and Qualitative Data on Migrants in Vienna

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16 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

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Institute for Advanced Studies | Stumpergasse 56 | A
-
1060 Wien | Tel: +43 1 59991
-
0 | www.ihs.ac.at | www.equi.


latcheva@ihs.ac.at


| Migration and Life
-
Course Research
|

5/6 December
| Bremen

|


1

A Dynamic and Multidimensional Model of
Integration

Building on Longitudinal Quantitative
and Qualitative Data on Migrants in Vienna




Rossalina Latcheva

Institute for Advanced Studies (IHS)

Vienna


with


Barbara Herzog
-
Punzenberger

Austrian Academy of Science




International Conference on Migration and Life
-
Course Research

5/6 December, 2008, Conference Center “Teerhof”, University of Bremen

| Institute for Advanced Studies | Stumpergasse 56 | A
-
1060 Wien | Tel: +43 1 59991
-
0 | www.ihs.ac.at | www.equi.at |


Institute for Advanced Studies | Stumpergasse 56 | A
-
1060 Wien | Tel: +43 1 59991
-
0 | www.ihs.ac.at | www.equi.


latcheva@ihs.ac.at


| Migration and Life
-
Course Research
|

5/6 December
| Bremen

|


2

Point of departure (1)

Theoretical challenges


Migration and integration


a battlefield of political interests


blurring boundaries between
categories of analysis

and
categories of practice



Migrants, ethno
-
national groups and receiving societies
treated as homogenous entities


Integration as a…


contested


one
-
dimensional


dichotomous


static


unidirectional & linear


decontextualized


non
-
relational and non
-
interactive concept, often without explicit
longitudinal or life
-
course perspective



Institute for Advanced Studies | Stumpergasse 56 | A
-
1060 Wien | Tel: +43 1 59991
-
0 | www.ihs.ac.at | www.equi.


latcheva@ihs.ac.at


| Migration and Life
-
Course Research
|

5/6 December
| Bremen

|


3

Point of departure (2)

Methodological challenges

For decades (at least for Austria):



almost no data on naturalized persons


almost no longitudinal data on migrants and their
descendants


small samples


a missing life
-
course perspective within migration and
integration research


no systematic integration of quantitative and qualitative
approaches in research design and analysis


Institute for Advanced Studies | Stumpergasse 56 | A
-
1060 Wien | Tel: +43 1 59991
-
0 | www.ihs.ac.at | www.equi.


latcheva@ihs.ac.at


| Migration and Life
-
Course Research
|

5/6 December
| Bremen

|


4

Implications

for research

and policy
-
making (1)


primarily descriptive, non
-
longitudinal and one
-
sided research


due to small sample sizes impossibility to model complexity and
heterogeneity and control for intervening variables such as gender, age,
generation, year of arrival, country of origin, (year of) naturalization etc.
at the same time


causal inferences derived mainly from theory and rarely based on
empirical evidence

which


often leads to invalid and not sufficiently differentiated comparisons
between and within social categories


imposes homogeneity on both, dependent and independent variables


leads to uncertain and spurious causal inferences,
=>> that often
legitimise political interventions


Institute for Advanced Studies | Stumpergasse 56 | A
-
1060 Wien | Tel: +43 1 59991
-
0 | www.ihs.ac.at | www.equi.


latcheva@ihs.ac.at


| Migration and Life
-
Course Research
|

5/6 December
| Bremen

|


5

Implications

for research

and policy
-
making (2)



The

recognition

that

individual

and

social

change

are

mutually

dependent

generates

the

credo

that

the

relationship

between

individuals

and

their

settings

is

bi
-
directional

(Colby

1998
:

viii)

and

that

this

should

be

explicitly

approached

in

theory,

study

design

and

techniques

of

analysis

and

of

course

in

designing

policy

measures



Studying

the

integration

of

migrants

means

conceptualising

the

dynamic

links

between

human

agency

and

structure,

between

events

in

one

life

domain

and

changes

in

another,

between

past

events

and

current

statuses

and

thus

adopting

study

design

and

research

methods

which

take

all

this

into

account

(Giele

and

Elder

1998
)
.



