Lecture3 - IS313

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Lecture
3

ref
:
Chapter

6



E
-
Supply Chains,

Collaborative
Commerce,

And Corporate Portals

PREPARED BY

L.
Nouf

Almujally

1

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education,
Inc.

Learning Objectives


1.
Define the e
-
supply chain and describe
its characteristics and components.

2.
List solutions provided by e
-
commerce
(EC) for supply chain problems.

3.
Describe RFID supply chain applications.

4.
Define c
-
commerce and list the major
types.

6
-
2

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Learning Objectives


6.
Describe collaborative planning and
collaboration, planning, forecasting, and
replenishing (CPFR)

7.
Understand corporate portals and their
types and roles.

8.
Describe e
-
collaboration tools such as
workflow software and groupware.

9.
Describe Collaboration 2.0 technology
and tools.

6
-
3

Copyright ©
2010
Pearson Education, Inc.

6.1 E
-
Supply Chains


supply chain (non electronic)


The flow of materials, information, money, and
services from raw material suppliers through
factories and warehouses to the end customers


e
-
supply chain


A supply chain that is managed electronically,
usually with Web technologies

6
-
4

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

E
-
Supply Chains

5

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

6
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6

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

6.1 E
-
Supply Chains


SUPPLY CHAIN PARTS

1.
Upstream supply chain


the activities of a company with their
supplier(assemblers, manufacturers, or service
providers).


the major activity is
procurement.


procurement


The process made up of a range of activities by which an
organization obtains or gains access to the resources
(materials, skills, capabilities, facilities) they require to
undertake their core business activities


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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

6.1 E
-
Supply Chains

2.
Internal supply chain and value chain


all in house processes used in transforming the inputs
received from the suppliers into organization’s
outputs.


Value chain
: transform goods and services obtained
from suppliers into goods and services of value to
customers. Combine customers (B2C) & suppliers(b2b)


3.
Downstream supply chain


all the activities involved in delivering the products to
the final customers ( distribution , warehousing,
transportation)

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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

6.1 E
-
Supply Chains


supply chain management (SCM)


A complex process that requires the coordination of
many activities so that the shipment of goods and
services from supplier right through to customer is done
efficiently and effectively for all parties concerned.


SCM aims to:

1.
minimize inventory levels,

2.
optimize production

3.
increase throughput

4.
decrease manufacturing time

5.
optimize logistics and distribution

6.
streamline order fulfillment

7.
reduce the costs associated with these activities

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9

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

6.1 E
-
Supply Chains


e
-
supply chain management (e
-
SCM)


The collaborative use of technology to improve
the operations of supply chain activities as well as
the management of supply chains



information visibility


The process of sharing critical data required to
manage the flow of products, services, and
information in real time between suppliers and
customers

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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

6.1 E
-
Supply Chains


Activities

e
-
SCM



Supply

Chain

Replenishment


Synchronizing

supply

and

demand

information

across

the

enterprise
.




e
-
procurement


The

use

of

Web
-
based

technology

to

support

the

key

procurement

processes,

including

requisitioning,

sourcing,

contracting,

ordering,

and

payment
.


E
-
procurement

supports

the

purchase

of

both

direct

and

indirect

materials

and

employs

several

Web
-
based

functions

such

as

online

catalogs,

contracts,

purchase

orders,

and

shipping

notices


Online

purchase

order,

Advanced

shipping

notifications,

online

catalogs

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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

6.1 E
-
Supply Chains


Supply

Chain

Monitoring

and

Control

Using

RFID



Inventory

Management

Using

Wireless

Devices


using

bar
-
code

technologies

and

wireless

technologies



collaborative

planning


A

business

practice

that

combines

the

business

knowledge

and

forecasts

of

multiple

players

along

a

supply

chain

to

improve

the

planning

and

fulfillment

of

customer

demand





6
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12

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

6.1 E
-
Supply Chains


Collaborative Design and Product Development


use of product design and development techniques
across multiple companies to improve product launch
success and reduce time
-
to
-
market.



