Investigating Structures and Materials

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25 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

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Investigating Structures
and Materials


Structures Activity

Tarr Steps


A Prehistoric Beam Bridge, Devon, UK

Mode of transport


foot; material
-

stone


1.

Take one span of the bridge and use the drawing tools to indicate which part
is in tension and which is in compression? Also draw forces on the beam.

2.

Is stone good in compression or tension?

3.

Why do you think this bridge is still standing?

Trestle Bridge


Noojee, Victoria

Rail bridge constructed from wood. About 100 years old


1.
On various members, draw where they may be in tension and compression.

2.
Is this structure good in compression or tension? What is the difference in
strength between wood in tension and compression? How does wood act
under load? (Is it brittle or tough?)


Arch bridge


Avenel, Victoria

Originally used by horse and cart


100+ years old stone structure

Arch construction a technique perfected by the ancient Romans

1.
Draw an arch and indicate where the load is distributed on the arch.

2.
Why is the arch such an effective structure?

3.
Is the structure designed for tension or compression?

Railway bridge
-

Malmsbury


Another example
of an arch bridge


What does the
keystone do?

Inverted brick arch


Old Post Office, Bendigo

Located adjacent to foundations

1.
Draw the forces acting on the structure.

2.
What effect does inverting the arch have on the load?

Some information on the arch

Arch Bridge


Wycoller, England

1.
Draw the forces acting on the right
-
hand arch. Is it in compression
or tension?

2.
List some possible reasons for the left
-
hand arch being on a lean.


Suspension Bridge


Ambyne, Victoria

Originally used by horse and cart, now motor vehicles; constructed from wood and steel

1.
Draw on the photograph which segments are in tension, which are in compression.

2.
Why are wood and steel used in their particular locations? What effect would
replacing the wood sections with steel and the steel sections with wood have?

3.
How could we strengthen this bridge?


Cable staid bridge
-

Tasmania

Use
-

Motor vehicles; constructed from steel and concrete

1.
Identify the main parts of the bridge.

2.
Identify areas of compression and tension.

3.
Why are steel and concrete used in a structure such as this?

4.
Why would a truss be used in this structure?

Truss Bridge


Walhalla, Victoria

Used for motor vehicles; constructed from steel and concrete

1.
Draw one section of the truss shown above. On this indicate which member would be
in compression and which would be in tension.

2.
Why is the truss made from steel only? Could parts of it could be constructed of
other materials?

3.
If the load was decreased significantly, which materials could the bridge be
constructed from?


Railway overpass under construction


Princes
Highway between Morwell and Traralgon

Constructed from steel and concrete

Note the rail tunnel in the background


this is a reinforced earth structure,
comprising a steel core with compacted earth surrounding it

1.
Why are the piers made from reinforced concrete?

2.
How would the load be distributed around the reinforced earth structure?

Swing Bridge
-

near Sale, Victoria

Steel bridge swings so that two cantilever spans are present

1.
Draw the areas of tension and compression on the bridge in both the closed
position (as shown) and when allowing river traffic to pass.

2.
What properties of the bridge prevent it from failing when in use?

North Arm Bridge


Lakes Entrance

Use
-

motor vehicles; constructed from reinforced and prestressed concrete

1.
How does prestressing work? Why would you used prestressing?


Cantilever Verandah


Draw a diagram of each of
the two verandahs and show
where the forces may be in
the structures.


Why would one have
supports holding it up and
the other one not have
supports?


If this was constructed
from reinforced concrete,
where would the reinforcing
best be placed?

Foundations


Why would these
foundations be
spread?