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정보경영공학부

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16.
Automation


WHY AUTOMATE

1.
impossible or hazardous


2. difficult or unpleasant

3.
extend human capability (aid human)

4. technically possible


STAGES AND LEVELS OF AUTOMATION


1.
information acquisition, selection, and filtering


selective

attention
--
automatic highlighting

2.
information integration


perception and working memory
--

predictor displays

3.
action selection and choice


traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS)

4.
control and action execution


autopilots, cruise control, automatic car windows


8 levels

of automation to stages 3 and 4 (
Sheridan, 2002
)


PROBLEMS IN AUTOMATION


Automation Reliability


reliable


it does what the human operator expects it to do


not the reliability per se but the perceived reliability


why automation may be perceived as unreliable

1.
it may be unreliable

2.
there may be certain situations in which the automation is not designed to operate or
may not perform well

3.
the human operator may incorrectly set up the automation


dumb and dutiful

4.
due to poor mental model, it appears to be acting erroneously to the operator

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Trust: Calibration and Mistrust


trust should be well calibrated


trust should be in direct proportion to its reliability (mistrust)


Human trust in automation is not entirely well calibrated (distrust/
overtust
)


distrust is a type of mistrust where the person fails to trust the automation as much as is
appropriate


are not necessarily severe, but may lead to inefficiency


Overtrust

and Complacency


overtrust

occurs when people trust the automation more than is warranted


severe
negative consequences if the automation is less than fully reliable


The cause of complacency


human tendency to let experience guide our expectancies


perceived perfect reliability


cease monitoring or far less frequently


Automation has three distinct implications for human intervention

1.
detection: the complacent operator will likely be slower to detect a real failure; the more
reliable, the rarer the signal events, and the poorer their detection

2.
situation awareness


better aware with active participation (generation effect)


out of the
loop, poor feedback of the automated process

3.
skill loss (deskilling)


the gradual loss of skills

1.
less self
-
confident in performance


more likely to continue to use automation

2.
degrade the operator’s ability to intervene approximately (
fig 16.1
)


Workload and Situation Awareness


as automation level moves up the scale, both workload and SA tend to go down


clumsy automation


automation makes easy tasks easier and hard tasks harder


Training and Certification

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Loss of Human Cooperation


Job Satisfaction


FUNCTION ALLOCATION BETWEEN THE PERSON AND AUTOMATION


Fitts’s

List (
Table 16.2
)


HUMAN
-
CENTERED AUTOMATION

1.
keeping the human informed

2.
keeping the human trained

3.
keeping the operator in the loop

4.
selecting appropriate stages and levels when automation is imperfect (
fig

16.2
)

5.
making the automation flexible and adaptive

6.
maintaining a positive management philosophy


SUPERVISORY CONTROL AND AUTOMATION
-
BASED COMPLEX SYSTEM


automation is not optional, but necessity
--

production of continuous quantities (chemical
process control), production of discrete quantities (manufacturing control), robotics control


how to support the supervisor in times of failures and fault management


knowledge
-
based behavior, predictor displays, ecological interface


robotics control in manufacturing and in navigating UAV


hortatory control


the systems being controlled retains a high degree of autonomy

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17.
Transportation Human Factors


AUTOMOTIVE HUMAN FACTORS


Task Analysis of the Vehicle Roadway System

Strategic, Tactical, and Control Aspects of Driving


strategic tasks


deciding where to go, when to go and how to get there


tactical tasks


choice of maneuvers and immediate goals in getting to a destination such
as speed selection, the decision to pass another vehicle, and the choice of lanes


control tasks


moment
-
to
-
moment operation of the vehicle such as maintaining a desired
speed, keeping the desired distance from the car ahead, keeping the car in the lane

Control Task


two
-
dimensional tracking task of vehicle
control


the lateral task of maintaining lane position


2
nd
-
order control task with preview and
a predictor


the best measure is the
time to lane crossing

(TLC)


longitudinal task as a first
-
order tracking task of speed keeping


three channels of visual information to be tracked along the two axes

1.
lateral tracking by the roadway curvature

2.
longitudinal tracking by the flow of motion along the roadway and the location or
distance of hazards and traffic control devices