E
-
Logistics


the use of web
-
based technologies to support the
material acquisition, warehousing , and transportation
processes.


6
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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

6.1 E
-
Supply Chains


Infrastructure for e
-
SCM

1.
Electronic data interchange (EDI)

2.
Extranets

3.
Intranets

4.
Corporate Portal

5.
Workflow system and tools

6.
Groupware and other collaborative tools

7.
Identification and tracking tools

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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

6.1 E
-
Supply Chains


success factors of e
-
supply chain management


the ability to see collaboration as an asset



information visibility


speed


quality


customer service


tight integration


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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

6.2 Supply Chain problems and
solutions


typical problems along the supply chain


missed deliveries


improper inventories


quality problems

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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.


Main reason for supply chain
-
related problems


lack of communication and trust




EC solutions to supply chain problems


Solutions come in the areas of visibility, order
taking, order fulfillment, electronic payment,
inventory planning and collaborative
commerce.


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-
17

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

6.2 Supply Chain problems and
solutions

18

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

6.3
RFID as a Key Enabler in

Supply Chain Management


radio frequency identification (RFID)


Tags that can be attached to or embedded in
objects, animals, or humans and use radio waves
to communicate with a reader for the purpose of
uniquely identifying the object or transmitting
data and/or storing information about the object

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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

6.3 RFID as a Key Enabler in

Supply Chain Management

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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

6.3 RFID as a Key Enabler in

Supply Chain Management

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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.


how RFID can be used to improve supply chains?


RFID tags can be attached to products to more
carefully monitor their location for inventory
purposes.



Working of RFID in a supplier
-
retailer system


Suppliers attach RFID tags so retailers can track
shipment and receiving.


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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

6.3 RFID as a Key Enabler in

Supply Chain Management


The differences between active and passive RFID
tags.


Active tags include an internal power supply
while passive tags do not.


Active tags can be read at distances of one
hundred feet or more while passive tag can be
read only at very short distances


Active tag is typically more expensive than
passive tag



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Copyright ©
2010
Pearson Education, Inc.

6.3 RFID as a Key Enabler in

Supply Chain Management


LIMITATIONS AND CONCERNS OF RFID


Cost too high


Interference and accuracy


Limited range in passive RFID


Environment restrictions on usage (ex. underwater)


Privacy

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6.3 RFID as a Key Enabler in

Supply Chain Management

25

6.5 Collaborative Planning,

CPFR, APS, and PLM


collaborative planning, forecasting, and
replenishment (CPFR)


Project in which suppliers and retailers collaborate
in their planning and demand forecasting to
optimize flow of materials along the supply chain

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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.


advanced planning and scheduling (APS) systems


Programs that use algorithms to identify optimal
solutions to complex planning problems that are
bound by constraints



product lifecycle management (PLM)


Business strategy that enables manufacturers to
control and share product related data as part of
product design and development efforts


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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

6.5
Collaborative Planning,

CPFR, APS, and PLM

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30

6.7 Corporate (Enterprise) Portals


corporate (enterprise) portal


A gateway for entering a corporate Web site,
enabling communication, collaboration, and
access to company information

6
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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

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6.7 Corporate (Enterprise) Portals


TYPES OF GENERIC CORPORATE PORTALS


Portals for Suppliers and Other Partners


Customer Portals


Employee Portals


Executive and Supervisor Portals


mobile portals


Portals accessible via mobile devices, especially cell
phones and PDAs

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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Corporate (Enterprise) Portals


The Functionalities of Portals


information portals


Portals that store data and enable users to
navigate and query the data



collaborative portals


Portals that allow collaboration

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Copyright ©
2010
Pearson Education, Inc.

Corporate (Enterprise) Portals


CORPORATE PORTAL APPLICATIONS


Knowledge bases and learning tools, business
process support, customer
-
facing sales,
collaboration and project support, data access,
and security applications.



Developing Portals



what is the purpose and content of the portal


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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Corporate (Enterprise) Portals


the benefits of corporate portals.



simple access/navigation



improved access to information



usability of common applications



the ability to use platform independent applications.


