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23 Φεβ 2014 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 5 μήνες)

101 εμφανίσεις

R
ECHERCHES

INTERNATIONALES

SUR

LE

Q
I

G
ONG

Novembre 2013

Etudes réunies par l'IEQG
-
YS pour le Dr Yves
Réquéna










Groundbreaking review of the "evidence base" for Qigong and Tai Chi

The Most Comprehensive Review of the Health Benefits of Tai Chi and Qigong Published



August 31, 2010


The Institute of Integral Qigong and Tai Chi (
http://www.IIQTC.org
), a training division of
Health Action Inc in Santa Barbara, California, in collaboration with Arizona State University and the
University of Arizona just released a comprehensive review of the health benefits of Tai Chi and Qigong,
Chinese wellness practices, published in the prestigious

American Journal of Health Promotion (AJHP)
.


The Chinese have had no need to prove that Qigong and Tai Chi are relevant, medically or scientifically as it
is widely believed in Asia that these practices have great physical, mental and even spiritual benefits. The
Asian societies have performed Qigong and Tai Chi consistently for millennia, i.e. these wellness practices
are “tried and true." However, in the Western world Qigong and Tai Chi are not familiar. The norm is to
hesitate to grant that a concept or process has relevance and credibility until it has been proven to have
quantifiable benefits.


In the past, when asked about the “evidence base” for Qigong and Tai Chi, most advocates would simply
respond, “The Chinese have been doing these practices for thousands of years.

That is plenty of evidence
of their value.” Now, a bona fide “evidence base” for Qigong and Tai Chi is emerging from within the
scientific framework of the Western world.


This recent collaboration to review the Qigong and Tai Chi literature has resulted in the most
comprehensive review of the research literature on Qigong and Tai Chi that has ever been produced. Dr.
Roger
Jahnke
, OMD and his colleague Dr. Linda
Larkey
, applied a rigorous criterion wherein only the best
randomized controlled trials were considered in the review. The total of such research between 1993 and
the end of 2007 was an impressive 77 trials. This review presents the entire Qigong and Tai Chi “evidence
base” in one comprehensive presentation.


77 M
EDICAL

S
TUDIES

CONFIRM

THE

HEALTH

BENEFITS

OF

Q
IGONG

AND

T
AI

C
HI
.

77 M
EDICAL

S
TUDIES

CONFIRM

THE

HEALTH

BENEFITS

OF

Q
IGONG

AND

T
AI

C
HI

(
SUITE
).


The importance of the article is so significant that it was reviewed on

ABC News.


The total number of study participants was 6410 with the highest number of studies, 27, addressing psychological issues.
Cardiac studies numbered 23 and falls prevention trials numbered 19. Other areas of positive influence included bone
density, immune capacity, quality of life and physical function.


The authors concluded that, “with the mounting evidence for health benefits and the current progress in research
methodology, it is likely that Tai Chi and Qigong will play a strong role in the emerging integrative medicine system as well

as in prevention based interventions in the evolving health care delivery system.”


The researchers added, “The substantial potential for achieving health benefits, the minimal cost incurred by this form of
self
-
care, the potential cost efficiencies of group delivered care, and the apparent safety of implementation across
populations, points to the importance of wider implementation and dissemination of Qigong and Tai Chi.”



When asked what he felt was the most important aspect of the findings lead author, Dr.
Jahnke

stated, “This highly visible
review of the research literature on the wellness practices of Asian medicine demonstrates that there is a profoundly rich
“evidence base” for the efficacy and safety of Qigong and Tai Chi. In addition, it demonstrates that Qigong and Tai Chi have
similar health benefits, clarifying that Qigong and Tai Chi are essentially equivalent forms of wellbeing enhancement
practice. This is an historic and immense contribution to the research base of integrative medicine, wellness, gentle excise,

mindfulness, health promotion, health
-
self reliance, self
-
care, stress mastery, mind
-
body practice and energy medicine.”


Dr.
Jahnke’s

co
-
investigator and co
-
writer, Dr. Linda
Larkey
, commented, “based on the findings, our recommendations are
that, with the magnitude of the research demonstrating the relevance of Qigong and Tai Chi, future research
should

investigate more of the component aspects of these mind
-
body and meditative movement practices such as the
amount of time required to gain benefit, the

frequency of practice, the mix of the key components (movement, breath,
meditation), the depth of the mind focus, etc.”



1/ A R
EVIEW

OF

Q
IGONG

T
HERAPY

FOR

C
ANCER

T
REATMENT



http://www.qigonginstitute.org/html/papers/ReviewQG4Cancer.pdf


Kevin Chen Ph.D. and Raphael
Yeung

Originally Published in: Journal of the
International Society of Life Information Science,20 (2) 2002.



Abstract


Research studies of Qigong therapy for cancer for the past 20 years in China were
reviewed from three different categories: clinical study on human cancer patients, in
-
vitro study of cancer cells, and in
-
vivo study of cancer with Qigong therapy, in an
attempt to understand the role Qigong therapy plays in cancer treatment. There is a
lot of evidence suggesting that Qigong therapy has an inhibitory effect on can
-
cer

growth, both in vitro and in vivo studies, as well as in clinical observation (often
there was room for improvement in these studies and some studies require
replication in order to verify their findings). Qigong therapy for cancer is an area that
is often neglected by mainstream medicine and research, and it should be seriously
examined and considered as an important supplement to conventional cancer
treatment.


1/
U
NE

ANALYSE

DU

Q
I

G
ONG

THÉRAPEUTIQUE

DANS

LE

TRAITEMENT

DU

CANCER




Résumé


Des études sur le Qi Gong thérapeutique pour le traitement du cancer au cours des
20 dernières années en Chine ont été examinées à partir de trois catégories
différentes : étude clinique sur des sujets humains atteints de cancer, étude in vitro
de cellules cancéreuses, et étude in vivo du cancer avec utilisation du Qi Gong
thérapeutique, pour essayer de comprendre le rôle du Qi Gong thérapeutique dans
le traitement du cancer.


Il existe beaucoup de preuves indiquant que le Qi Gong thérapeutique a un effet
inhibiteur sur la croissance du cancer, à la fois dans les études in vitro et in vivo, ainsi
que dans l'observation clinique (ces études pourraient souvent être améliorées, et
certaines nécessitent d’être reproduites afin de vérifier leurs résultats).


Le Qi Gong thérapeutique contre le cancer est un domaine qui est souvent négligé
par la médecine traditionnelle et par la recherche.
ll

devrait être sérieusement
analysé et considéré comme un complément important aux traitements classiques
du cancer.


2/ Q
IGONG

FOR

CANCER

TREATMENT
:
A

SYSTEMATIC

REVIEW

OF

CONTROLLED

CLINICAL

TRIALS
.


http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17653892?dopt=Citation


Lee MS, Chen KW,
et

al
.
Acta

Oncol
. 2007;46(6):717
-
22.


Source:
Complementary Medicine, Peninsula Medical School, Universities of Exeter & Plymouth, Exeter,
UK.
myeong.lee@pms.ac.uk



Abstract:
Qigong is a mind
-
body integrative exercise or intervention from traditional Chinese medicine
used to prevent and cure ailments, to improve health and energy levels through regular practice. The
aim of this systematic review is to summarize and critically evaluate the effectiveness of qigong used as
a stand
-
alone or additional therapy in cancer care. We have searched the literature using the following
databases from their respective inceptions through November 2006: MEDLINE, AMED, British Nursing
Index, CINAHL, EMBASE,
PsycInfo
, The Cochrane Library 2006, Issue 4, four Korean Medical Databases,
Qigong and Energy Medicine Database from Qigong Institute and four Chinese Databases.
Randomised

and non
-
randomised

clinical trials including patients with cancer or past experience of cancer receiving
single or combined qigong interventions were included. All clinical endpoints were considered. The
methodological quality of the trials was assessed using the
Jadad

score. Nine studies met our inclusion
criteria (four were
randomised

trials and five were non
-
randomised

studies). Eight of these trials tested
internal qigong and one trial did not reported details. The methodological quality of these studies varies
greatly and was generally poor. All trials related to palliative/supportive cancer care and none to qigong
as a curative treatment. Two trials suggested effectiveness in prolonging life of cancer patients and one
failed to do so. We conclude that the effectiveness of qigong in cancer care is not yet supported by the
evidence from rigorous clinical trials.



3/ I
MPACT

OF

MEDICAL

Q
IGONG

ON

QUALITY

OF

LIFE
,
FATIGUE
,
MOOD

AND

INFLAMMATION

IN

CANCER

PATIENTS
:
A

RANDOMIZED

CONTROLLED

TRIAL
.


http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19880433?dopt=Citation


Ann
Oncol
.

