RCP attributes - American Concrete Pipe Association

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Reinforced Concrete Pipe
Attributes




Your Name Date


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Our

Industry’s

Story & Product
Attributes


Historical perspective


Important product attributes


National standards & specifications


Resources


Our company


Our people


Our industry association
-

ACPA

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Historical Perspective


Proven history =


Continued improvement of product
and production methods


Long term knowledge &
understanding by all stakeholders


Verifiable durability

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Continued Improvement


Early to mid XX00’s = demand for
more UG Piping to accommodate
sewerage and storm water run
-
off


Oldest recorded RCP installation


xxxx
in xxxxxx, NY


Still some RCP installations from late
1800’s in service today!


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Continued Improvement


Mid 1800’s to Early 1900’s


Prediction of runoff quantities better
understood by engineers


XXXX XXXXX university developed methods
for estimating XXXXX on pipe and methods
to calculate supporting strength provided by
XXXXX pipe culverts


Early 1900’s XXXX became a forum for
improved quality of piping products


As US transportation needs
-

demand for
RCP grew (50,000 autos in 1905 grew to X
million autos in US by 1918)


By 1930 all states using concrete pipe in their
roadway systems! In 1930 approx. X million
tons of RCP were produced


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Continued

Improvement…Post
1930


After great depression & WWII 4 million tons
of RCP produced in 1950


Advancement from 1930
-
1970


Performance surveys verify durability of RCP


Increased acceptance of RCP by specifiers


Advancements in research & technology


Production techniques & improved finish product
quality


10 million tons RCP produced annually by
xxxx


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Continued

Improvement…Post
1970


1970’s
-

XXX enters sanitary market


1980’s


beginning of industry
consolidation


1980’s


XXXX begins push into storm
drain market


1990’s


RCP industry continues
improvement of production methods
and production machinery


See concrete pipe handbook to “read
more about product & industry history”


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No better teacher than HISTORY & EXPERIENCE!

Over a century of continued improvements in
production & QC process
provides

best RCP ever
produced


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Attributes of Concrete Pipe


Materials and manufacturing
methods


Strength


Design & installation flexibility


Hydraulic efficiency


Durability


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Materials &
Manufacturing
Methods

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Materials Used to Make RCP


Portland cement (ASTM C XXX)


XXXXX reinforcement


Aggregates (XXXX & course)


Water


Typically materials combined to produce
a mix with a very low xxxxx
-
cement
ratio. Usually considered a “dry
-
mix” that
produces a “x” slump.


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Basic Production Steps:


Storage of materials


Materials handling


Reinforcement cage production


Cage machines or wire rollers


Batching and mixing concrete


Pipe forming


Pipe forming methods


dry cast or xxxxxxxxx most
common


Curing


Steam, water mist common methods used to control
xxxx and moisture


Yarding and storage


See a plant tour!


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Pipe Forming Methods


Wet Cast


Dry Cast


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Vibratory Sources


Internal Hydraulic


External Pneumatic
Electric Hydraulic


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Dry Cast

84”x 16’

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Wire cage
production by cage
machine

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Computer
controlled
batching and
manufacturing
is common!

See for
yourself….

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Structural Considerations

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A Buried Pipe Must
Perform Two Critical
Functions?

Buried Pipe

XXXXXXX

XXXXXXXXX

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Structure Provided by Pipe Wall


RCP is designed, manufactured, tested, and
installed as a rigid structure with a minimal
portion of the loads present supported by the
surrounding soil. The
majority
of the load is
distributed too and supported by the pipe.


RCP installation structural strength = pipe
wall strength + support from bedding


RCP wall can provide 95% of system
strength!


Engineer/designer has flexibility to select
how much support provided by pipe vs.
bedding installation


Structure is tested at plant to confirm
required structural strength!


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Strength Testing


A common method used to determine
structural strength is to conduct a
three
-
edge bearing test.


The load per linear foot which a pipe
will support under this condition is
termed the three
-
edge bearing
strength.


This test is the most severe loading to
which any pipe will be subjected.


There is no lateral support for the
pipe, as provided under actual buried
conditions, and the applied forces in
the test are virtually point loads.


Specification reference: ASTM
C497M
-

96


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3EB Test

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Supporting strength of a pipe
loaded under xxxxxx
-
xxxx
xxxxxxx (xxx) test conditions,
expressed in pounds per
linear foot per foot of inside
diameter or horizontal span
when tested according to
ASTM Cxxx.