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2010
Pearson Education, Inc.

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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

6.8 Collaboration
-
Enabling

Environments And Tools


workflow


The movement of information as it flows through the sequence
of steps that make up an organization’s work procedures


workflow systems


Business process automation tools that place system controls in
the hands of user departments to automate information
processing tasks


workflow management


The automation of workflows, so that documents, information,
and tasks are passed from one participant to the next in the
steps of an organization’s business process

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Copyright ©
2010
Pearson Education, Inc.


COLLABORATION AND GROUPWARE: SOME BASIC
CONCEPTS


groupware


Software products that support groups of people who
share common tasks or goals and collaborate on their
accomplishment


Synchronous Versus Asynchronous Communication


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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

6.8 Collaboration
-
Enabling

Environments And Tools


virtual team


A group of employees using information and
communications technologies to collaborate from
different work bases


Mass Collaboration


a form of collective action that occurs when large
numbers of people work independently on a single
project, often modular in its nature


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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

6.8
Collaboration
-
Enabling

Environments And Tools


ELECTRONIC MEETING SYSTEMS: FACE
-
TO
-
FACE SUPPORT AND
VIRTUAL MEETINGS


virtual meetings


Online meetings whose members are in different
locations, even in different countries



group decision support system (GDSS)


An interactive computer
-
based system that
facilitates the solution of
semistructured

and
unstructured problems by a group of decision
makers

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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

6.8 Collaboration
-
Enabling

Environments And Tools

6.8 Collaboration
-
Enabling

Environments And Tools


REAL
-
TIME COLLABORATION TOOLS FOR VIRTUAL
MEETINGS


screen
-
sharing software


Software that enables group members, even in
different locations, to work on the same document,
which is shown on the PC screen of each participant



Sharing Documents and Workspaces


Ex. Google doc

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Copyright ©
2010
Pearson Education, Inc.

6.8 Collaboration
-
Enabling

Environments And Tools


ELECTRONIC TELECONFERENCING


teleconferencing


The use of electronic communication that allows
two or more people at different locations to have
a simultaneous conference



video teleconference


Virtual meeting in which participants in one
location can see participants at other locations on
a large screen or a desktop computer

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data conferencing


Virtual meeting in which geographically dispersed groups
work on documents together and exchange computer files
during videoconferences



Web Conferencing


E.g. e
-
classrooms, web
simenar



unified communication (UC)


Simplification of all forms of communication in the enterprise


Web Collaboration


Web Suites

e.g. polycom.com

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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

6.8
Collaboration
-
Enabling

Environments And Tools


Collaboration 2.0


The technology and tools used for collaboration
in the Web 2.0 world and in Enterprise 2.0 that are
in sync with social networking and user
-
generated content

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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

6.8 Collaboration
-
Enabling

Environments And Tools


The major technologies used in Collaboration 2.0:




collaborative workspace


An interconnected environment in which all the
participants in dispersed locations can access and
interact with each other just as inside a single entity


benefits
:


fast and flexible access to information


cost saving on HW and SW


better information security

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Copyright ©
2010
Pearson Education, Inc.

6.8 Collaboration
-
Enabling

Environments And Tools


instant messaging


Technologies that create the possibility of
realtime

text
-
based communication between two or more
participants over the Internet/intranet



presence information


Status indicator that conveys ability and willingness
of a potential communication partner

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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

6.8 Collaboration
-
Enabling

Environments And Tools


Mobile Collaboration in the Web 2.0 Environment


Mobile social networking service


Mobile handset (
skype
)


mobile instant messaging


Messaging service that transposes the desktop
messaging experience to the usage scenario of being
on the move


Mobile Unified Communication

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Copyright ©
2010
Pearson Education, Inc.

6.8 Collaboration
-
Enabling

Environments And Tools


voice
-
over
-
IP (VoIP)


Communication systems that transmit voice calls over
Internet Protocol

based networks



Blogs, Wikis, Virtual Worlds, Forums, and Other Tools

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6.8 Collaboration
-
Enabling

Environments And Tools

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