2010 Mar;21(3):608
-
14.
doi
: 10.1093/
annonc
/mdp479.
Epub

2009 Oct 30.


Oh B
,

Butow

P
,

Mullan

B
,

Clarke S
,

Beale P
,

Pavlakis

N
,

Kothe

E
,

Lam L
,

Rosenthal D
.


Source:
Department of Medicine, Concord Repatriation General Hospital, University of Sydney, Concord, New
South Wales, Australia.
bsoh@med.usyd.edu.au



Abstract


BACKGROUND:
Substantial numbers of cancer patients use complementary medicine therapies, even without a
supportive evidence base. This study aimed to evaluate in a randomized controlled trial, the use of Medical
Qigong (MQ) compared with usual care to improve the quality of life (QOL) of cancer patients.


PATIENTS AND METHODS:
One hundred and sixty
-
two patients with a range of cancers were recruited. QOL and
fatigue were measured by Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy
-
General and Functional Assessment of
Cancer Therapy
-
Fatigue, respectively, and mood status by Profile of Mood State. The inflammatory marker serum
C
-
reactive protein (CRP) was monitored serially.


RESULTS:
Regression analysis indicated that the MQ group significantly improved overall QOL (t(144) =
-
5.761, P <
0.001), fatigue (t(153) =
-
5.621, P < 0.001), mood disturbance (t(122) =2.346, P = 0.021) and inflammation (CRP)
(t(99) = 2.042, P < 0.044) compared with usual care after controlling for baseline variables.


CONCLUSIONS:
This study indicates that MQ can improve cancer patients' overall QOL and mood status and
reduce specific side
-
effects of treatment. It may also produce physical benefits in the long term through reduced
inflammation.



3/
I
MPACT

DU

Q
I

G
ONG

MÉDICAL

SUR

LA

QUALITÉ

DE

LA

VIE
,
LA

FATIGUE
,
L

HUMEUR

ET

LES

INFLAMMATIONS

CHEZ

LES

PATIENTS

ATTEINTS

DE

CANCER

:
UN

TEST

ALÉATOIRE

CONTRÔLÉ
.



Résumé


Contexte

: un nombre important de patients atteints de cancer utilise les thérapies
de médecine complémentaire, même sans base de données à l’appui. Cette étude
avait pour but d’évaluer, lors d’un test contrôlé randomisé, l’utilisation du Qi Gong
médical (MQ) comparativement aux soins habituels destinés à améliorer la qualité
de vie (QOL ) des patients atteints de cancer.



Résultats

: L’analyse de régression a montré que le groupe MQ a amélioré de façon
significative la qualité de vie globale (t(144) =
-
5.761, P < 0.001), la fatigue (t(153) =
-
5.621, P < 0.001), les troubles de l’humeur (t(122) =2.346, P = 0.021) et
l’inflammation (CRP) (t(99) = 2.042, P < 0.044) par rapport aux soins habituels, après
contrôle des variables de base.



Conclusions
: Cette étude indique que le Qi Gong médical peut améliorer la qualité
de vie globale et l’état de l’humeur des patients cancéreux, et réduire les effets
secondaires spécifiques du traitement. Des bénéfices physiques peuvent aussi être
produits dans le long terme, par une réduction de l’inflammation.


4/ Q
IGONG

AMELIORATES

SYMPTOMS

OF

CHRONIC

FATIGUE
:
A

PILOT

UNCONTROLLED

STUDY
.


http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18955297?dopt=Citation


Craske

NJ, Turner W,
et

al
.
Evid

Based Complement
Alternat

Med
. 2009;6(2):265
-
70.


Source:
Researcher & Lecturer in Qigong & Shiatsu, Room D001, University of Derby,
Chevin

Road,
Mickleover
, DERBY, DE3 9GX, UK.
j.m.craske@derby.ac.uk
.



Abstract


Traditional Chinese Medicine practitioners consider that chronic fatigue reflects a disharmony and
depletion in the supply of
qi

in the body. Qigong is one of the traditional complementary interventions
used to strengthen
qi

through self
-
practice, and to manage the state of
qi

to prevent and cure disease.
The aim of this study is to assess whether qigong could be used to manage the symptoms of chronic
fatigue. Eighteen Caucasian, British female participants were recruited, taught a qigong routine during
weekly classes over 6 months, and asked to practice it daily for 15 min. Participants completed the core
set of the RAND Medical Outcomes Study questionnaire (RAND MOS) and a sleep diary during the 2
-
week baseline control period, and at 3 and 6 months following the start of the trial. The qigong
intervention resulted in significant changes in sleep rate score and in the following subscales of the
RAND MOS: SF36 Vitality, Sleep Problems, Social Activity, Social Activity Limitation due to Health, Health
Distress, Mental Health Index and Psychological Well
-
being. Qigong seems to improve factors related to
chronic fatigue such as sleep, pain, mental attitude and general mobility after 3 and 6 months. Qigong's
positive effects indicate that it represents a potentially safe method of treatment for chronic fatigued
patients. However, we cannot completely discount the possible influence of placebo effects, and more
objective clinical measures are needed to reproduce our findings with long
-
term follow
-
up in a
randomized, controlled study involving a larger number of subjects.



4/
L
E

Q
I

G
ONG

REMÉDIE

AUX

SYMPTÔMES

DE

LA

FATIGUE

CHRONIQUE

:
UNE

ÉTUDE

PILOTE

NON

CONTRÔLÉE
.


Résumé


Les praticiens de médecine traditionnelle chinoise considèrent que la fatigue chronique reflète un manque
d’harmonie et une diminution de la quantité de Qi dans le corps.


Le Qi Gong est une des pratiques complémentaires traditionnelles utilisées pour renforcer le Qi, à travers
l’auto
-
pratique, et pour gérer l’état du Qi afin de prévenir et guérir la maladie.


L’objectif de cette étude est de déterminer si le Qi Gong pourrait être utilisé pour gérer les symptômes de
la fatigue chronique. Dix
-
huit participants de sexe féminin, des britanniques de type caucasien, ont été
recrutés. Un enchainement de Qi Gong leur a été enseigné lors de cours hebdomadaires pendant 6 mois, et
il leur a été demandé de le pratiquer quotidiennement pendant 15 minutes. Les participantes ont rempli
l’ensemble du questionnaire RAND
Medical

Outcomes

Study

(RAND MOS), ainsi qu’un agenda de sommeil
durant la période de contrôle initiale de 2 semaines, et à 3 et 6 mois suivant le début du test.


L’intervention du Qi Gong a donné lieu à d’importants changements dans le score du taux de sommeil ainsi
que dans les sous
-
échelles suivantes du RAND MOS : Vitalité SF36, troubles du sommeil, activité sociale,
limitation des activités sociales en raison de la santé, détresse de la santé, indice de la santé mentale et
bien
-
être psychologique.


Le Qi Gong semble améliorer les facteurs liés à la fatigue chronique tels que le sommeil, la douleur,
l'attitude mentale et la mobilité générale après 3 et 6 mois. Les effets positifs du Qi Gong indiquent qu'il
représente une méthode potentiellement sûre de traitement pour les patients fatigués chroniques.


Cependant, nous ne pouvons pas écarter complètement la possible influence de l'effet placebo, et des
mesures cliniques plus objectives sont nécessaires pour reproduire nos résultats avec un suivi à long terme,
au cours d’une étude contrôlée randomisée, impliquant un plus grand nombre de sujets.




5/ T
HE

EFFECT

OF

Q
IGONG

ON

DEPRESSIVE

AND

ANXIETY

SYMPTOMS
:
A

SYSTEMATIC

REVIEW

AND

META
-
ANALYSIS

OF

RANDOMIZED

CONTROLLED

TRIALS
.


http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23762156


Wang CW
,

Chan CL
,

Ho RT
,

Tsang HW
,

Chan CH
,

Ng SM
.
Epub

2013 May 20


Source :
Centre on Behavioral Health, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.



Abstract


Objective
. To evaluate clinical trial evidence of the effectiveness of qigong exercise on depressive
and anxiety symptoms.
Methods
. Thirteen databases were searched from their respective
inception through December 2012. Relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included.
Effects of qigong across trials were pooled. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) were
calculated for the pooled effects. Heterogeneity was assessed using the I (2) test. Study quality
was evaluated using the Wayne Checklist.
Results
. Twelve RCTs met the inclusion criteria. The
results of meta
-
analyses suggested a beneficial effect of qigong exercise on depressive symptoms
when compared to waiting
-
list controls or usual care only (SMD = 
-
0.75; 95% CI,
-
1.44 to
-
0.06),
group newspaper reading (SMD = 
-
1.24; 95% CI,
-
1.64 to
-
0.84), and walking or conventional
exercise (SMD = 
-
0.52; 95% CI,
-
0.85 to
-
0.19), which might be comparable to that of cognitive
-
behavioral therapy (P = 0.54). Available evidence did not suggest a beneficial effect of qigong
exercise on anxiety symptoms.
Conclusion
. Qigong may be potentially beneficial for
management of depressive symptoms, but the results should be interpreted with caution due to
the limited number of RCTs and associated methodological weaknesses. Further rigorously
designed RCTs are warranted.



