Lake Sevan, Armenia: Value of Ecosystems Services

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22 Φεβ 2014 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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Lake

Sevan

is

the

largest

lake

in

Armenia
,

and

one

of

the

largest

alpine

lakes

in

the

world

and

is

the

only

large

source

of

fresh

water

in

South

Caucasus



Contains

80
%

of

Armenian

water

resources

(
1585

billion

m
3
)
.



Benefits

to

agriculture

from

presence

of

Lake

Sevan

is

estimated

at

66
.
13

billion

drams

or

US
$

0
.
18

billions

(which

forms

2
.
1
%

of

GDP

of

Armenia)
.



Marginal

value

to

the

economy

derived

from

cattle

grazing

from

Lake

Sevan

is

about

46

US
$
/ha/year
.



Contribution

of

Lake

Sevan

to

fishing

ranges

from

US
$

0
.
018

billion

to

US
$

0
.
108

billion
,

in

2008



Cultural

values

represent

between

US
$

31

million

and

US
$

108

million

(
Laplante,

Meiser

and

Wang,

2005
)
.

Lake Sevan, Armenia: Value of Ecosystems Services


42
.
2
%

reduction

in

water

volume



90
%

decrease

in

hypolimnium

volume



2
.
0
°
C

increase

in

average

annual

water

temperature,

as

well

as

acceleration

and

shift

in

temperature

of

stratification



Intensification

of

turbulence

and

increased

sediment

entrainment



A

four
-
fold

drop

in

transparency



Re
-
suspension

of

silt

material

and

disruption

of

sedimentation

processes




During

the

period

from

1983

to

2007

the

average

density

of

white

fish

in

Lake

Sevan

changed

from

87

kg

per

hectare

to

0
.
97

kg

per

hectare

Lake Sevan: Damages to Ecosystems Services

PES

recommended
;

two

possible

scenarios


Scheme

A
:

focused

on

agricultural

environmental

measures

to

encourage

farmers

to

maintain

and

improve

ecological

status

of

their

land
.



Public

or

state

payment

scheme

which

provides

compensation

for

losses

to

farmers
.



Incentives

can

include

waiving

land

taxes

for

farmers

who

do

not

use

chemical

fertilizers

and

providing

organic

fertilizers

to

farmers
.



Scheme

B
:

Improvement

of

water

quality

of

Lake

Sevan
.


Consumers

pay

for

treatment

costs

into

a

fund

which

is

only

used

for

sewage

treatment
.

Payments

can

be

made

on

regular

intervals

in

the

form

of

monthly

charges
.


Lake Sevan: PES


Over

15
,
000

individuals

from

different

ethnic

communities

depend

on

the

wetland

resources

from

Lake

Rupa

for

their

livelihood



Lake

Rupa

also

has

religious,

social

and

economic

value

to

the

local

population



Ecosystem

services

in

Lake

Rupa

have

gradually

deteriorated

over

the

last

few

decades

due

to

human

interventions

such

as
:


o
Unregulated

construction

of

roads

o
Inefficient

farming

practices

on

steep

slopes


o
Application

of

chemical

treatments



Cooperative

of

local

villagers

was

established

in

2002




Each

cooperative

member

invested

5000

Nepalese

Rupiah

(approx
.

70
US
$
)

for

lake

restoration,

purchasing

of

fish

nets,

and

other

activities




Due

to

improved

management

fish

yield

reached

approximately

70

mt

in

year

2010
/
11
,

valuing

approximately

7

million

Nepalese

Rupiah

(equals

approx
.

90
,
000

US
$
)
.



The

income

of

capture

fisheries

provided

direct

and

indirect

jobs

and

employment

to

80
%

of

the

cooperative

members

TEEB Case Study: Lake Rupa, Nepal