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Multitask Demands


primary control task
--

lane keeping and roadway hazard monitoring dependent upon
primary vision attention lobe

(PVAL) of information (fig
17.1

and
17.2
)


inattention, competing visual tasks


secondary motor activity


conflict with monitoring and processing and visual information in
the PVAL

Cabin Environment


create the simplest, most user
-
friendly design of the internal displays and controls


Displays



high contrast, interpretable, easy to read


Task environment within the vehicle


avoid unnecessary features and gizmos


Controls


consistently located, adequately separated, compatibly linked to displays


Visibility

Anthropometry


anthropometric factors of seating


reachability of different controls


design for the mean is not appropriate
--

controls accessible and interpretable

Illumination


adequate highway lightning, adequate reflectors

Signage

1)
minimize visual clutter from unnecessary signs

2)
locate signs consistently

3)
identify sign classes distinctly


color, shape

4)
allow signs to be read efficiently

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Resource Competition


serious distraction of in
-
cab viewing


the

number and duration of glances


feel safe less
than 0.8 sec/glance, 3 sec between glances


auditory display, speech recognition, HUD


Hazards and Collisions

Control Loss


slick or icy road conditions, narrow lanes and momentarily lapses in attention, rapid over
-
correction (minor lane departure)


roadway departure because of fatigue


directly related to the bandwidth of correction


vehicle speed


Visible

markings of lane edges, turtles, rumblestrips

Hazard Response


poor visibility and inattention can cause a failure to detect hazards


the time to react to unexpected objects (the perception
-
reaction time or brake reaction time)


1 to 2 sec (0.2 to 0.3 sec from accelerator to brake), mean of 1.5 sec

Speeding


quadruple threat to driver safety


(1) increases the likelihood of control loss; (2)
decreases the probability of detecting hazard in time; (3) increases the distance traveled
before a successful avoidance maneuver; (4) increases the damage at impact (
fig 17.3
)


why do people speed?


perceptual biases (underestimating true speed)


size biased distance judgments;
bias to overspeed (quieter engines, higher seating position above the ground, less
visible ground texture), adaptation


cognitive biases (overestimating the ability to stop in time)

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Risky Behavior


cognitive biases to overspeeding


overconfidence (underestimation of risk), expectancy (no
experience of a collision


little effect on the behavior of survivors)


The Impaired Driver

Fatigue


over 50% of the accidents leading to the death of a truck driver and over 10% of all fatal car
accidents

Alcohol


the most effective interventions may be social norming

Age


Young drivers


Less skilled and knowledgeable, overconfidence


Eldery


Information processing impairments

Impairment Interactions


Driving Safety Improvements
(Haddon’s Matrix,
table 17.2
)

Driver Characteristics: Training and Selection


higher accident rates were related with limited skills (for the very young driver) and limited
information processing abilities (for the elderly)


graduated licensing for younger drivers, more frequent driving test


the standard visual acuity test


very little relevance for driving


dynamic visual acuity

Driver Characteristics: Driver Adaptation and Risk Calibration


risk homeostasis model


partially consistent


motive for driving faster and force of habit


any safety intervention must consider the tendency for people to adapt to the new situation

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Driver Characteristics: Regulatory Compliance


effective enforcement of speed limits can make a difference


automatic speed management
system, automated systems for issuing tickets

Driver and Vehicle Characteristics: Fitness to Drive


driver monitoring system
--

monitoring the vehicle (e.g., steering behavior) and the driver
(e.g., blinking rate, EEG)

Vehicle Characteristics: Sensing and Warnings


high mounted brake lights, trilight system

Roadway Characteristics: Expectancy


positive guidance, light cycle


expectancy and standardization on sign location and interaction design


reduce the consequence of an accident


seat belt, airbag, guardrail for SUVs

Driver and Vehicle Characteristics: Use of Protective Devices


AUTOMATIVE AUTOMATION


Intelligent Transportation System (ITS)


collision warning systems, automated navigation
systems, driver monitors


GPS system, traffic sensing devices, digital map database,
wireless connection

1.
user trust and complacency

2.
attention may be drawn more into the vehicle

3.
introduce a new type of productivity and safety tradeoff in driving

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PUBLIC GROUND TRANSPORTATION


