Presented by Sithenjwa H. Ncwane

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10 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

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PARTICIPATIVE MANAGEMENT: THE ROLE OF
TEACHERS IN LINKING SCHOOL FINANCIAL
MANAGEMENT TO LEARNER NEEDS
.



Presented by Sithenjwa H.
Ncwane

Introduction and background


South African Society is founded on democratic principles of accountability,
co
-
operation, participation, consultation and partnership.


These principles are enshrined in the new South African Constitution Act (108
of 1996) and they permeate the South African School Act (Act 84 of 1996).



The school community is constituted by several stakeholder including parents
learners, teachers, the school management team and the School Governing
Body (SGB).


Amongst these stakeholders teachers are at a critical level, where they directly
influence learner achievement.


It can therefore be arguable said that teachers have an important role of
ensuring that their participation in school financial management, is not only for
their own interest but also for ensuring that school finances are used to improve
learner achievement and success.


The necessity of involving teachers not only as implementers but as shared
decision makers during the initiating, planning and management phases is very
important (
Swanepoel
, 2008).


Stakeholder


According to Collins (2010), the term stakeholder refers to the
individual and groups that are associated with a school and who
have vested interest in the success of the school.



Bush and
Heystek

(2003) further elaborate that the concept of
stakeholder is based on the notion that certain groups and
individuals have a stake in the activities of an institution.


In this study the term ‘stakeholder’ specifically refers to the
teachers, SGBs, principals, members of the School Management
Team, learners as well as, the parents.




Participation



When defining participation,
Naidoo

(2005) states that at basic level, it
simply means sharing or taking part in the decision that is of one’s interest.
He goes on to say that in practice, it tends to be highly controversial
because by its nature, participation is political as it relates to how groups
and individuals are empowered to have control over their lives.


Ife and
Tesoriero

(2006) view participation as ranging from the ‘means’ to
being an ‘end’. Ife and
Tesoriero

(2006) argue that participation is a
means when it used to achieve some predetermined goal,
utilising

existing
resources to achieve the set of objectives of a
programme
. They also add
that participation under this notion is more on achieving objectives not on
participation itself. Participation as an end attempts to empower people to
participate in their own development more meaningfully and to increase the
role of people in development initiatives (Ife &
Tesoriero
, 2006).


Financial management


Bisschoff

(2007) defines school financial management as a process of
ensuring that the school governing body and the school management
team plan, organise, delegate and control the funds of the school to
achieve its goals.


Research design and methodology


The study adopted a qualitative research design within an interpretive
approach to inquiry. This design and approach to inquiry were deemed
appropriate for this study whose objectives were to provide an
understanding of the multi
-
realities and multi
-
truths that are socially
constructed in a particular context (
Gunkel
, 2008


In keeping with the qualitative interpretive approaches, the study
employed a case study. According to Henning, van
Rensburg

and
Smit

(2004) case study strives towards a comprehensive (holistic)
understanding of how participants make meaning of a phenomenon under
study.


Sampling


Sampling is a critical part of any study. According to Cohen
et. al.

(2010)
the quality of research not only stands or falls by the appropriateness of
methodology and instruments but also by the suitability of the sampling
strategy.


In this study I used a combination of convenience and purposive sampling.


I also used purposive sampling because I wanted to choose particular
informants to fulfil the objectives of the study


Sampling is a critical part of any study. According to Cohen
et. al.

(2010)
the quality of research not only stands or falls by the appropriateness of
methodology and instruments but also by the suitability of the sampling
strategy. In this study I used a combination of convenience and purposive
sampling.


I also used purposive sampling because I wanted to choose particular
informants to fulfil the objectives of the study


Data production methods


This study used semi
-
structured interviews and the document analysis as
data production methods.


Semi
-
structured
interviews and document analysis were deemed
appropriate because they ensured that data gathered through interviews
could be corroborated through document analysis.


McMillan
and Schumacher (1997) argue that data collection is a process
that involves both interactive and non
-
interactive strategies.

Findings


Different method of teacher participation

1.
Fundraising

2.

Recommending to the SGB and SMT

3.
Consultation


Factors that hinder teacher
participation


Lack of transparency


Poor knowledge of school financial
management


Insufficient funds



Lack of trust in the school principal



Conclusion


Teacher do participate in school financial management
decision making processes


It was also noted that participation is not authentic


Teacher were found to be satisfied with this form of
participation.


Teachers are encouraged to empower themselves so as
to make meaningful contribution in the decision
making processes.


The teacher school principals, teacher unions and the
DoE

has the responsibility to ensure that teacher are
empowered.