5/
L'
EFFET

DU

Q
I

G
ONG

SUR

LES

SYMPTÔMES

DE

LA

DÉPRESSION

ET

DE

L
'
ANXIÉTÉ

:
UNE

ANALYSE

MÉTHODIQUE

ET

UNE

MÉTA
-
ANALYSE

DE

TESTS

CONTRÔLÉS

RANDOMISÉS
.


Objectif

: Evaluer les preuves du test clinique de l'efficacité des exercices de Qi Gong sur les
symptômes de la dépression et de l’anxiété.


Méthodes

: Treize bases de données ont été examinées depuis leur création respective jusqu’à
fin décembre 2012. Des tests contrôlés randomisés
(RCTs)
pertinents ont été inclus. Les effets du
Qi Gong au cours des essais ont été regroupés.
Des
différences

moyennes

standardisées

(SMDs)
ont

été

calculées

pour les
effets

communs
.
L'hétérogénéité

a
été

évaluée

en
utilisant

le test I(2).
La
qualité

des
études

a
été

évaluée

en
utilisant

la
liste

de
contrôle

Wayne.


Résultats

: Douze
RCTs

ont satisfait aux critères d'inclusion. Les résultats des méta
-
analyses ont
indiqué un effet bénéfique des exercices de Qi Gong sur les symptômes de dépression par
rapport aux témoins en liste d'attente ou aux seuls soins habituels (SMD =
-
0.75, IC 95%,
-
1,44 à
-
0,06), au groupe de lecture de journaux (SMD =
-
1.24, IC
-
1,64 à
-
0,84), et à la marche ou à
l’exercice conventionnel (SMD = 
-
0.52; 95% CI,
-
0.85 to
-
0.19), ce qui pourrait être comparable à
celui de la thérapie
cognitivo
-
comportementale (P = 0,54).
Les
données

disponibles

n’indiquaient

pas un
effet

bénéfique

du
Qi

Gong
sur

les
symptômes

de
l'anxiété
.


Conclusion

: Le Qi Gong peut être potentiellement bénéfique pour la gestion des symptômes de
la dépression, mais les résultats doivent être interprétés avec prudence en raison du nombre
limité de tests cliniques aléatoires et des faiblesses méthodologiques associées. D’autres
RCTs

rigoureusement conçus sont attendus.


6/ E
FFECTS

OF

SCHEDULED

QIGONG

EXERCISE

ON

PUPILS
'
WELL
-
BEING
,
SELF
-
IMAGE
,
DISTRESS
,
AND

STRESS
.


http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20738165?dopt=Citation


Terjestam

Y,
Jouper

J,
Johansson

C.
J
Altern

Complement Med
. 2010;16(9):939
-
44.


Source :
School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science, Linnaeus University,
Växjö
, Sweden.
yvonne.terjestam@lnu.se



Abstract


OBJECTIVES:
Psychologic

problems is increasing among pupils and has become a major problem in
Sweden as well as in other Western countries. The aim of this study was to explore whether scheduled
qigong exercise could have an effect on well
-
being at school,
psychologic

distress, self
-
image, and
general stress.


SUBJECTS:
Pupils, 13
-
14 years, were assigned to either a qigong group or a control group.


INTERVENTION:
The qigong group had scheduled qigong 2 times a week for 8 weeks.


MEASURES:
Self
-
reported well
-
being at school,
psychologic

distress, self
-
image, and stress were
measured pre
-

and
postintervention
.


RESULTS:
The control group had reduced well
-
being at school during the semester and the qigong group
was stable. The qigong group reduced
psychologic

distress and stress, and had a tendency to improved
self
-
image, whereas no changes were found in the control group. Self
-
image explains 47% (R(2) = 0.47)
of well
-
being at school, and stress explains 29% (R(2) = 0.29) of
psychologic

distress.


CONCLUSIONS:
Scheduled qigong, meditative movement, is a possible way to improve well
-
being at
school.



6/
E
FFETS

DES

EXERCICES

RÉGULIERS

DE

Q
I

G
ONG

SUR

LE

BIEN
-
ÊTRE
,
L
'
IMAGE

DE

SOI
,
L

ANGOISSE

ET

LE

STRESS

DES

ÉLÈVES
.


Résumé


Objectifs

: Les troubles psychologiques sont en augmentation chez les élèves et sont
devenus un problème majeur en Suède, ainsi que dans d'autres pays occidentaux. L'objectif
de cette étude était d'examiner si la pratique régulière du Qi Gong pouvait avoir un effet
sur le bien
-
être à l'école, la détresse psychologique, l'image de soi, et le stress en général.


Sujets

: Les
élèves

de 13
-
14
ans

ont

été

assignés

soit

à un
groupe

de
Qi

Gong
soit

à un
groupe

de
contrôle

(
groupe

témoin
).


Application
: Le
groupe

de
Qi

Gong
avait

prévu

de
pratiquer

2
fois

par
semaine

pendant 8
semaines
.


Mesures

: Le bien
-
être auto
-
déclaré à l'école, la détresse psychologique, l'image de soi et le
stress ont été mesurés avant et après intervention.


Résultats

: Le bien
-
être à l'école avait été réduit chez le groupe contrôle au cours du
semestre et avait été stable pour le groupe de Qi Gong. La détresse psychologique et le
stress ont été réduits pour le groupe de Qi Gong, et l'image de soi présentait une tendance
à l'amélioration, alors qu'aucun changement n'avait été constaté dans le groupe témoin.
L'image

de
soi

explique

47% (R (2) = 0,47) du
bien
-
être

à
l'école
, et le stress
explique

29% (R
(2) = 0,29) de la
détresse

psychologique
.


Conclusion

: La pratique régulière de Qi Gong, mouvement méditatif, est une voie possible
pour améliorer le bien
-
être à l'école.




7/ Q
IGONG

FOR

HYPERTENSION
:
A

SYSTEMATIC

REVIEW

OF

RANDOMIZED

CLINICAL

TRIALS
.



http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17620944?dopt=Citation


J
Hypertens
.

2007
Aug
;25(8):1525
-
32.
Lee MS
,

Pittler

MH
,

Guo R
,

Ernst E
.


Source :
Complementary

Medicine
,
Peninsula

Medical

School
,
Universities

of Exeter and Plymouth, Exeter, UK.



Abstract


OBJECTIVES:
To assess systematically the clinical evidence of qigong for hypertension.


METHODS:
Databases were searched up to August 2006. All randomized clinical trials (RCTs) testing qigong in
patients with hypertension of any origin and assessing clinically relevant outcomes were considered. Trials
using any type of control intervention were included. The selection of studies, data extraction and quality
assessment were performed independently by at least two reviewers. Methodological quality was evaluated
using the
Jadad

score.


RESULTS:
A total of 121 potentially relevant articles were identified and 12 RCTs were included. Seven RCTs
tested qigong in combination with antihypertensive drugs compared with antihypertensive drugs alone. The
meta
-
analysis of two trials reporting adequate data suggested beneficial effects in
favour

of qigong [weighted
mean difference, systolic blood pressure (SBP)
-
12.1 mmHg, 95% confidence interval (CI)
-
17.1 to
-
7.0;
diastolic blood pressure
-
8.5 mmHg, 95% CI
-
12.6 to
-
4.4]. Qigong was compared with waiting list control in
two RCTs and was found to reduce SBP significantly (weighted mean difference
-
18.5 mmHg, 95% CI
-
23.1 to
-
13.9). In three further RCTs the comparisons made were: qigong combined with conventional therapy versus
muscle relaxation combined with conventional therapy; qigong as a sole treatment versus exercise. All
reported positive results in at least some of the relevant outcome measures. The methodological quality of
the studies was low.


CONCLUSION:
There is some encouraging evidence of qigong for lowering SBP, but the conclusiveness of
these findings is limited. Rigorously designed trials are warranted to confirm these results.



7/
L
E

Q
I

G
ONG

CONTRE

L
'
HYPERTENSION
:
UNE

ANALYSE

MÉTHODIQUE

DE

TESTS

CLINIQUES

RANDOMISÉS
.


Résumé


Objectif

: évaluer systématiquement les preuves cliniques du Qi Gong contre l'hypertension.


Méthodes

: les bases de données ont été examinées jusqu'à Août 2006. Tous les tests cliniques
randomisés (
RCTs
) testant le Qi Gong chez les patients souffrant d'hypertension de toute origine, et
évaluant les résultats cliniquement pertinents, ont été pris en compte. Les tests utilisant n'importe quel
type d'intervention de contrôle ont été inclus.
La
sélection

des
études
,
l'extraction

des
données

et
l'évaluation

de la
qualité

ont

été

réalisées

indépendamment

par au
moins

deux

examinateurs
. La
qualité

méthodologique

a
été

évaluée

en
utilisant

le score de
Jadad
.


