Chapter 11 Introduction To Macroeconomics

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Slides by John F. Hall

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INTRODUCTION TO ECONOMICS 2e / LIEBERMAN & HALL

CHAPTER 11 / INTRODUCTION TO MACROECONOMI CS

©2005, South
-
Western/Thomson Learning

Chapter 11

Introduction To
Macroeconomics

Lieberman & Hall;
Introduction to Economics
, 2005

2

Macroeconomic Goals


Economists

and society at large

agree on three
important macroeconomic goals


Economic growth


Full employment


Stable prices


Why is there such universal agreement on these
three goals?


Because achieving them gives us opportunity to make all
of our citizens better off

Lieberman & Hall;
Introduction to Economics
, 2005

3

Economic Growth


Economists monitor economic growth


By keeping track of real gross domestic product (real GDP)


Total quantity of goods and services produced in a country over a year


Real GDP has actually increased faster than the population


During this period (1929 to 2002), while U.S. population did not quite triple


Quantity of goods and services produced each year has increased more than
tenfold


Although output has grown, rate of growth has varied over the decades


Over long periods of time small differences in growth rates can cause
huge differences in living standards


Economists and government officials are very concerned when
economic growth slows down


Macroeconomics helps us understand a number of issues surrounding
economic growth

Lieberman & Hall;
Introduction to Economics
, 2005

4

Figure 1: U.S. Real Gross Domestic
Product, 1929
-
2002

Real GDP

(Billions of

1998 dollars)

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

7000

8000

9000

Lieberman & Hall;
Introduction to Economics
, 2005

5

High Employment (or Low
Unemployment)


Unemployment affects distribution of
economic well being among our citizens


People who cannot find jobs suffer a loss of
income


Joblessness affects all of us

even those
who have jobs


A high unemployment rate means economy is
not achieving its full economic potential

Lieberman & Hall;
Introduction to Economics
, 2005

6

High Employment (or Low
Unemployment)


Unemployment rate


Percentage of the workforce that would like to work, but cannot find jobs


Used to keep track of employment


The nation’s commitment to high employment has twice been written
into law


With memory of Great Depression still fresh, Congress passed Employment
Act of 1946


Required federal government to “promote maximum employment, production, and
purchasing power”


A numerical target was added in 1978, when Congress passed Full
Employment and Balanced Growth Act


Called for an unemployment rate of 4%


In the 1990s, we came closer and closer and finally

in December
1999

we reached the target again for the first time since the 1960s


In 2001 unemployment rate began to creep up again, and continued rising
through the first half of 2003, when it averaged 6%

Lieberman & Hall;
Introduction to Economics
, 2005

7

Figure 2: U.S. Unemployment Rate,
1920
-
2003

Unemployment

Rate

(Percent)

25

20

15

10

5

0

Lieberman & Hall;
Introduction to Economics
, 2005

8

Employment and the Business Cycle


When firms produce more output, they hire more
workers

when they produce less output, they tend
to lay off workers


We would thus expect real GDP and employment to be
closely related, and indeed they are


Business cycles


Fluctuations in real GDP around its long
-
term growth
trend


Expansion


A period of increasing real GDP


Contraction


A period of declining real GDP

Lieberman & Hall;
Introduction to Economics
, 2005

9

Employment and the Business Cycle


Recession


A contraction of significant depth and duration


Depression


An unusually severe recession


In the twentieth century, United States experienced
one decline in output serious enough to be
considered a depression

the worldwide Great
Depression of the 1930s


From 1929 to 1933, the first four years of Great
Depression, U.S. output dropped by more than 25%

Lieberman & Hall;
Introduction to Economics
, 2005

10

Figure 3: The Business Cycle

Time

Real

GDP

Expansion

Recession

Expansion

Long
-
run upward
trend of real GDP

The business cycle
fluctuation of actual
output around its
long
-
run trend.

Lieberman & Hall;
Introduction to Economics
, 2005

11

Stable Prices


With very few exceptions, inflation rate has been positive


During 1990s, inflation rate averaged less than 3% per year


Other countries have not been so lucky


An extreme case was the new nation of Serbia

prices rose by 1,880% in August
1993


Why are stable prices

a low inflation rate

an important macroeconomic goal?


Because inflation is costly to society


With annual inflation rates in the thousands of percent, the costs are easy to see


Purchasing power of currency declines so rapidly that people are no longer willing to hold it


Economists regard some inflation as good


Price stabilization requires not only preventing inflation rate from rising too high


But also preventing it from falling too low, where it would be dangerously close to
turning negative

Lieberman & Hall;
Introduction to Economics
, 2005

12

Figure 4: U.S. Annual Inflation Rate,
1922
-
2003

Inflation Rate (Percent)

0

-
5

-
10

5

15

10

Lieberman & Hall;
Introduction to Economics
, 2005

13

The Macroeconomic Approach


In macroeconomics, we want to understand
how the entire economy behaves


Thus, we apply the steps to all markets
simultaneously


How can we possibly hope to deal with all
these markets at the same time?


The answer is aggregation

process of
combining different things into a single
category and treating them as a whole

Lieberman & Hall;
Introduction to Economics
, 2005

14

Aggregation in Macroeconomics


Aggregation plays a key role in both micro
-

and
macro
-
economics


In macroeconomics, we take aggregation to the
extreme


Because we want to consider the entire economy at
once, and yet keep our model as simple as possible


Must aggregate all markets into broadest possible categories


By aggregating in this way, can create workable
and reasonably accurate models that teach us a
great deal about how overall economy operates

Lieberman & Hall;
Introduction to Economics
, 2005

15

Macroeconomic Controversies


Macroeconomics is full of disputes and
disagreements


Modern macroeconomics began with publication of
The
General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money

by
British economist John Maynard Keynes in 1936


Keynes was taking on conventional wisdom of his
time


Which held that the macroeconomy worked very well on
its own


Best policy for the government to follow was laissez faire


This new school of thought held that the economy
does not do well on its own and needed guidance

Lieberman & Hall;
Introduction to Economics
, 2005

16

Macroeconomic Controversies


While some of the early disagreements have been
resolved, others have arisen to take their place


For example

the controversy over the Bush
administration’s $330
-
billion ten
-
year tax cut


Because of such political battles, people who follow
the news often think that there is little agreement
among economists about how the macroeconomy
works


In fact, the profession has come to a consensus on many
basic principles, and we will stress these as we go