Maritime Human Factors


fatigue and crew reductions


extremely sluggish in their handling qualities, benefiting from predictive displays


Aviation Human Factors


The Tasks


primary multiaxis tracking task
--

aviating


maintaining situation awareness, navigating to three
-
dimensional points, following
procedures, communicating with controllers and other pilots, monitoring system status


competition
--

visual, perceptual, cognitive, and response
-
related resources

Tracking and Flight Control


6 degrees of freedom of motion


rotational axes
--

pitch, roll (or bank), and yaw


translational axes


lateral, vertical, and longitudinal


two primary goals


aviating
--

keeping the plane from stalling by maintaining adequate air flow over the
wings, which produces lift


control of the airspeed and attitude (pitch and roll)


navigate the aircraft to points in the 3
-
D airspace (4
-
D navigation with time)

1.
yoke

controls the elevators and ailerons


pitch and bank (first
-
order dynamics)

2.
throttle

controls airspeed

3.
rudder pedals

help coordinate turning and heading changes

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three facets make the multielements tracking task much more difficult

1.
displays do not show a good, integrated, pictorial representation of the aircraft

2.
the dynamics of several aspects of flight control are higher order

3.
the axes often have cross
-
couplings

Maintaining Situation Awareness


achieving SA through display design
--

HUD

Following Procedures


to assist the pilot’s prospective memory


knowledge in the world in the checklist


two kinds of errors in following checklists

1.
top
-
down processing (coupled with time pressure) may lead to see the item in its
appropriate state, even if it is not

2.
distractions can lead the pilot to skip a step in the checklist


redundant participation, automation


The Social Context


breakdowns in pilot team performance


junior vs. senior


CRM (cockpit/crew resource
management)


Supporting the Pilot

1.
maintenance technicians and their inspection and trouble shooting skills

2.
aircraft automation


human
-
centered automation

3.
air traffic control

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18.
Selection and Training


PERSONNEL SELECTION


predicting future job performance; categorize accepted applicants into the job type


interviews
, work histories, background checks,
tests
,
references
,
work samples


signal detection theory


hit, miss, false alarm, correct rejection


Basics of Selection


job analysis


selection, training, performance appraisal, setting salary levels


tasks,
environments, related knowledge, skills, & abilities


already have the task
-
specific knowledge and skills required or show evidence of basic
knowledge and abilities


criterion
-
related validity


Fig. 18.1


Selection Tests and Procedures

Measures of Cognitive Ability


Cognitive

ability tests


valid predictors of job performance, more valid than any others


complex jobs (general intelligence


working memory capacity); high complexity (verbal
and numerical ability); low complexity (motor coordination and manual dexterity)

Measures of Physical Ability and Psychomotor Skills


physical strength, physical endurance, manual dexterity, and/or psychomotor skills

Personality Assessment


clinical measures


mental illness or behavioral disorders


not appropriate


personality dimensions


five basic personality factors/clusters

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Work Samples and Job Knowledge


work sampling


expensive to assess


video assessment


see a short scenario and respond in the situation


job knowledge test


high transferable knowledge to the job, motivation factor

Structured Interviews


questions based on and related to knowledge and skills identified in the job analysis


describe previous work behavior


critical behavior interview


discuss recent occasions
when they felt they were performing at their best


PERFORMANCE SUPPORT AND JOB AIDS


performance
-
support approach


as needed basis, shifting a ‘learn
-
and
-
apply’ to ‘learning
-
while
-
applying’ cycle


performance support


the process of providing a set of information and learning activities
in a context
-
specific fashion during task performance


efficient because of less taxing on
memory


Fig. 18.2

Job Aids and Instructions


job aids
-

daily to
-
do list, recipe, note cards, computer templates, instructions for
assembling a product, procedural lists


traditional instruction manual


Wright’s quidelines
--

caution against using prose, effective
use of pictures (
redundancy gain
), proximity
-
compatibility principle


voice coupled with pictures when presenting instructions

Embedded

Computer Support


on
-
line help system


adaptive automation


interrupting the ongoing task


when to use performance support, training, or both


table 18.1

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TRAINING


Learning and Expertise


three different stages in the development of expertise (
fig. 18.4
,
18.5
)

