thought and problem solving conducted by

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23 Φεβ 2014 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 1 μήνα)

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Adeyl

Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU

Many of the technological achievements we see
today are the product of a chain of creative
thought and problem solving conducted by
several different researchers.


Television!



Adeyl

Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU

CPS in Top Management


Limited application of Analytic planning


Interconnected networks of problems verses
isolated problems


‘high intuition’ (not guesswork)


rapid pattern recognition


solutions generated


solutions regenerated (new information)

Adeyl

Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU

Ideation
-

Idea Generation Source


Human experience and understanding!


From Knowledge


Observation of the external world


Awareness of our own internal ruminations on these
observations




‘Knowledge’


More than remembered observations and includes
some form of interpretation of these observations

Adeyl

Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU

Ideas


Ideas may not merely come into and go out of our
awareness like randomly displayed data elements,
but instead can be consciously related to each other
in ways that we begin to find useful, interesting,
satisfying or even entertaining.



Idea processing takes individual ideas and
manipulates, synthesises and associates them with
one another until they form a larger contextual
pattern that we can consciously relate to some
human concern or problem.

Adeyl

Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU

Whole Brain Model


Two cerebral hemispheres


a left and a right.


Mental process includes vision, hearing, body senses,
reasoning, language, non
-
verbal visualization ….


Each hemisphere is to be found one half of the
limbic system


control centre that governs such things as hunger,
thirst, sleeping, waking, body temperature, heart
rate, blood pressure, emotions…


plays an important role in transferring incoming
information into memory


Adeyl

Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU

Definition


Cerebral


Involving intelligence rather than emotions or
instinct



Limbic


A border or edge of any of various body parts
distinguished by color or structure

Adeyl

Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU

The Whole Brain/Four
-
Quadrant Model

Fibers connect the two
cerebral hemispheres.



Different thinking methods are
required


The brain switches signals back and
forth very rapidly between different
areas within the two hemispheres via
the fiber links

Solving complex problems


within the cerebral hemispheres is
simple


between the two lower or upper
quadrants is more difficult


diagonal switching is most
difficult because there are no
fibre connections

Switching thinking modes

Adeyl

Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU

The Whole Brain/Four
-
Q Model

Top Management Perspective


both hemispheres are involved


each half of the brain produced
different modes of complex thinking

higher cognitive functioning


verbal (left)


non
-
verbal (right)


Dominance and preference

Two modes of thinking


Left brain is used for logical thinking,
judgment and mathematical
reasoning,


Right brain is the source of dreaming,
feeling, visualization and intuition.

Left Brain/Right Brain theory

Adeyl

Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU

The Whole Brain/Four
-
Quadrant Model

Cerebral Hemisphere

Limbic System


A analytical, mathematical, technical
and problem solving

1 The upper (cerebral) left


B controlled, conservative, planned,
organised and administrative in nature

2 The lower (limbic) left


C interpersonal, emotional,musical, and
spiritual

3 The lower (limbic) right


D imaginative, synthesising, artistic,
holistic and conceptual modes

4 Upper (cerebral) right

Preparation &


Verification

Incubation &


Illumination

Adeyl

Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU


prefer
organizing information logically in a framework
, listening to
lectures and reading textbooks, studying example problems and solutions,
thinking through ideas, doing scientific/academic research, judging ideas
based on facts, criteria and logical reasoning, dealing with reality and current
problems.

A quadrant thinkers


like finding practical uses for knowledge learned, planning projects, practicing
new skills, writing practical guides about how to do something.

B quadrant thinkers


like to be very organised and precise in their work

C quadrant thinkers


like to take an
overall view of new topics
(not the detail), to take the
initiative, ponder on possible outcomes of actions, use visual aids, solve open
-
ended problems, enjoy wild ideas, experiment, rely on intuition rather than on
logic, synthesize ideas, approach a problem from different angles.

D quadrant thinkers

Adeyl

Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU

Adeyl

Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU

Walla’s model of the creative process


Define the problem, need, or desire,


Gather related information


Set up criteria for verifying the solution’s acceptability.


In the preparation stage


Step back from the problem


Contemplate and work it through

In the incubation stage


Ideas arise
-

basis of a creative response. Pieces or whole


Often very brief, involving a tremendous rush of insights

In the illumination stage


Feasibility of illumination stage & preparation stage

In verification

Time frame!

Adeyl

Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU

The Whole Brain/Four
-
Q Model

Analytical,
mathematical,
technical
problem
solving

Imaginative,
synthesizing,
artistic,
holistic,
conceptual

Controlled,
conservative,
planned,
organised
,
administrative

Interpersonal,
emotional,
musical,
spiritual

Cerebral System

Limbic System

Preparation &
Verification

Incubation &
Illumination

Adeyl

Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU

Sherlock Homes


"When you have eliminated the impossible,
whatever remains, however improbable, must be
the truth." ~ Sir Arthur Conan Doyle

Adeyl

Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU

Albert Einstein


"Imagination is more important than knowledge."