Résultats

: Un total de 121 articles potentiellement pertinents ont été identifiés, et 12
RCTs

ont été
inclus. Sept
RCTs

ont testé le Qi Gong combiné à des médicaments antihypertenseurs par rapport aux
médicaments antihypertenseurs seuls. La méta
-
analyse de deux essais rendant compte de données
adéquates suggéra des effets bénéfiques en faveur du Qi Gong [ différence moyenne pondérée , la
pression artérielle systolique (SBP)
-
12,1
mmHg
, intervalle de confiance à 95 % (IC ) de
-
17,1 à
-
7,0 ;
pression artérielle diastolique
-
8.5
mmHg

, IC
-
12,6 à
-
4,4 ] . Le Qi Gong a été comparé à la liste
d’attente de contrôle dans deux
RCTs

et a été reconnu pour avoir réduit considérablement la SBP
(différence moyenne pondérée
-
18.5
mmHg

, IC
-
23,1 à
-
13,9 95%).
Dans

trois

autres

RCTs les
comparaisons

effectuées

étaient

: Le
Qi

Gong
combiné

à la
thérapie

conventionnelle

par rapport à la
relaxation
musculaire

associée

à la
thérapie

conventionnelle

; le
Qi

Gong
comme

unique
traitement

par
rapport à
l'exercice
.
Tous

ont

indiqué

des
résultats

positifs

dans

au
moins

quelques
-
uns

des
indicateurs

de
résultats

pertinents
. La
qualité

méthodologique

des
études

était

faible
.


Conclusion

: Il existe des preuves encourageantes indiquant que le Qi Gong puisse abaisser la SBP, mais
la valeur probante de ces résultats est limitée. Des tests rigoureusement élaborés sont nécessaires
pour confirmer ces résultats.

8/ I
NTERNAL

QIGONG

FOR

PAIN

CONDITIONS
:
A

SYSTEMATIC

REVIEW
.


http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19559656?dopt=Citation


Lee MS,
Pittler

MH, Ernst E.
J Pain
. 2009;10(11):1121
-
1127 e14.


Source:
Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine,
Daejeon
, South Korea.



Abstract:
The objective of this systematic review was to assess the evidence for the effectiveness of
internal qigong as a treatment option for pain conditions. Nineteen databases were searched through to
February 2009. Controlled clinical trials testing internal qigong in patients with pain of any origin assessing
clinical outcome measures were considered. Trials using any type of internal qigong and control
intervention were included. The selection of studies, data extraction, and validation were performed
independently by 2 reviewers. Four randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and 3 controlled clinical trials met all
inclusion criteria. One RCT suggested no significant difference for low back pain compared with
electromyographic

biofeedback. Two RCTs failed to show effects of internal qigong in neck pain compared
with exercise therapy and waiting list control. One RCT suggested that qigong is inferior to aerobic exercise
in patients with fibromyalgia. There are few RCTs testing the effectiveness of internal qigong in the
management of pain conditions. Collectively, the existing trial evidence is not convincing enough to suggest
that internal qigong is an effective modality for pain management.



PERSPECTIVE:
This review of controlled clinical trials focused on the effects of internal qigong, a self
-
directed energy healing intervention involving movement and meditation. Collectively, the existing trial
evidence is not convincing enough to suggest that internal qigong is an effective modality for pain
management. Future studies should be of high quality with particular emphasis on designing an adequate
control intervention.



9/ E
FFECTS

OF

Q
I
-
THERAPY

ON

PREMENSTRUAL

SYNDROME
.


http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15527198?dopt=Citation


Jang

HS, Lee MS,
et

al
.
Int

J
Neurosci
. 2004;114(8):909
-
21.


Source:
Department of Nursing,
Wonkwang

Health Science College,
Iksan
, Korea.



Abstract


This study investigated the effects of
Qi
-
therapy (nine sessions over two menstrual
cycles) on pain and other symptoms in women with premenstrual syndrome (PMS).
Forty
-
six women who were attending college were randomly allocated to receive
Qi
-
therapy (
Qi
-
therapy group: n = 23) or placed on a waiting list as controls (n = 22: 1
dropped out).
Qi
-
therapy had a significant effect on pain and water retention. In
addition, there were significant short
-
term effects on pain, mental depression, and
anxiety. These results suggested that
Qi
-
therapy might be useful as a nursing
intervention for women who suffer from PMS to maintain or restore a balance of
Qi
.



10/ M
ODULATION

OF

NEUROENDOCRINOLOGICAL

FUNCTION

BY

PSYCHOSOMATIC

TRAINING


http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?Db=PubMed&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=10818279&
ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum


Ryu

H, Lee MS,
et

al
.
Psychoneuroendocrinology
. 2000 Jul;25(5):439
-
51.



Modulation of
neuroendocrinological

function by psychosomatic training: acute effect of
ChunDoSunBup

Qi
-
training on growth hormone, insulin
-
like growth factor (IGF)
-
I, and insulin
-
like
growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)
-
3 in men


Abstract


The
neuroendocrine

system is regarded as the major link between the psychological state and the
immune system in man. The present study was undertaken to examine the acute effect of
ChunDoSunBup

Qi
-
training, a traditional psychosomatic training, on the plasma level of growth hormone
(GH), insulin
-
like growth factor (IGF)
-
I and insulin like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)
-
3 in young
men. To characterize the plasma level of hormones and the pattern of IGFBP
-
3 at pre
-

(
-
10 min), mid
-
time
(40 min), and immediately after (post
-
time, +10 min)
Qi
-
training, radioimmunoassay (RIA) and western
ligand

blot (WLB) analysis were used. The plasma level of GH at the mid
-
time was significantly increased
(P<0.05) compared to the level at pre
-
time of
Qi
-
training. The plasma level of IGF
-
I was also increased at
mid
-
time (P<0.05) and immediately after
Qi
-
training. There was a significant correlation between the
levels of GH and IGF
-
I immediately after
Qi
-
training (r=0.69, P<0.01). In this study, the change of IGFBP
-
3
among the several IGFBPs was determined. There was a relative shift in IGFBP
-
3 for the 43
-
kDa fraction
during mid
-
time of
Qi
-
training (P<0.05). These results suggest that
Qi
-
training influences the growth
hormone, IGF
-
I and IGFBP
-
3 status via brain
-
target organ axis in men.


10/
M
ODULATION

DE

LA

FONCTION

NEUROENDOCRINIENNE

PAR

L

ENTRAINEMENT

PSYCHOSOMATIQUE


La modulation de la fonction neuroendocrinienne par l’entrainement psychosomatique : effet aigu du

ChunDoSunBup

Qi
-
training’ sur l'hormone de croissance, facteur de croissance analogue à l'insuline
(IGF)
-
I et le facteur de croissance liant les protéines analogue à l’'insuline (IGFBP)
-
3 chez les hommes


Résumé



Le système neuroendocrinien est considéré comme le lien principal entre l'état psychologique et le
système immunitaire chez l’homme. La présente étude a été entreprise pour examiner l'effet aigu du

ChunDoSunBup

Qi
-
training’, une pratique psychosomatique traditionnelle, sur la concentration
plasmatique de l'hormone de croissance (GH), facteur de croissance analogue à l'insuline (IGF )
-
I et le
facteur de croissance liant les protéines analogue à l’'insuline (IGFBP)
-
3 chez les jeunes hommes.


Pour caractériser la concentration plasmatique des hormones et le schéma de l'IGFBP
-
3 au préalable
(10 min), à mi
-
temps (40 min), et immédiatement après (post
-
temps, +10 min) le Qi
-
training, l’essai
radio
-
immunologique (RIA) et l’analyse occidentale Western Ligand Blot (WLB) ont été utilisés.


Le taux plasmatique de GH à mi
-
temps a été augmenté de façon significative (P <0,05 ) par rapport au
niveau pré
-
temps de Qi
-
training. Le taux plasmatique d'IGF
-
I a été également augmenté à mi
-
temps (P
<0,05) et immédiatement après le Qi
-
training. Il y avait une corrélation significative entre les niveaux de
GH et d'IGF
-
I immédiatement après le Qi
-
training (r = 0,69, P <0,01).


Dans cette étude, le changement de l'IGFBP
-
3 parmi les différents IGFBP a été déterminé. Il y avait un
décalage par rapport à l'IGFBP
-
3 pour la fraction de 43
kDa

au milieu du Qi
-
training (P <0,05). Ces
résultats suggèrent que le Qi
-
training influe sur l'hormone de croissance, l'IGF
-

I et IGFBP
-
3, via l’axe
organe


cerveau chez les hommes.

