U.S. CHEMICAL STOCKPILE

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© 1999 Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation

CA7

U.S. CHEMICAL STOCKPILE

© 1999 Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation

CA8

OBJECTIVES


Describe types of chemical warfare agents stored in
your vicinity


Describe what nerve and blister agents are and what
they look like

© 1999 Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation

CA9

CHEMICAL STOCKPILE


Comprised of chemicals designed and produced for the
sole purpose of warfare


Nerve agents and blister agents

Edgewood Chemical Activity, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD

© 1999 Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation

Storage Facilities

States with Storage Facilities

Impacted States

CA10

CHEMICAL STOCKPILE LOCATIONS

Anniston Chemical

Activity (ANCA)

Anniston, AL

Blue Grass Chemical

Activity (BGCA)

Richmond, KY

Deseret

Chemical

Depot (DCD)

Tooele, UT

Edgewood Chemical

Activity (ECA)

Aberdeen Proving

Ground, MD

Newport Chemical Depot (NECD)

Newport, IN

Pine Bluff Chemical

Activity (PBCA)

Pine Bluff, AR

Pueblo Chemical Depot (PUCD)

Pueblo, CO

Umatilla Chemical Depot (UMCD)

Hermiston, OR

WA

IL

CSEPP

© 1999 Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation

CA11

Agent stored
Installation
GA
GB
VX
Sulfur
mustard
Lewisite
Anniston
X
X
X
Blue Grass
X
X
X
Edgewood
X
Deseret
X
X
X
X
X
Newport
X
Pine Bluff
X
X
X
Pueblo
X
Umatilla
X
X
X
U.S. STOCKPILE INVENTORY

CSEPP

© 1999 Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation

CA12

Umatilla 13.9%

Deseret 39.4%

Pueblo 9.8%

Pine Bluff 14.4%

Newport 4.8%

Blue Grass 2.0%

Anniston 8.4%

Edgewood 6.0%

Johnston Atoll 1.3%

U.S. STOCKPILE INVENTORY

AS OF AUGUST 1999

© 1999 Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation

US STOCKPILE INVENTORY


Deseret Chemical Depot stockpile incineration began

August 1996


Approximately 22.7% of stockpile stored at Deseret
successfully destroyed (as of August 1999)

CA13

Deseret Chemical Depot, Tooele, UT

© 1999 Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation

CA14

STORAGE CONTAINERS

In
st
a
ll
a
ti
on
R
ocke
ts
C
ar
t
r
i
dg
es
And
pro
j
e
ct
i
les
Land
mi
ne
s
B
omb
s
On
e
-
t
on
con
ta
in
e
r
s
A
e
r
i
a
l
s
pr
a
y
t
ank
s
Ann
ist
on
X
X
X
X
B
lu
e
Gr
ass
X
X
D
es
er
e
t
X
X
X
X
X
X
Edge
w
ood
X
N
e
wpor
t
X
P
in
e
B
l
u
f
f
X
X
X
P
ueb
l
o
X
U
m
a
till
a
X
X
X
X
X
X
© 1999 Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation

CA15

STORAGE FACILITIES


Chemical agents are stored in


concrete igloos


metal storage buildings


outdoor storage yards


In restricted access areas


Entire area surrounded

by security fences and

equipped with appropriate

security devices

Blue Grass Chemical Activity, Richmond, KY

© 1999 Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation

CA16


Chemical munitions containing explosives must be
stored in concrete structures called “igloos”


Igloos have 2 ft of earth covering all sides except a

front wall of reinforced concrete


Earth cover designed to

reduce spread of fragments

and fire in unlikely event

of an accident within

igloo

IGLOOS

Umatilla Chemical Depot, Hermiston, OR

© 1999 Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation

CA17


Deseret Chemical Depot stores aerial spray tanks in
metal structures


These spray tanks have small amounts of explosive
devices stored in a container attached to outside of
metal shipping and storage container

EXCEPTION OF EXPLOSIVE STORAGE

© 1999 Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation

CA18

METAL STORAGE BUILDINGS


Bulk containers of agent without explosives stored in
metal storage buildings


Bulk containers of VX stored in metal storage buildings
at Newport Chemical Depot


Bulk containers of HD stored in metal storage buildings

at Umatilla Chemical Depot

Newport Chemical Depot, Newport, IN

© 1999 Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation

CA19


Bulk containers of blister agents may be stored in
outdoor storage yards surrounded by a security fence


Bulk H and HD blister agent stored outside at:


Pine Bluff Chemical Depot


Edgewood Chemical Activity


Deseret Chemical Depot


Deseret Chemical Depot

also has Lewisite stored

outside

OUTDOOR STORAGE YARDS

Edgewood Chemical Activity, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD

© 1999 Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation

CA20

TYPES OF AGENTS

© 1999 Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation

GA

GB

VX

NERVE AGENTS

H

HD

HT

L

BLISTER AGENTS

CA21

© 1999 Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation


Attack body’s nervous system


Scientific classification: Organophosphate


organophosphates also include agricultural insecticides
malathion and parathion

CA22

NERVE AGENTS

GA

GB

VX

© 1999 Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation

CA23

SPECIFIC NAMES

Symbol

Common name

Referred to as



VX

VX

VX


GB

Sarin

GB or G
-
agent


GA*

Tabun

GA or G
-
agent


*Small amount stored at Deseret Chemical Depot

© 1999 Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation

CA24


Usually liquid in normal state


Becomes volatile and generates vapors if heated


Potential for release if in vapor or aerosol form


All nerve agents currently in liquid form


Most distinguishable factors are physical consistency
and color

NERVE AGENT

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

© 1999 Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation

CA25

VX


Oily liquid; resembles light weight oil


Usually a pale amber color (colorless in pure form)


Odorless


Tasteless


Persistent; designed to cling to whatever it splatters on


persistence is weather
-
dependent

© 1999 Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation

CA26

G
-
AGENTS


GB is usually colorless, watery in pure form


GA may be pale to dark amber


GB has almost no odor


GB is tasteless


GB volatilizes at lower temperature than VX


GB evaporates more rapidly than VX but less than
water

© 1999 Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation

CA27

H

HD

HT

L

BLISTER AGENTS (VESICANTS)


Poisons that destroy individual cells


Blisters most noticeable effect from exposure


Includes sulfur mustard and Lewisite

© 1999 Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation

Symbol

Common name

Referred to as



H, HD, HT

Sulfur mustard

H, HD, HT


L*

Lewisite

Lewisite


*Small amount stored at Deseret Chemical Depot

CA28

SPECIFIC NAMES

© 1999 Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation

CA29


Mustard
-
garlic
-
like smell


Liquid or solid form in normal
state


Becomes volatile and generates
vapors if heated


burns well once ignited


Pale amber brown color in liquid
form


Colorless gas when vaporized


SULFUR MUSTARD

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

Laboratory bottle of sulfur mustard

© 1999 Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation

CA30

LEWISITE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES


Amber to brown liquid


colorless when pure


About 10 times more volatile than sulfur mustard


Irritating, fruity or geranium
-
like odor


little odor when pure


Persistent


More dangerous as liquid than as vapor