~ Albert Einstein


What it would be like to ride on a beam of light?


Special theory of relativity.

Adeyl

Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU

Divergent & Convergent Thinking

Divergent thinking


there is no unique
answer


a broad search for
decision options


Alternatives
-

finding
many combinations


Fluency of thinking and
originality vs. adherence
to prescribed steps and
criteria for finding some
uniquely ‘correct’ result.

Convergent thinking


Opposite
-

it is a unique
solution to meet the
prescribed criteria that is
sought.

Example!

Adeyl

Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU

Divergent & Convergent Thinking ...

Divergent

Thinking

Convergent

Thinking

Creative
Thinking?

Used in isolation
, intermixed

Vertical thinking
digs the
same hole deeper;
lateral
thinking
is concerned with
digging a hole in another place

Standard IQ tests

A divergent approach

can be used on the

way to a convergent solution

Adeyl

Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU

Adeyl

Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU

How can divergent and convergent thinking be
improved and utilized for CPS

Adeyl

Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU

Conditions Of Creative Thinking


Detaching oneself from one’s current activities


Simply paying attention to the ideas that arise.

Receptivity


Existing ideas tend to blind us to new ones


spend a time and energy engaged in the activity that makes their emergence difficult

Immersion (Paradox)


A question requiring an answer can limit creative thinking

Seeing questions


Error can present a new problem and thus stimulate thought.

Utilization of errors


Very intense motivation to solve a problem may well impede the problem solving
process.

Detached devotion (Paradox)

Adeyl

Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU

Routine Problem Solving


Not all problems require the use of a CPS process.


In some cases a CPS process would not be as useful
as an existing routine or ready
-
made solution.


These kind of solutions generally exist for recurring
problems, and when it is possible to use one, it is
often much quicker and more practical.

Adeyl

Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU

Theories Of Creativity
-

Grace


Creativity is something of a mystery, drawing forth
images of wonderful insights, imaginative efforts,
illumination and intuitions that come from
nowhere.


It seems the work of magic.


The idea of genius may add force to this notion
since creative artists, musicians, etc. seemed to be
endowed with superhuman potential.


Creativity in this sense is seen as a divine gift.


Adeyl

Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU

Theories Of Creativity
-

Accident


This is the opposite of it being a divine gift.


It rises by chance.


Holders of this view offer various types of
accidental discoveries such as those of
immunisation arising from an interruption in work,
radioactivity from the wrong hypothesis, and the
smallpox vaccination from observation.


Adeyl

Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU

Theories Of Creativity
-

Association


The most popular theory


Suggests applying procedures from one area to
another


Underlies the justification for many divergent
thinking techniques such as lateral thinking and
brainstorming

Adeyl

Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU

Theories Of Creativity
-

Cognitive


Creativity is a normal human activity


It uses cognitive processes like recognition,
reasoning and understanding


Adeyl

Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU

Theories Of Creativity
-

Personality


Creativity is a state of mind which can be learned


Some people seem to have a facility for it while
others do not, but they can improve with practice


Mental barriers to creativity have to be removed to
allow innate spontaneity to flourish


Creative acts are not isolated acts of perception,
they require an emotional disposition too, for any
new idea replaces and in effect destroys the previous
order


It takes courage and persistence to brave the
resistance that any change seems to engender

Adeyl

Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU

The Cognitive Theory Of Creativity


"the act or process of knowing in the broadest
sense; specifically, an intellectual process by which
knowledge is gained from perception or ideas”
(Cognition: Webster's Dictionary).




Study of the process of applying our cognitive
processes to evaluating arguments (propositions)
and making decisions



Adeyl

Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU

At the core of the thinking process is
memory
-

Information Processing


Long term memory
-

large capacity


Short term memory
-

small capacity



Accessing large volume of long term memory via
short term memory
-

bottleneck


Creative problem solving aids are used to compensate
for the bottleneck


Also affected by perceptual filters

Complex networks of information

Making the connections along/across

Adeyl

Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU

AI & Cognitive Science


Schemas known as scripts and
deltacts



Useful dealing with problems


Scripts are stereotyped responses based on
experience


Guides behavior (think and say)


Deltacts

(from goal directed behavior)


sub
-
goals and associated plans



Scripts assembled from smaller data elements
called MOPS (memory organization packets)


organize experiences

Adeyl

Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU

The index metaphor


The index metaphor supposes that we store all our
information, knowledge and experience in a huge
‘mental book’ which has an index and cross
-
referencing
facilities.


The index provides us with a number of references to entries
regarding the information we have related to the subject of the
problem


Look up each of these


the kind of information that we need for PS



Exact
fit

not available


Cross
-
references under various headings (MOPS) in the mental
book which enable us to put together sufficient information (a
new schema or script) to solve the problem

Adeyl

Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU

Problem

Index

Cross

Reference?

References

Find

Solution?