D0.01 = load (psf) to produce
0.01” crack, 12” long

DULT = load (psf) to cause
structural failure

D
-
Load

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Pipe Classification

3,750

3,000

CLASS V

3,000

2,000

CLASS IV

2,000

1,350

CLASS III

1,500

1,000

CLASS II

1,200

800

CLASS I

D
ult

D
0.01

ASTM

C
-
76

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Example

Class IV 60” Pipe

D
0.01

= 2,000

D
ult

= 3,000

Load
0.01


= 5’ x 2,000 lbs/ft/ft x 8’ =
80,000 lbs.


Load
ult


= 5’ x 3,000
lbs/ft/ft

x 8’ =
120,000 lbs.


Before the .01 Design Crack

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Structure Confirmed before
Shipment


60” RCP is tested
before it leaves the
point of manufacture
to prove it can carry
the load of a loaded
Tractor and trailer
with no lateral
support!


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Structure

Conduit

Concrete Pipe

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Facts of Structural Strength
Component


Structural Strength Proven for over
Century


No Other Storm Drain Pipe supports xxxx
like RCP Pipe Wall does


Engineer has flexibility to depend more on
Plant Tested xxx Vs Installation


STUCTURE IS TESTED & CONFIRMED
ON FINISHED PRODUCT!


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Design & Installation

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Structural Design =

Foundation of all Pipe System


Pipe” must be considered as a “bridge”


Determine live and dead loading
conditions


How will pipe be installed


Bedding support to be provided


Predict the “Pipe” performance/Select pipe
strength class


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Steps for Indirect Pipe Design
(
Determining Required Pipe Strength Class)


1
-

Select the method of installation
(trench, embankment, etc.)


2
-
xxxxx


3
-

Determine the live load


4
-

Determine the bedding factor
(installation type: 1


4)


5
-
xxxxxxxx


6
-

Specify the class


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Installation Methods

Trench


Negative Projecting


Positive
Projecting

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Positive Projecting
Embankment

Negative Projecting Embankment

TRENCH

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Installation Type Makes a
Difference!


Xxxxxx Installation helps support load
through frictional forces between trench
wall and backfill.


Negative projection partial trench wall
helps support similar to trench
installation.


Positive projection embankment does
not provide any resistance to loads


Conservative approach is to use
xxxxxxxxx installation for designs


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Loads on Pipe


Earth


xxxx


Construction


Other


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Traffic Load

Earth Load

Bedding

Foundation

R
1

R
2


Initial Backfill

Final Backfill

Haunching

Rigid Pipe

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Installation Flexibility w/RCP


Type I


IV SIDD Installations


Well defined structural backfill
materials and compaction


Pressure distribution understood
and conservative



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AASHTO
-

RCP Standard Installation (SIDD)


Overfill

SW,ML, or CL

D
o

(MIN)

D
o

H

Bedding

see table

D
i

Haunch
-

see table

Excavation Line

as required

D
o
/3

Foundation

Outer Bedding Materials

and compaction each side,

same requirements as haunch.

D
o
/6

(MIN)

Middle Bedding loosely

placed uncompacted

bedding except

for Type 4

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AASHTO Section 27


Concrete Culverts



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27.5.2.2
-
1. Structural Backfill


Type 1:

Highest quality installation using select granular soils with
high compaction requirements for haunching and bedding.


Type 2:

Allows silty granular soils with less compaction required
for haunching and bedding.


Type 3:

Allows use of soils with less stringent compaction
requirements for haunching and bedding.


Type 4:

Allows use of onsite native material for haunching and
bedding with no compaction required. (6” of Bedding is required if
rock foundation)


All Backfill Requirements above to xxxxxx xxxx ONLY


Type 1 = Most Supporting structural strength


Type 4 = Requires 95% of structural strength to be

provided by
Pipe Wall

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Key Components Of Structural
Backfill Of RCP



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No compaction under invert.


Haunch Support:


compaction of material to spring line only


Assumes voids are present


adding additional safety factors


Rigid pipe does not require compaction of
the overfill

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Gravity Pipe
Classes



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AASHTO M170

ASTM C76

Class



D
-
Load .01



D
-
Load Ult.

I

800

1200

II

1000

1500

III

1350

2000

IV

2000

3000

V

3000

3750

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Steps for Determining the
Required Pipe Strength Class


1
-

Select the method of installation
(trench, embankment, etc.)