1.
knowledge about a job or a task characterized by declarative knowledge


not well
organized, fragile

2.
with familiarity and practice, procedural knowledge by rules and if
-
then statements

3.
automaticity


Methods for Enhancing Training


the best training in the shortest time, to the longest retention, the least expensive

Practice and Overlearning


overlearning beyond error
-
free performance


improving in the speed of performance involving cognitive or motor aspects


automaticity


important in skills with high multitasking requirements


decrease the rate of forgetting and increase the ease of a task

Encouraging Deep, Active, and Meaningful Processing


deep processing
--

chunking in the formation of meaningful associations with material
already in WM to learn the new material

1.
generation effect

2.
active problem solving and group participation

3.
better retained when understanding why rather than what


embedded in the context of the
procedural task to be learned

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Offering Feedback


corrective feedback, motivational feedback


immediately after the skill is performed

Consider Individual Differences


redundancy of graphics and words is most helpful

Pay Attention to Attention


learning is information processing, and information processing is generally resources limited


cognitive load theory

Training in Parts


part
-
task training is not always superior to whole
-
task training


how the task is broken down


segmentation


several components occurring in sequence without overlapping


fractionation


component tasks performed simultaneously or concurrently

Simplifying, Guiding and Adaptive Training


simplification


reducing load and errors of performance


guiding


“training wheels” approach


disabling or freezing keys


simplified version of a skill will not transfer to the complex version


learners can become overly dependent on the guidance or scaffolding

Media Matters?


modest benefits of computer
-
based instruction


these gains are not large


the particular
aspect of the computer media not the computer itself

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Transfer of Training and Simulation


how well the learning in one environment enhance performance in a new environment


positive/negative transfer


%transfer = (control time


transfer time)/(control time)*100 = savings/(control time)*100


transfer effectiveness ratio = savings/(training time)


realism or fidelity of the simulator


more realism does not necessarily produce more positive
transfer


On the Job Training and Embedded training


much less effective than other training methods


very effective if using Instructional System
Design with strong guidance to the trainer


embedded training is most appropriate for jobs that rely at least partially on computers


TRAINING PROGRAM DESIGN


A Training Program Design Model


ISD (Instructional System Design) models


similar to human factors design models


front
-
end analysis phase


design and development phase


implementation


final
system evaluation phase


developing job aids, instructional manuals, performance
-
support systems in addition to more
traditional training programs

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Phase 1: Front
-
End Analysis


organizational analysis


information
-
collection activity to identify any factors regarding the
need

for and
success

for a training program


future company change such as job redesign or
acquisition or new technology, management attitude toward job duties


document analysis, interviews, questionnaires, job tests, observation


task analysis


identify the knowledge, skills, and behavior for successful task performance


trainee analysis identifies:

1)
prerequisite knowledge and skills to begin the training program

2)
demographics such as age, physical capabilities, primary language, and background

3)
attitudes toward training methods


training needs analysis
--

to determine the most appropriate performance improvement
approach among task redesign, performance support, develop a training program

Phase 2: Design and Development


design concepts (cost/benefit analysis)


project plan


prototype for formative evaluation
and usability testing


full
-
scale development


final usability test

Phase 3: Program Evaluation


what criteria to measure, when to measure the criteria, who (which trainee) to use in
measuring the criteria, what context to use


pretest
-
posttest experimental design, control group design

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19.
Social Factors


GROUPS AND TEAMS


trend in organizational design


flattening structures, decentralized decision making, use of groups and teams


Characteristics of Groups and Teams


organize every function into ten
-

to thirty
-
person, largely self
-
managing teams


team characteristics


the key to group performance


communication


crew


a group of persons or team that manages some of technology usually in transportation