11/
Q
I
-
TRAINING

(
QIGONG
)
ENHANCED

IMMUNE

FUNCTIONS
:
WHAT

IS

THE

UNDERLYING

MECHANISM
?


http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?Db=pubmed&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=16040353
&ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum


Lee MS, Kim MK,
Ryu

H.
Int J
Neurosci
. 2005
Aug
;115(8):1099
-
104.


Source:
Center for Integrative Medicine, Institute of Medical Science,
Wonkwang

University,
Iksan
,
Republic of Korea.
integmed@chol.com



Abstract


The authors observed that
Qi
-
training enhances immune function and modulates
neurohormone

concentrations. The exact signal and priming mechanism for enhanced
neutrophil

function by
Qi
-
training has not yet been demonstrated. This study investigated the effect of
Qi
-
training on intracellular
signaling leading to the enhancement of immune function. The growth hormone (GH) concentrations
and O2
-

production by
neutrophils

(PMNs) was significantly increased after 1 h of
Qi
-
training compared
with the basal state. To verify that endogenous GH mediates the priming of PMNs, serum obtained
from elderly subjects in the basal state and after
Qi
-
training was incubated with
neutrophils

isolated
from young subjects for 60 min and triggered with N
-
formyl
-
1
-
methionyl
-
1
-
leucyl
-
1
-
phenylalanine
(
fMLP
). Significant O2
-

production was observed in the PMNs incubated with serum collected after a
Qi
-
training (p < .05). On the other hand, the priming effect on the PMNs was abolished in
Qi
-
training
sera depleted of endogenous GH with anti
-
human GH polyclonal antibody (p < .01) and the tyrosine
kinase

inhibitor,
genistein

(p < .01). The authors suggest that the endogenous GH released during and
immediately after
Qi
-
training mediates the priming events through tyrosine
kinase

activation in PMNs.



11/
L
E

Q
I
-
TRAINING

(Q
I

G
ONG
)
AMÉLIORE

LES

FONCTIONS

IMMUNITAIRES

:
QUEL

EST

LE

MÉCANISME

SOUS
-
JACENT

?


Résumé

Les auteurs ont observé que le Qi
-
training améliore la fonction immunitaire et module
les concentrations de
neurohormones
. Le signal exact et le mécanisme d'amorçage pour
améliorer la fonction des neutrophiles par Qi
-

training n'a pas encore été démontré.
Cette étude a examiné l'effet du Qi
-
training sur la signalisation intracellulaire conduisant
à l' amélioration de la fonction immunitaire. Les concentrations d'hormone de croissance
(GH) et la production d’O2 par les neutrophiles (
PMNs
) ont été augmentés de façon
significative après 1 h de Qi
-
training par rapport à l'état de base. Pour vérifier que la GH
endogène sert d’intermédiaire à l'amorçage du PMN, le sérum provenant de sujets âgés
dans l'état de base et après le Qi
-
training a été incubé avec des neutrophiles isolés de
jeunes sujets pendant 60 min et déclenché avec la N
-

formyl
-

1
-
méthionyl

-
1
-

leucyl

-
1
-

phénylalanine (
fMLP

) . Une production significative d’O2 a été observée dans les PMN
incubées avec du sérum prélevé après un Qi
-
training (p < .05 ).


D'autre part, l'effet d'amorçage sur les PMN été aboli en Qi
-
training sérum appauvri
endogène de GH avec l'anticorps
polyclonaux

anti
-

GH humaine ( p < .01 ) et l'inhibiteur
de tyrosine kinase ,
génistéine

(p < .01 ) . Les auteurs suggèrent que l' hormone de
croissance endogène libéré pendant et immédiatement après la médiation Qi
-

formation
les événements d'amorçage via l'activation de la tyrosine kinase dans les PMN .

12/ E
NDOCRINE

AND

IMMUNE

EFFECTS

OF

Q
I
-
TRAINING
.



http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?Db=PubMed&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=151
95356&ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RV
DocSum


Lee MS, Kang CW,
et

al
.
Int

J
Neurosci
. 2004 Apr;114(4):529
-
37.


Source:
Professional Graduate School of Oriental Medicine and Center for Integrative Medicine,
Institute of Medical Science,
Wonkwang

University,
Iksan
, Republic of Korea.



Abstract


Psychoneuroimmunological

approaches have shown that
Qi
-
training influences the holistic
health state in men. We found that
Qi
-
training increased the plasma level of growth hormone
(GH) and insulin
-
like growth factor (IGF)
-
I. In addition, the respiratory function and adhesion
capacity of
neutrophil

was increased after
Qi
-
training. In an in vitro analysis, GH primed and
increased the respiratory function and adhesion of
neutrophils

through
tyrosin

kinase

passway
.
Taken together, in vivo and in vitro data suggest that the beneficial effects of
Qi
-
training on
immunological functions are mediated via
neuroendocrine

responses.



12/
L
ES

EFFETS

ENDOCRINIENS

ET

IMMUNITAIRES

DU

Q
I
-
TRAINING
.


Résumé

Les approches
psychoneuroimmunologiques

ont montré que le Qi
-
training influe sur
l'état de santé globale chez les hommes. Nous avons constaté que le Qi
-
training a
augmenté la concentration plasmatique de l'hormone de croissance (GH) et du
facteur de croissance analogue à l'insuline (IGF)
-
I. En outre, la fonction respiratoire
et la capacité d'adhésion des neutrophiles a augmenté après le Qi
-
training. Dans une
analyse in vitro, la GH a amorcé et a augmenté la fonction respiratoire et l'adhésion
des neutrophiles à travers la tyrosine kinase . Prises dans leur ensemble, les données
in vivo et in vitro suggèrent que les effets bénéfiques du Qi
-
training sur les fonctions
immunologiques sont provoqués par les réponses neuroendocriniennes.


13/ E
FFECTS

OF

Q
IGONG

ON

IMMUNE

CELLS
.



http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12856872?dopt=Citation


Lee MS,
Huh

HJ,
et

al
.
Am J Chin Med
. 2003;31(2):327
-
35.


Source:
Department of
Qi
-
Medicine, Institute of Biotechnology, School of Medicine,
Wonkwang

University,
Iksan
, Republic of Korea.



Abstract


The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of two acute Qigong interventions (
Qi
-
training and
Qi
-
therapy) on immune cells. The Qigong interventions were compared with
placebo training and placebo therapy in which no attempt was made to gather or move
Qi
.
Immune cell numbers were measured pre
-
intervention, immediately post
-
intervention and 1 or
2 hours post
-
intervention. White blood cells increased significantly 2 hours after actual
Qi
-
training (p < 0.05) but not sham training compared with pre
-
intervention There were significant
increases in lymphocytes 2 hours after actual but not sham
Qi
-
training (p < 0.05) and
monocyte

numbers were significantly increased immediately after both actual
Qi
-
training (p < 0.01) and
sham training (p < 0.05). NK cell numbers decreased significantly both immediately after
Qi
-
training and after sham movements done without concomitant
Qi
-
training (p < 0.01). There were
no significant effects on
neutrophils
. Actual
Qi
-
therapy but not sham therapy increased
monocyte

numbers immediately after
Qi
-
therapy, and lymphocytes increased more after real
than after sham therapy.
Neutrophils

were again little changed The data indicate that a single
Qigong intervention can increase the
monocyte

and lymphocyte numbers.


13/
L
ES

EFFETS

DU

Q
I

G
ONG

SUR

LES

CELLULES

IMMUNITAIRES
.


Résumé

Le but de cette étude était d'étudier l'influence de deux interventions de Qi Gong de
courte durée ( Qi
-
training et Qi
-
therapy
) sur les cellules immunitaires . Les
interventions de Qi Gong ont été comparées à une pratique et à un traitement
placebo dans lesquels aucune tentative n'a été faite pour rassembler ou faire circuler
le Qi. Le nombre de cellules immunitaires a été mesuré avant l'intervention,
immédiatement après l'intervention, et 1 ou 2 heures après l'intervention.


Les globules blancs ont augmenté de manière significative 2 heures après un Qi
-
training réel (p < 0,05), mais après pas le simulacre de pratique, par rapport aux pré
-

interventions. Il y a eu des augmentations significatives de lymphocytes 2 heures
après la pratique réelle mais pas après le simulacre (p < 0,05)

; et le nombre de
monocytes a considérablement augmenté immédiatement après les deux pratiques,
la réelle (p < 0,01) et la fausse (p < 0,05). Le nombre de cellules NK a diminué de
manière significative à la fois immédiatement après le Qi
-
training et après les
mouvements fictifs effectués sans Qi
-
training concomitant (p < 0,01). Il n'y a pas eu
d'effets significatifs sur les neutrophiles. Le nombre de monocytes a augmenté
immédiatement après la Qi
-
thérapie, et pas après la thérapie placebo

; et les
lymphocytes ont davantage augmenté après le traitement réel, par rapport au
traitement factice. Les neutrophiles ont encore une fois peu évolué.