2
-

Determine the earth load


3
-

Determine the live load


4
-

Determine the bedding factor
(installation type: 1


4)


5
-

Calculate the required D
-
Load


6
-

Specify the class



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Resources for Finding Required
Pipe Strength

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Plug & chug
-

blue
book




Fill height tables




Computer software
-

PipePac 2000

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Hydraulics


SEWERS


Initial & Long Term


Full Flow Conditions



CULVERTS


Inlet Control


Outlet Control


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Concrete Pipe Design Manual


Foreword


Index of Contents


Chapter 1 : Introduction


Chapter 2 :
Hydraulics of
Sewers


Chapter 3 :
Hydraulics of
Culverts


Chapter 4 : Loads and
Supporting Strengths


Chapter 5 : Supplemental
Data


Tables


Figures


Appendix


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Culvert Control Conditions


Inlet Control


Water can flow through the culvert at a
greater rate than water can enter it


Inlet geometry only



Outlet Control


Water can enter the culvert at a greater rate
than water can flow through it


Slope, roughness, length, inlet geometry,
headwater, tailwater, & diameter


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Culvert Hydraulic Characteristics


L

S
o

“n”

H
w

H

T
w

Inlet

Geometry

D =

Diameter


L =

Culvert Length

H
w

=

Headwater depth


n =

Mannings roughness

T
w

=

Tailwater depth


S
o

=

Slope

Inlet Control (inlet
geometry only)

Outlet Control(everything else)

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Basic’s
-

Our Hydraulic Advantage


The xxxxxxxx capacity (the amount of
water a pipe can convey) of all types of
storm sewer pipe depends on how smooth
the interior pipe wall is. xxxxxxxx = More
Capacity


Smoothness of pipe represented by
Manning’s Roughness Coefficient
commonly called xxxxxxx’x “x”


Smaller Manning’s “n” = smoother surface
= more water through pipe.


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You must understand Manning’s “
n



Manning’s Equation can be used to determine
barrel capacity of any culvert or open channel.
Manning’s Equation is:


2/3 1/2


Q =
1.486

X AR S


n

Q = discharge, cubic feet/sec

A = cross
-
sectional area of pipe in square feet

R = hydraulic radius in feet R = A/WP WP = Wetted
Perimeter in feet = circumference of pipe in full
flow

S = slope, or grade in ft/ft

n = manning’s n, coefficient of roughness


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Concrete Pipe Design Manual

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Importance of Manning’s “n”


Note the only variable in Manning’s Equation
between RCP and the other products is the
Coefficient of roughness Manning’s “n”.



Lab

Promoted

Installed


RCP

.008
-
.010 .012 .010
-
.011

HDPE .009
-
.015 .010 .012
-
.020????

CMP .012
-
.030 .012
-
.026 .021
-
.029


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DURABILITY

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Proven Record of RCP


No other product commercially
available today can provide the
proven record of durability
exhibited by RCP!


Oldest recorded installation of
RCP in xxxxxx, xx still in service
today!


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Why Does Durability Matter


Service life of product > project
design life


FHWA


pavement design life of
50 yrs, bridges should have design
life of 100 yrs


Shouldn’t culverts and storm sewer
systems have service life as long
as pavements and bridges?


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Research & Historic Performance
Proves RCP Durability


State Highway Departments


Federal Highway Administration


Corp of Engineers


U.S. Bureau of Reclamation


Soil Conservation Service


Local Government Agencies


Universities

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Service Life
-

Corp of Engineers
Report


RCP
-
xx
-
xxx yr.


CONFIRMED


HDPE
-

Unknown


No more than xx
yrs.


Corrugated steel
with coatings or
aluminum


no
greater than xx
years

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Factors that Influence Durability
of RCP


Materials properties


Concrete compressive strength


Xxxxxx


Absorption/permeability


Cement type


Admix enhancements


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Factors that Influence Durability
of RCP….Cont.


Chemical & Physical Factors


Fire


Not RCP


Acids (effluents and soil side)


Sulfates


Chlorides


Freeze
-
Thaw


Abrasion


In the Storm Sewer & Culvert
environment most of the above listed
durability factors are not of concern!


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National Standards &
Specifications


Overview


RCP
-

national standards of
importance


Materials, manufacturing,
complimentary components,
installation, test methods


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Overview
-

Specifications &
Standards


Development process (who,
why, & how) Chapter 8 of ACPA
Concrete Pipe Handbook


ASTM & AASHTO are two of the
most prominent Standard
Associations


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Specs & Standards of Note..


Materials for RCP


XXX, XXX,
XXX


Manufacturing process


ASTM
C xx & AASHTO M xxx


Test methods


ASTM C xxx &
AASHTO T xxx


Installation of RCP


ASTM
xxxx & AASHTO Sect. xx


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Let us be your Resource!


XXXX Company name and
contact info


xxxxxxxxx.com Company website


We can provide:


Presentations


Proper installation of RCP


Structural design of RCP


Competitive product comparisons


Plant tours


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Other Resources!


ACPA Resources at
www.xxxxxxxx
-
xxxx.org


Research


Tech. resources and information


Education


Design aid software