Institute for Advanced Studies | Stumpergasse 56 | A
-
1060 Wien | Tel: +43 1 59991
-
0 | www.ihs.ac.at | www.equi.


latcheva@ihs.ac.at


| Migration and Life
-
Course Research
|

5/6 December
| Bremen

|


6

An attempt to meet the challenges:

integrating research approaches and data
gathered within the LIMITS and SiM


projects

1.
Combining quantitative and qualitative approaches using method
triangulation with connected samples


2.
Integrating objective and subjective perspective in the assessment of
migration and integration processes: analysing the intersection between
migrants’ own perceptions and interpretations on the one side and the
objective traces of their biographies on the other


3.
Conducting a variety of multivariate and content analysis (event history,
optimal matching, multidimensional scaling, cluster analysis, content
analysis across cases) and a systematic triangulation of findings



4.
Developing a dynamic multidimensional model for explaining the
interdependency of time and context within the individual migration
biography, which allows for flexibility by grasping complexity


Institute for Advanced Studies | Stumpergasse 56 | A
-
1060 Wien | Tel: +43 1 59991
-
0 | www.ihs.ac.at | www.equi.


latcheva@ihs.ac.at


| Migration and Life
-
Course Research
|

5/6 December
| Bremen

|


7

The LIMITS
-
project:

Immigrants and Ethnic Minorities in European Cities:
Life Courses and Quality of Life in a World of
Limitations

LIMITS (2003
-
2006): funded by the EC within the FP5

Major objectives:


collection and analysis of longitudinal data on life courses of migrants in six
European cities



to catch the dynamics of migration and integration processes in different
national contexts



6 cities in 5 countries:


Vienna (Austria),


Bielefeld (Germany),


Amsterdam & Rotterdam (Netherlands),


Lisbon (Portugal),


Stockholm (Sweden)


2 groups in each city: ~300 interviews per group (= 600 respondents per city)

database of approximately
3,300 cases


Institute for Advanced Studies | Stumpergasse 56 | A
-
1060 Wien | Tel: +43 1 59991
-
0 | www.ihs.ac.at | www.equi.


latcheva@ihs.ac.at


| Migration and Life
-
Course Research
|

5/6 December
| Bremen

|


8

The LIMITS
-
sample

Criteria for inclusion in the sample

at

least

15

years

of

stay

in

the

receiving

country,

first

generation

migrants

(proxy
:

at

least

35

years

of

age),

heterogeneous

criteria

of

group

definition,

but

independent

of

current

nationality


Institute for Advanced Studies | Stumpergasse 56 | A
-
1060 Wien | Tel: +43 1 59991
-
0 | www.ihs.ac.at | www.equi.


latcheva@ihs.ac.at


| Migration and Life
-
Course Research
|

5/6 December
| Bremen

|


9

Data

Event histories (using calendar tool) of



migration,


education and employment,


family formation,


housing,


social networks


language acquisition (attained courses and self
-
assessment)


Cross
-
sectional information on

income, pre
-
migration and citizenship acquisition




Institute for Advanced Studies | Stumpergasse 56 | A
-
1060 Wien | Tel: +43 1 59991
-
0 | www.ihs.ac.at | www.equi.


latcheva@ihs.ac.at


| Migration and Life
-
Course Research
|

5/6 December
| Bremen

|


10

SiM
-
project

SiM (2006):

project funded by the Austrian Ministry for Science and

Research within the framework of the NODE research program


Build on the LIMITS
-
Data for Austria (Vienna): quantitative information

gathered on long
-
term residents in Vienna from Turkey and Serbia

(n=601)



Qualitative information from 30 in
-
depth interviews
-


sampled on the basis of the produced trajectory clusters from

the optimal matching analysis


Research objectives:


to discover similarities in migrants’ trajectories through re
-
analysis of the
LIMITS
-
data using optimal matching


to assess the individual migration project from a subjective perspective


to develop a dynamic and multidimensional model of integration


Institute for Advanced Studies | Stumpergasse 56 | A
-
1060 Wien | Tel: +43 1 59991
-
0 | www.ihs.ac.at | www.equi.


latcheva@ihs.ac.at


| Migration and Life
-
Course Research
|

5/6 December
| Bremen

|


11

Methods of Analysis

Optimal matching


analysis of labour market participation over time (analysing the
differences (distances) between pairs of individual trajectories)


All possible pairs to be compared = (601 * (601
-
1) / 2) = 180.300
distances.