Group Performance


better at tasks than the average but not better than the best


work productivity


less than the sum of the individuals


Team Performance


selection of an appropriate combination of members


four categories


problems interfering with team performance


taskwork skills


teamwork skills


cooperation, coordination, communication, adaptibility, giving/accepting
suggestions or criticism, showing team spirit

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factors to team performance


no common mental model


no time and cognitive resources to communicate plans and strategies


no cognitive resources available to ask others for information


Team Training


acquisition of team work skills

1.
development and use of shared mental models

2.
strategies for effective communication, adaptation to stress, maintenance of situational
awareness, group decision making, coordinated task performance


job cross
-
training


Team Instructional Prescriptions (TIP)


COMPUTER
-
SUPPORTED COOPERATIVE WORK


Decision Making Using Groupware


group communication support system


teleconferencing, e
-
mail


group decision support system


Effects of Decision Support Systems


increase group members’ depth of analysis, group communication and efforts to achieve
clarification, member participation, the consensus building of group


decrease the domination by a few people

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Effects of Communication Support System


increase the level of participation and effort expended by group members


increase the depth of analysis


decrease domination of the group by a few members


increase decision times


decrease overall cooperation and consensus building


Computer
-
Supported Team Performance


group
-
view displays

1.
provide a status overview

2.
direct personnel to additional information

3.
support collaboration among crew members

4.
support coordination of crew activities


Difficulties in Remote Collaboration

1.
increased difficulty in collaboration


knowing who is doing what

2.
increased difficulty in communication

3.
increased difficulty in maintaining situation awareness because of a decrease in communication

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MACROERGONOMICS AND INDUSTRIAL INTERVENTION


traditional ergonomics intervention in industry


micoergonomics


macroergonomics


top
-
down sociotechnical systems approach to the design of organizations, work systems,
jobs, and related human
-
machine, user
-
system, and human
-
environment interfaces


participatory ergonomics

1.
employees know a great deal about their job and job environment

2.
employee and management ownership enhances program implementation

3.
end
-
user participation causes flexible problem solving


ergonomic interventions
--

organizational barriers


promoting employee self
-
protective behavior

1.
use of individual or group incentives

2.
use of disciplinary actions

3.
fear messages

4.
behavior modeling of others

5.
employee surveys


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1.
Info. Acquisition, selection, &
filtering (ex. spellchecker)

2.
Info. Integration (ex. Predictor
display

3.
Action selection and choice (Ex.
TACS)

3.
Control and action execution (Ex.
Cruise control)

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정보경영공학부

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정보경영공학부

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정보경영공학부

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Figure 17.1

Representation of the driver’s information
-
processing tasks. The top of the figure depicts
the tracking or vehicle control tasks involved with lane keeping and hazard avoidance. The
bottom of the figure presents the various sources of competition for resource away from
vehicle tracking. These may be thought of as secondary tasks.

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Figure 17.2

Representation of the PVAL from the forward view, top view, and side view.

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Figure 17.3

The components of the hazard response time, which is the time required to
stop before contacting a hazard, the influences on these components, and the
need to maintain a positive safety margin between the time required and the
time available. Time available will be
inversely
proportional to speed.

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Figure 17.4

Fatality rate as a function of age and gender. (source: Evans, L., 1988. Older
driver involvement in fatal and severe traffic crashes.
Journal of Gerontology:
Social Science
, 43(5), 186
-
193)

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Figure 18.1

Hypothetical relationship between selection test and eventual job performance. The criterion
related validity of the test can be expressed as the correlation between the test score (x axis)
and the measure of job performance (y axis).

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Figure 18.2

Continuum of computer interface training methods.

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Figure 18.3

Advantage of partially redundant combination of pictures and words. Imagine the
difficulty of trying to convey this information entirely with words. (Source: Wright, P.,
1977. Presenting technical information: A survey of research finding.
Instructional
Science
, 6, 93
-
134).

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