plays a
substantial role in shaping
the performance of firms

Prior work experience of the
founder can be aligned with
good performance on
particular performance
criteria