Les données indiquent qu'une intervention seule de Qi Gong peut augmenter le
nombre de monocytes et de lymphocytes.

14/
Q
I
-
TRAINING

AND

IMMUNOLOGICAL

PARAMETERS
:
A

CROSS
-
SECTIONAL

STUDY
.



http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?Db=pubmed&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=168
61157&ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RV
DocSum


Lee MS, Kim MK,
et

al
.
Int

J
Neurosci
. 2006 Aug;116(8):921
-
6.


Source:
Center for Integrative Medicine Institute of Medical Science,
Wonkwang

University,
Iksan
, Republic of Korea.



Abstract


This article examined the effects of
qi
-
training on peripheral T lymphocyte concentrations in a
cross
-
sectional study involving three groups of subjects: normal healthy subjects (n = 22) and
two groups of
qi

trainees (group Q1:
qi
-
training for 1
-
12 months, n = 52; and group Q2:
qi
-
training for >12 months, n = 63). Nonparametric statistical tests revealed significant differences
between the groups in TH/TS/C ratio (p < .001) and in the ratio of memory TH lymphocytes
(CD45RA
-
) to naïve TH lymphocytes (CD45RA+) (p < .001). These findings suggest that
qi
-
training
modulates peripheral T lymphocyte concentrations. However, the functional modulation of T
helper lymphocytes should be tested in a larger population and compared with other
interventions.


15/ A
CUTE

EFFECT

OF

QI
-
TRAINING

ON

NATURAL

KILLER

CELL

SUBSETS

AND

CYTOTOXIC

ACTIVITY
.


http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?Db=PubMed&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=157
64007&ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RV
DocSum


Lee M, Kang CW,
Ryu

H.
Int

J
Neurosci
. 2005 Feb;115(2):285
-
97.


Source:
Professional Graduate School of Oriental Medicine and Center for Integrative Medicine,
Institute of Medical Science,
Wonkwang

University,
Iksan
, Republic of Korea.
qimed@wonkwang.ac.kr



Abstract


This study assesses the effects of
Qi
-
training on natural killer cell
cytotoxicity
. Nine experimental
subjects did 1 h of
Qi
-
training, and 9 control subjects relaxed during the same time. Natural killer
cell
cytotoxicity

increased 60% immediately after
Qi
-
training (p<.01) and returned to the basal
level within 2 h after training. Natural killer cell subset number did not change after
Qi
-
training.
Natural killer cell
cytotoxicity

and cell number were not significantly correlated. These data
suggest that
Qi
-
training has an acute stimulatory effect on natural killer cell activity, but has no
effect on
phenotypical

changes in the natural killer cell subset.



15/
E
FFET

AIGU

DU

Q
I
-
TRAINING

SUR

LES

SOUS
-
ENSEMBLES

DE

CELLULES

TUEUSES

NATURELLES

ET

L
'
ACTIVITÉ

CYTOTOXIQUE
.


Résumé

Cette étude évalue les effets du Qi
-
training sur la
cytotoxicité

des cellules
tueuses naturelles. Neuf sujets expérimentaux ont pratiqué 1 h de Qi
-
training, et 9 sujets témoins se sont détendus pendant le même temps. La
cytotoxicité

des cellules tueuses naturelles a augmenté de 60%
immédiatement après le Qi
-
training (p <.01) et a retrouvé son niveau de
base dans les 2 h après la pratique. Le nombre de cellules tueuses
naturelles du sous
-
groupe n'a pas changé après le Qi
-
training. La
cytotoxicité

des cellules tueuses naturelles et le nombre de cellules
n'étaient pas significativement corrélés. Ces données suggèrent que le Qi
-
training a un effet stimulant aigu sur ​​l'activité des cellules tueuses
naturelles, mais n'a aucun effet sur ​​les variations phénotypiques dans le
sous
-
ensemble de cellules tueuses naturelles.



16/ C
HANGES

IN

CYTOKINE

PRODUCTION

IN

HEALTHY

SUBJECTS

PRACTICING

G
UOLIN

Q
IGONG

:
A

PILOT

STUDY
.


http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?Db=pubmed&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=11696251&ordinalpos
=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum


Jones BM.
BMC Complement
Altern

Med
. 2001;1:8.
Epub

2001 Oct 18.


Source:
Division of Clinical Immunology, Pathology Department, Queen Mary Hospital,
Pokfulam
, Hong Kong.
bmjones@ha.org.hk


Abstract


BACKGROUND:
Guolin

Qigong is a combination of meditation, controlled breathing and physical movement
designed to control the vital energy (
qi
) of the body and consequently to improve spiritual, physical and mental
health. Practice of Qigong has been reported to alter immunological function, but there have been few studies of
its effects on cytokines, the key regulators of immunity.


METHODS:
Numbers of peripheral blood cytokine
-
secreting cells were determined by ELISPOT in 19 healthy
volunteers aged 27
-

55, before they were taught the practice of Qigong and after 3, 7 and 14 weeks of daily
practice. The effect of Qigong on blood
cortisol

was also examined.


RESULTS:
Numbers of IL4 and IL12
-
secreting cells remained stable. IL6 increased at 7 weeks and
TNFalpha

increased
in
unstimulated

cultures at 3 and 7 weeks but decreased at these times in LPS and SAC
-
stimulated cultures. Of
particular interest,
IFNgamma
-
secreting cells increased and IL10
-
secreting cells decreased in PHA
-
stimulated
cultures, resulting in significant increases in the IFNgamma:IL10 ratio.
Cortisol
, a known inhibitor of type 1 cytokine
production, was reduced by practicing Qigong.


CONCLUSION:
These preliminary studies in healthy subjects, although not necessarily representative of a
randomized healthy population and not including a separate control group, have indicated that blood levels of the
stress
-
related hormone
cortisol

may be lowered by short
-
term practice of Qigong and that there are concomitant
changes in numbers of cytokine
-
secreting cells. Further studies of the effect of Qigong in patients with clinical
diseases known to be associated with type 2 cytokine predominance are merited.


16/
É
VOLUTION

DE

LA

PRODUCTION

DE

CYTOKINE

CHEZ

DES

SUJETS

SAINS

PRATIQUANT

LE

G
UOLIN

Q
I

G
ONG

:
UNE

ÉTUDE

PILOTE
.


Résumé


Contexte

: Le
Guolin

Qi Gong est une combinaison de méditation, de respiration contrôlée et de
mouvements physiques, conçue pour contrôler l'énergie vitale (Qi) du corps et par conséquent pour
améliorer la santé spirituelle, mentale et physique. On a montré que la pratique du Qi Gong modifie la
fonction immunologique, mais peu d'études concernant ses effets sur les cytokines, les régulateurs clés de
l'immunité, ont été effectuées.


Méthodes
: Le nombre de cellules sécrétant des cytokines a été déterminé par ELISPOT chez 19 volontaires
sains âgés de 27 à 55 ans, avant que l’on leur enseigne la pratique de Qi Gong, et après 3, 7 et 14 semaines
de pratique quotidienne. L'effet du Qi Gong sur le cortisol sanguin a également été examiné.


Résultats

: Le nombre de cellules sécrétrices IL4 et IL12 est resté stable. IL6 a augmenté à 7 semaines et
TNFalpha

a augmenté dans les cultures non stimulées à 3 et 7 semaines, mais a diminué à ces moments
dans les cultures stimulées par SAC et LPS. De façon intéressante, les cellules sécrétrices d'
IFNgamma

ont
augmenté et les cellules sécrétrices d' IL10 ont diminué dans les cultures stimulées par PHA , résultant en
une augmentation significative d’
IFNgamma

: ratio IL10 . Le cortisol, un inhibiteur connu de la production
de cytokines de type 1, a été réduit par la pratique du Qi Gong.


CONCLUSION

: Ces études préliminaires chez des sujets sains, bien que non nécessairement
représentatives d'une population en bonne santé randomisée, et ne comportant pas de groupe de contrôle
séparé, ont indiqué que les taux sanguins de cortisol, l’hormone liée au stress, peuvent être réduits par la
pratique du Qi Gong à court terme, et qu’il y a des changements concomitants au niveau du nombre de
cellules sécrétant des cytokines. Des études complémentaires sur l'effet du Qi Gong chez les patients
atteints de maladies cliniques connues pour être associées avec la prédominance de cytokine de type 2
sont nécessaires .