Solve

‘Stuckness’

CPS

Aids

Check

Yes

No

Yes

No

Adeyl

Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU


The huge mental book is, of course, being
constantly updated with new material and
adjustments made to the index. New cross
-
references (MOPS) are also entered. A cross
-
reference (MOP) may be entered every time two
apparently unrelated, weakly related or unrelated
events seem to have a particular bearing on a
particular matter. The cross
-
references (MOPS) may
fade with time if they are not subsequently
reinforced with evidence to support their
usefulness.

Adeyl

Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU

Analogical Reasoning


Analogical reasoning allows the individual to map
the current experience on to a template that has
been derived from previous experiences.


Pieces must fit together in a cohesive pattern.


Typically birds can fly, so …

Adeyl

Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU

Problem Solving Method

IDEAL
-

Bransford

and Stein (1993)


I = Identify problems and opportunities.


Crude Water Filters


D =
Define

goals.


Mission/Vision/Strategy


Deciding which one to choose


E = Explore possible strategies


Consider relevant information (short
-
term memory)


A = Anticipate outcomes and act.


Contingency plans


L = Look back and learn.

Adeyl

Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU

Adeyl

Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU

From the CPS Angle

Objective finding
-

define the problem
area

Fact finding
-

gather information

Problem finding
-

define the problem
correctly

Idea finding
-

generate solutions
to the problem

Solution finding
-

evaluate and
choose
betwee

Acceptance
finding
(divergent)

Adeyl

Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU


Generate a list of problems


Divergent thinking


Identify the most relevant problem areas for
further exploration


Convergent thinking


'Hits' and 'hotspots' are identified by
questioning


Ownership
-

is one motivated to solve it?


Priority
-

how important is the problem?


Critical nature
-

how urgent is it to solve this
problem?

Objective Finding

Adeyl

Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU


Increased understanding of the problem
by collection of relevant information


New ideas to be generated (Naturally)


'Hits' and 'hotspots' can assist
convergence


The previously identified problem(s) may
now be seen from a new perspective
(angle)


Fact Finding

Adeyl

Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU


Problem
-
finding essentially uses the
previous stage 'hits' to identify the most
productive problem definition possible.

Problem Finding


Idea
-
finding helps to structure the search for
potential solutions


Mainly divergent activity is used to generate
many ideas using a variety of idea
-
generation
aids

Idea Finding

Adeyl

Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU


Solution
-
finding is basically the choice of
ideas that can be transformed into workable
solutions.

Solution Finding


Helps to implement solutions successfully


Potential implementation obstacles and ways
to overcome them


Preventive actions and contingency plans


Generating an action plan

Acceptance
-
finding (divergent)

Adeyl

Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU

A Nine
-
stage Process FOR CPS


Constantly analyzing the environment to find
potential problems.


Objective finding


define the problem area.


Fact finding


gather information.


Problem finding


define the problem correctly.


Specifying assumptions.


Idea finding


generate solutions to the problem.


Solution finding


evaluate and choose between possible
solutions.


Acceptance finding


implement chosen ideas correctly.


Controlling to ensure that objectives are achieved
post
-
implementation.

Adeyl

Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU

Conditions for
creativity

Neuro
-
physiological
structure of the brain:
Four Qs, Fiber
connectors, Comm.
between Qs

Cognitive theory of
creativity: creation and
retrieval of schemas
from memory

The index metaphor:
How we get ideas
Searching the mental
book Cross
-
references
Stuckness The need for
CPS mechanisms

The CPS process

Problem solving
theories

Other explanations of
creativity: Association
Chance Divine gift
Personality

Convergent and

divergent thinking

CPS Theories

Adeyl

Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU

Adeyl

Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU

Adeyl

Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU

Thinking outside the box


The "nine dots" puzzle. The goal of the


puzzle is to link all 9 dots using four straight


lines or less, without lifting the pen.








Adeyl

Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU

46

Adeyl

Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU

47

Adeyl

Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU

Sample problems


You wish to avoid stale
-
mate in chess


You wish to become a better footballer


You wish to start a new company


You wish to get a job at
GrameenPhone


You wish to get a job at City Bank




It is the evening before an exam, the text book you need is
unavailable in the library and the bookshop is closed.


You have upgraded your computer from
Windows 2000

to
Windows
Vista

and want to perform certain operations as before





48

Adeyl

Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU

Chapter Organization


Ideation process


Some of the ideas by the
neuro
-
physiological functioning of the
brain


Whole
-
brain and two
-
brain theories


Connection between the NP functioning and the cognitive theory
of CPS


Theory of creative thinking


divergent and convergent thinking


conditions for ideation


Creative problem solving & the paradigm of creative thinking


Cognitive approach


Processes of CPS

Adeyl

Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU

Topics


Whole brain model


Walla’s model of the creative process


Divergent and convergent thinking


Conditions of creative thinking


Theories of creative problem solving


Information processing


‘IDEAL’ problem solving process


Creative Problem Solving