Ethnicity and occupational mobility

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16 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

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ESRC Centre on the Dynamics of
Ethnic Inequality and Identity

Ethnicity and occupational mobility

Trends since the 1970s

James Nazroo

Sociology and Cathie Marsh Centre

School of Social Sciences


james.nazroo@manchester.ac.uk

ESRC Centre on the Dynamics of
Ethnic Inequality and Identity

Key issues


Marked ethnic inequalities in socioeconomic position.


But pattern has varied over time, with evidence of improvements for
some, but not all, groups.


The importance of education (for mobility):


The possibility that ethnic differences in orientation to education
(cultural capital?) have led to different patterns of class mobility.


The likelihood that success in education relates to others’ perception
of ethnic categories


the ways in which we are racialised (or not).


Evidence that for a given level of education ethnicity remains
important, other ‘hazards’ associated with ethnicity play a role.


The role of ‘structural’ processes leading to ethnic disadvantage
(indirectly observed by identifying the extent of an ‘ethnic penalty’):


Class origin;


Access to education;


Institutional and interpersonal discrimination.

ESRC Centre on the Dynamics of
Ethnic Inequality and Identity

A brief summary of methods


A focus on inter
-

and intra
-
generational mobility.


Class, education (and income inequalities), comparing unrelated first and
second generations (using the Health Survey for England).


Intra
-
generational mobility in occupational class and employment across
periods (using the Longitudinal Study (LS)).


And differences across cohorts (inter
-
generational) (using the LS).


The role of education (Lucinda Platt’s work using the LS).


Mainly examining relative rates (to white British/English group) that do
not directly address changes in occupational structures.


A complex picture:


Varying ethnic/religious groups included in the analysis (data
restrictions and focussing on key issues).


But try to keep some attention on important detail.


Summary of important gender differences.

ESRC Centre on the Dynamics of
Ethnic Inequality and Identity

Class mobility, unrelated generations

Smith, Kelly and Nazroo, 2009

0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
1st
1.5/2nd
1st
1.5/2nd
1st
1.5/2nd
1st
1.5/2nd
1st
1.5/2nd
1st
1.5/2nd
Black Caribbean
Indian
Pakistani
Bangladeshi
Chinese
Irish
IV/V
IIIm/nm
I/II
ESRC Centre on the Dynamics of
Ethnic Inequality and Identity

Educational mobility, unrelated generations

Smith, Kelly and Nazroo, 2009

0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
1st
1.5/2nd
1st
1.5/2nd
1st
1.5/2nd
1st
1.5/2nd
1st
1.5/2nd
1st
1.5/2nd
White
Black Caribbean
Indian
Pakistani
Bangladeshi
Chinese
Irish
No recognised qualification
NVQ1
NVQ2
A level equivalent
Higher Ed < degree
Degree equivalent
ESRC Centre on the Dynamics of
Ethnic Inequality and Identity

Period and cohort effects: odds of manual occupational
class compared with white British

0.1
1
10
Irish
Black
Caribbean
Pakistani
Bangladshi
Indian
Muslim
Indian Sikh
Indian
Hindu
Chinese
1971 cohort
1971 cohort in 2001
2001 cohort
16.2
Men

Karlsen, Nazroo and Smith, 2012

ESRC Centre on the Dynamics of
Ethnic Inequality and Identity

Period and cohort effects: odds for being unemployed
compared with white British

0.1
1
10
Irish
Black
Caribbean
Pakistani
Bangladshi
Indian
Muslim
Indian Sikh
Indian
Hindu
Chinese
1971 cohort
1971 cohort in 2001
2001 cohort
Men

Karlsen, Nazroo and Smith, 2012

ESRC Centre on the Dynamics of
Ethnic Inequality and Identity

Odds of moving from manual to non
-
manual
occupational class compared with white British

0
0.5
1
1.5
2
Irish
Black
Caribbean
Pakistani
Muslim
Indian Sikh
Indian
Hindu
1971-1981
1981-1991
1991-2001
Men

Karlsen, Nazroo and Smith, 2012

ESRC Centre on the Dynamics of
Ethnic Inequality and Identity

Odds of moving from non
-
manual to manual
occupational class compared with white British

0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
Irish
Black
Caribbean
Pakistani
Muslim
Indian Sikh
Indian
Hindu
1971-1981
1981-1991
1991-2001
Men

Karlsen, Nazroo and Smith, 2012

ESRC Centre on the Dynamics of
Ethnic Inequality and Identity

Short note on gender


The period and cohort patterns for Irish, Black Caribbean, Indian Hindu,
Indian Sikh and Chinese women, relative to white women, are similar to
those for men.


For the Muslim groups
trends

across periods and cohorts relative to white
women were similar to those for men, however
levels

were different.


Muslim women were not as over
-
represented in manual occupations
as Muslim men were (relative to their white counterparts);


Muslim women were much more likely to be unemployed compared
with Muslim men (relative to their white counterparts).


For mobility modelled at an individual level:


Women were less likely to move to non
-
manual occupations than men
(relative to their white counterparts) for all of the ethnic minority
groups.


But there were no differences for the move to manual occupations.


ESRC Centre on the Dynamics of
Ethnic Inequality and Identity

Odds of professional/managerial class destination
compared with white non
-
migrants

0
0.5
1
1.5
2
Caribbean
Indian
Pakistani
Bangladeshi
Chinese
and other
Adujsted for background socioeconomic position
+ Education
Adapted from Platt, 2007

Children in 1971 or 1981

ESRC Centre on the Dynamics of
Ethnic Inequality and Identity

Conclusions


A varied picture, over time, across ethnic groups, and men and women,
only partly simplified by presenting a subset of the data: the processes
and patterns are complex.


Different ‘starting’ profiles for different groups (for example, Indian Hindu,
Pakistani and Caribbean).


But different patterns and rates of change not all driven by starting points.


A general disadvantage for Muslim, Caribbean and Indian Sikh people.


Relative advantage for Indian Hindu, Chinese and Irish people.


Improvements (on the whole) in the extent of disadvantage over time and
across generations.


But the pattern for unemployment is much more negative than that for
class mobility.



Footnote


biases are likely to be introduced by under
-
enumeration of
some sub
-
groups


ESRC Centre on the Dynamics of
Ethnic Inequality and Identity

Possible explanations


The context of migration and evolution of contexts (region, occupational
structures, economy, education, processes of racialisation) is important.


Reassertion of class background?



Education important for all groups (studied), but not sufficient to offset the
large ethnic penalty of Pakistani and, probably, Bangladeshi people.


Suggestions of the importance of period


economic downturns and
changing patterns of racialisation.


Institutional and interpersonal discrimination; ethnic penalty.



The importance of geography: deprivation, schooling, and concentration in
particular industries and occupations.


The likely importance of access to, and type of, further education.


Social networks and connections.


Gender and ethnic differences and participation in the labour market.


ESRC Centre on the Dynamics of
Ethnic Inequality and Identity

Acknowledgement



The permission of the Office for National Statistics to use the
Longitudinal Study is gratefully acknowledged, as is the help provided
by staff of the Centre for Longitudinal Study Information & User
Support (CeLSIUS). CeLSIUS is supported by the ESRC Census of
Population Programme (Award Ref: RES
-
348
-
25
-
0004).