17/
E
LECTRODERMAL

MEASUREMENTS

FOR

MONITORING

THE

EFFECTS

OF

A

Q
IGONG

WORKSHOP


http://www.qigonginstitute.org/html/papers/Electrodermal_Effects_of_Qi.pdf


Kenneth M.
Sancier

PhD. Originally Published in: Journal of Alternative and Complementary
Medicine (2003)
Vol

9, No. 2



Abstract


Objectives
:
Electrodermal

measurements with a
Ryodoraku

instrument were used to monitor
the effects of a 2
-
day
qigong

workshop on the body energy of participants.


Methods:
Measurements were made of the relative electrical conductivity of 24 acupuncture
points on the wrists and feet of29 subjects. Each subject was measured in the morning and
afternoon of each day, and the subjects served as their own control.


Results
: the standard deviation of the mean values of the
Ryodoraku

responses of individuals
and of the group were less in the afternoons than in the mornings with p
-
values of 0.004 and
0.0001 for the first and second days, respectively. The decreases in the values of the standard
deviations indicate that the balance of the body energy of individuals and the group had
improved, presumably as a result of the workshop. We also found that all
Ryodoraku

responses
were significantly greater in the afternoons than in the mornings, a result that is attributed to a
circadian rhythm.


Conclusions
: The improved balance of
qi

energy in the body of the participants indicates that
qigong practice has the potential to improve health.
Electrodermal

measurements for
monitoring Eastern and Western therapies are discussed.


18/ T
HERAPEUTIC

B
ENEFITS

OF

Q
IGONG

E
XERCISES

IN

C
OMBINATION

WITH

D
RUGS


http://www.qigonginstitute.org/html/papers/Benefits%20of%20Qigong%20in%20Combination%
20with%20Drugs.pdf


Kenneth M.
Sancier

PhD. Originally Published in: Journal of Alternative and Complementary
Medicine (1999)
Vol

5, No. 4, pp. 383
-
389.




ABSTRACT


The present paper reviews (count number) clinical studies from the Qigong Bibliographic
Database, developed by the Qigong Institute, East West Academy of Healing Arts, a non
-
profit
organization. This on
-
line database was started in 1994 and holds approximately 1,000
references going back to 1986, covering medical applications, scientific and experimental studies
on Qigong from China, USA and Europe. Records in English have been compiled from
International Qigong conferences and seminars, scientific journals, magazines, dissertations,
Medline and other databases. The therapeutic role of qigong exercises combined with drugs is
reported for three medical conditions that require drug therapy for health maintenance:
hypertension, respiratory disease, and cancer. In these studies, drugs were administered to all
patients who were divided into two groups, a group that practiced qigong exercises and a control
group that did not.


Taken together, these studies suggest that practicing qigong exercises may favorably affect many
functions of the body, permit reduction of the dosage of drugs required for health maintenance,
and provide greater health benefits than use of drug therapy alone.

18/ T
HERAPEUTIC

B
ENEFITS

OF

Q
IGONG

E
XERCISES

IN

C
OMBINATION

WITH

D
RUGS

(
SUITE
)


The reported studies do not necessarily measure up to the strict protocols required for
randomized controlled clinical trials. For hypertensive patients, combining qigong practice with
drug therapy for hypertensive patients resulted in reduced incidence of stroke and mortality and
reduced dosage of drugs required for blood pressure maintenance. For asthma patients, the
combination therapy permitted reduction in drug dosage, the need for sick leave, duration of
hospitalization, and costs of therapy. For cancer patients, the combination therapy reduced the
side effects of cancer therapy. Also reported is a study showing that the practice of qigong helps
to rehabilitate drug addicts.



SUMMARY


There are many clinical studies on the medical benefits of qigong practices but too few are good
scientific studies. More scientific research is needed to validate the promising results already
reported. Research is required to separate benefits of therapy by qigong exercises alone, qigong
exercises with drugs, and drugs alone. Some clinical studies reported such comparisons, but the
protocols used or the reported results are not sufficiently well described to allow for evaluation
or replication.


Not all qigong practice is of equal value for all people or for all health problems. Future research
investigators should select the appropriate type of qigong practice, even for healthy people.
However, the benefits of qigong exercises are sufficiently well established to provide credibility
for physicians who wish to recommend qigong practice to selected patients or patient groups. In
China, there are many qigong clinics. To integrate the practice of qigong into Western healthcare,
it would be valuable to examine how China uses qigong practice, along with RCM and western
medicine in its system of healthcare.



19/ A
CASE

STUDY

OF

SIMULTANEOUS

RECOVERY

FROM

MULTIPLE

PHYSICAL

SYMPTOMS

WITH

MEDICAL

Q
IGONG

THERAPY


http://www.qigonginstitute.org/html/Chen/JACM_case1.pdf


Kevin Chen, Ph.D. MPH; Originally Published in Journal of Alternative and Complementary
Medicine (2004)
Vol

10, No. 1.



ABSTRACT


Background:
It is well known that
qigong
practice is beneficial to human health, but it is less
known, even in China, that
qigong
may also be an effective therapy to treat various diseases.
This report documents the story of a 58
-
year
-
old Caucasian male patient with a series of chronic
conditions, including high prostate
-
specific antigen (PSA) mark (but not a confirmed cancer),
atrial

septal

defect, asthma, allergies, multiple injuries by an automobile accident, high blood
pressure, and edema in legs. Can medical
qigong
help such a patient to cure multiple symptoms
simultaneously?


Method:
The intensive
qigong
workshop involved the training and practice of gathering
qi
,
magnifying
qi

energy and using it for self
-
healing with visualization and guided imaginary; plus
supervised energetic fasting.


The patient practiced
qigong
4
-
plus hours per day during intensive training, and approximately 1
to 2 hours daily thereafter. About 10 sessions of external
qi

healing were performed by a
qigong
master for his pain and systematic adjustment.


Settings/Location:
The intensive medical
qigong
workshop took place in the World Institute for
Self
-
Healing, Inc. (WISH) office at Middlesex, NJ; and the patient practiced
qigong
at home for
the rest of time.

19/ A
CASE

STUDY

OF

SIMULTANEOUS

RECOVERY

FROM

MULTIPLE

PHYSICAL

SYMPTOMS

WITH

MEDICAL

Q
IGONG

THERAPY

(
SUITE
)



Results:


After workshop and
qigong
therapy, the patient discontinued all medications (8 in total) and lost
35 pounds; his blood pressure dropped from 220/110 with medication to 120/75 without
medication (in 2 weeks); pulse rate dropped from 88 beats per minute resting to 68 beats per
minute in the mornings and 55
bpm

in the evening; the edema in his legs went away; symptoms
of asthma or allergies disappeared; PSA level dropped from 11 to 4 (normal), all without any
medications.



Conclusion:


This kind of simultaneous recovery from multiple “incurable” conditions and other documented
successes cannot be explained by any known medical theories, and call for formal clinical trials to
closely examine the
qigong
self
-
healing therapy.


20/ G
ENOMIC

PROFILING

OF

NEUTROPHIL

TRANSCRIPTS

IN

A
SIAN

Q
IGONG

PRACTITIONERS
:
A

PILOT

STUDY

IN

GENE

REGULATION

BY

MIND
-
BODY

INTERACTION
.


http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?Db=pubmed&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=15750361&
ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum


Li QZ, Li P,
et

al
.
J
Altern

Complement Med
. 2005 Feb;11(1):29
-
39.


Source:
Microarray Core, Center for Immunology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center,
Dallas, TX, USA.



Abstract


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:
The great similarity of the genomes of humans and other species
stimulated us to search for genes regulated by elements associated with human uniqueness, such as the
mind
-
body interaction. DNA microarray technology offers the advantage of analyzing thousands of
genes simultaneously, with the potential to determine healthy phenotypic changes in gene expression.
The aim of this study was to determine the genomic profile and function of
neutrophils

in
Falun

Gong
(FLG, an ancient Chinese Qigong) practitioners, with healthy subjects as controls.


SUBJECTS AND DESIGN:
Six (6) Asian FLG practitioners and 6 Asian normal healthy controls were
recruited for our study. The practitioners have practiced FLG for at least 1 year (range, 1
-
5 years). The
practice includes daily reading of FLG books and daily practice of exercises lasting 1
-
2 hours. Selected
normal healthy controls did not perform Qigong, yoga,
t'ai

chi, or any other type of mind
-
body practice,
and had not followed any conventional physical exercise program for at least 1 year.
Neutrophils

were
isolated from fresh blood and assayed for gene expression, using microarrays and
RNase

protection
assay (RPA), as well as for function (
phagocytosis
) and survival (apoptosis).


20/ G
ENOMIC

PROFILING

OF

NEUTROPHIL

TRANSCRIPTS

IN

A
SIAN

Q
IGONG

PRACTITIONERS

(
SUITE
)


RESULTS:
The changes in gene expression of FLG practitioners in contrast to normal healthy
controls were characterized by enhanced immunity,
downregulation

of cellular metabolism, and
alteration of apoptotic genes in favor of a rapid resolution of inflammation. The lifespan of
normal
neutrophils

was prolonged, while the inflammatory
neutrophils

displayed accelerated
cell death in FLG practitioners as determined by enzyme
-
linked
immunosorbent

assay.
Correlating with enhanced immunity reflected by microarray data,
neutrophil

phagocytosis

was
significantly increased in Qigong practitioners. Some of the altered genes observed by microarray
were confirmed by RPA.