Multidimensional scaling & cluster analysis


obtaining 5 different types (clusters) of labour market participation
over time (1. fully employed, 2.difficult beginning then full
employment, 3. discontinuous employment biography, 4.transition
from education to full employment, 5. outside the labour market)

Selection criteria for in
-
depth interviews


cluster, ethnicity, gender, proficiency in German


Institute for Advanced Studies | Stumpergasse 56 | A
-
1060 Wien | Tel: +43 1 59991
-
0 | www.ihs.ac.at | www.equi.


latcheva@ihs.ac.at


| Migration and Life
-
Course Research
|

5/6 December
| Bremen

|


12

Cluster 1

Fully employed
all along the
migration

trajectory

Cluster 2

Difficulties at
the beginning

Cluster 3

Discontinuous
labour market
trajectory


Cluster 4

Transition from
education to stably
employment
career

Cluster 5

Outside the
labour market

Total

n

214

230

65

64

28

601

Percent

35,6

38,3

10,8

10,6

4,7

100

Gender (in %)

male

77,6

58,3

33,8

35,9

0,0

57,4

female

22,4

41,7

66,2

64,1

100,0

42,6

Ethnicity (in %)

Turkey

33,2

54,3

52,3

75,0

82,1

50,1

Serbia

66,8

45,7

47,7

25,0

17,9

49,9

Education (in %)

none

3,4

6,8

3,4

6,3

4,0

5,1

elementary

46,6

45,5

50,8

37,5

64,0

46,3

secondary

36,3

38,6

32,2

31,3

12,0

35,1

university entrance
certificate

13,7

9,1

13,6

25,0

20,0

13,5

Age (in %)

35

-

44

22,9

43,9

73,8

70,3

57,1

43,1

45

-

54

35,5

38,3

24,6

25,0

32,1

34,1

55

-

64

31,3

13,0

1,5

1,6

10,7

17,0

65

and

older

10,3

4,8

0,0

3,1

0,0

5,8


Institute for Advanced Studies | Stumpergasse 56 | A
-
1060 Wien | Tel: +43 1 59991
-
0 | www.ihs.ac.at | www.equi.


latcheva@ihs.ac.at


| Migration and Life
-
Course Research
|

5/6 December
| Bremen

|


14

Discussion

The dynamic of the model results from:


the interdependency of the different dimensions (within and
between phases)


the different composition of the relevant dimensions within phases
and life cycles

Next steps: validation of the model


other groups of origin,


other types of migrants (refugees, transnational migrants,…)


other national contexts



Institute for Advanced Studies | Stumpergasse 56 | A
-
1060 Wien | Tel: +43 1 59991
-
0 | www.ihs.ac.at | www.equi.


latcheva@ihs.ac.at


| Migration and Life
-
Course Research
|

5/6 December
| Bremen

|


15

Does the model meet the challenges?

homogeneity






unidimensional



dichotomous



static



decontextualized


heterogeneity between and within groups

depending on time of arrival, gender, generation


multidimensional with at least 4 dimensions


grades and shades


dynamic: interdependency of phases and

dimensions (longitudinal data)


framed by changing conditions of the receiving

society

The

model

allows

to

grasp

complexity,

it

is

derived

by

a

systematic

integration

of

quantitative

and

qualitative

approaches

in

study

design

and

analysis


Institute for Advanced Studies | Stumpergasse 56 | A
-
1060 Wien | Tel: +43 1 59991
-
0 | www.ihs.ac.at | www.equi.


latcheva@ihs.ac.at


| Migration and Life
-
Course Research
|

5/6 December
| Bremen

|


16

Thank you for your attention and critical
remarks!

Rossalina Latcheva


Institute for Advanced Studies

latcheva@ihs.ac.at

www.equi.at


Stumpergasse 56

A
-
1060 Vienna

Tel: ++43 59991 135

Fax: ++43 59991 191