CONCLUSION:


Qigong practice may regulate immunity, metabolic rate, and cell death, possibly at the
transcriptional level. Our pilot study provides the first evidence that Qigong practice may exert
transcriptional regulation at a genomic level. New approaches are needed to study how genes
are regulated by elements associated with human uniqueness, such as consciousness, cognition,
and spirituality.



20/
L
E

PROFILAGE

GÉNOMIQUE

DES

TRANSCRIPTIONS

DES

NEUTROPHILES

CHEZ

LES

PRATIQUANTS

DE

Q
I

G
ONG

ASIATIQUE

:
UNE

ÉTUDE

PILOTE

DANS

LA

RÉGULATION

DES

GÈNES

PAR

L
'
INTERACTION

CORPS
-
ESPRIT
.





Résumé


CONTEXTE ET OBJECTIFS
: La grande similitude entre les génomes de l'homme et des autres
espèces nous a encouragés à chercher des gènes régulés par des éléments liés à l'unicité de
l'homme, tels que l'interaction corps
-
esprit. La technologie des puces à ADN offre l'avantage
d'analyser des milliers de gènes simultanément, avec la possibilité de déterminer les
changements phénotypiques sains dans l'expression des gènes. Le but de cette étude était de
déterminer le profil génomique et la fonction des neutrophiles chez les pratiquants de Falun
Gong (FLG, un ancien Qi Gong chinois), avec des sujets sains comme témoins.


SUJETS ET PLAN
: Six (6) pratiquants asiatiques de FLG et 6 témoins sains asiatiques ont été
recrutés pour cette étude. Les sujets ont pratiqué le FLG pendant au moins une année
(intervalle, 1
-
5 ans). La pratique comprend la lecture quotidienne de livres de FLG et la pratique
quotidienne d'exercices d'une durée de 1
-
2 heures. Les témoins normaux sains sélectionnés
n'ont pas effectué de Qi Gong, yoga, tai
-
chi, ou aucun autre type de pratique corps
-
esprit, et
n’ont pas suivi de programme d'exercice physique conventionnel pendant au moins 1 an. Les
neutrophiles ont été isolés du sang frais et analysés pour l'expression des gènes, en utilisant des
puces et le «

RNase

protection
assay

» (RPA), ainsi que pour la fonction (phagocytose) et pour la
survie (
apoptose
).

20/
L
E

PROFILAGE

GÉNOMIQUE

DES

TRANSCRIPTIONS

DES

NEUTROPHILES

CHEZ

LES

PRATIQUANTS

DE

Q
I

G
ONG

ASIATIQUE

:
UNE

ÉTUDE

PILOTE

DANS

LA

RÉGULATION

DES

GÈNES

PAR

L
'
INTERACTION

CORPS
-
ESPRIT

(
SUITE
)





RÉSULTATS
: Les changements dans l'expression des gènes des pratiquants de FLG, contrairement
aux témoins normaux sains, ont été caractérisés par une immunité renforcée, une régulation du
métabolisme cellulaire, et une altération des gènes
apoptotiques

en faveur d'une résolution
rapide de l'inflammation. La durée de vie des neutrophiles normaux a été prolongée, alors que
les neutrophiles inflammatoires ont affiché une mort cellulaire accélérée chez les pratiquants de
FLG, comme déterminé par dosage
immuno
-
enzymatique. En corrélation avec l’immunité
renforcée reflétée par les données de
biopuces
, les neutrophiles phagocytoses ont
significativement augmenté chez les pratiquants de Qi Gong. Certains de ces gènes altérés
observés par
microarray

ont été confirmés par l'APR.



CONCLUSION

: La pratique du Qi Gong peut réguler l'immunité, le métabolisme et la mort des
cellules, peut
-
être au niveau
transcriptionnel
. Notre étude pilote fournit la première preuve que
la pratique du Qi Gong peut exercer une régulation de la transcription au niveau génomique. De
nouvelles approches sont nécessaires pour étudier la façon dont les gènes sont régulés par des
éléments liés à l'unicité de l'homme, comme la conscience, la connaissance et la spiritualité.

21/ E
FFECTS

OF

IN

VITRO

AND

IN

VIVO

Q
I
-
THERAPY

ON

NEUTROPHIL

SUPEROXIDE

GENERATION

IN

HEALTHY

MALE

SUBJECTS
.


http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?Db=PubMed&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=145
87884&ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RV
DocSum


Lee MS,
Jeong

SM,
et

al

Am J Chin Med
. 2003;31(4):623
-
8.


Source:
Center for Integrative Medicine, Institute of Medical Science,
Wonkwang

University,
Iksan

570
-
749, Republic of Korea.



Abstract


The present study investigated the effects of in vitro and in vivo Korean
ChunSoo

Qi
-
Energy
Healing on
neutrophil

superoxide generation.
Neutrophil

superoxide generation was measured
by a
chemiluminescence

assay. Superoxide generation was significantly increased in vitro by
emitted
Qi
-
therapy (QT) of 60
-
second duration and 150
-
second duration compared to control
(1.59
-
fold for 60 seconds, p < 0.05; 1.50
-
fold for 150 seconds, p < 0.05).
Neutrophil

superoxide
generation increased significantly immediately after 5 minutes of QT in vivo (1.42
-
fold, p < 0.05).
These results show that QT in vivo and in vitro has an acute stimulatory effect on
neutrophil

superoxide generation. This study provides direct scientific support that
Qi

as such may
positively affect human innate immunity


22/
Q
I
-
TRAINING

ENHANCES

RESPIRATORY

BURST

FUNCTION

AND

ADHESIVE

CAPACITY

OF

NEUTROPHILS

IN

YOUNG

ADULTS
:
A

PRELIMINARY

STUDY
.




http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?Db=pubmed&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=127
23764&ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RV
DocSum


Lee MS,
Jeong

SM,
et

alAm

J Chin Med
. 2003;31(1):141
-
8.


Source:
Center for Integrative Medicine, Institute of Medical Science,
Wonkwang

University
Iksan

570
-
749, Republic of Korea.



Abstract


The main objective of this study is to examine the effect of
Qi
-
training on the immune system,
especially
neutrophil

bactericidal function. Nine healthy male subjects were studied for the
effects of one bout of
ChunDoSunBup

(CDSB)
Qi
-
training on superoxide (O2
-

production and
adhesion capacity of
neutrophils

at times immediately after (Post I) and 2 hours after the
Qi
-
training (Post II). The
Qi
-
training enhanced O2
-

production, reaction velocity and
neutrophil

adhesion capacity and there were significant differences at Post I compared to before
Qi
-
training
(Pre). In addition, the number of white blood cells (WBC),
monocytes

and lymphocytes were
changed significantly through
Qi
-
training.Therefore
, it seems that CDSB
Qi
-
training may increase
the resistance of trained individuals against common infection and inflammation.


23/ E
FFECT

OF

Q
IGONG

TRAINING

ON

PROPORTIONS

OF

T
LYMPHOCYTE

SUBSETS

IN

HUMAN

PERIPHERAL

BLOOD
.


http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?Db=pubmed&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=759
8089&ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVD
ocSum


Ryu

H, Jun CD,
et

al
.
Am J Chin Med
. 1995;23(1):27
-
36.


Source:
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine,
Wonkwang

University, Republic of Korea.



Abstract


The effect of Qigong training on proportions of T lymphocyte subsets was investigated in human
peripheral blood. We observed that the ratio of CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocytes was increased as
much as 50% in a trainee group who practiced Qigong training more than 5 months compared to
a normal healthy group who did not practice. The absolute number of CD4+ T lymphocytes was
also elevated in trainee group with 100 cells/mm3 more than in normal healthy group. The
positive correlation between the ratio of CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocytes and the ratio of CD4+45RA
-
/CD4+CD45RA+ T lymphocytes was shown in the trainee group. In contrast, there was a negative
correlation between the ratio of CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocytes and the ratio of
CD8+CD57+/CD8+CD57
-

T lymphocytes in the trainee group. The data indicate that Qigong
training affects the profile of lymphocyte subsets in human peripheral blood, especially the
proportion of CD4+ T lymphocytes



24/ A
N

EVALUATION

OF

TWO

BEHAVIORAL

REHABILITATION

PROGRAMS
,
QIGONG

VERSUS

PROGRESSIVE

RELAXATION
,
IN

IMPROVING

THE

QUALITY

OF

LIFE

IN

CARDIAC

PATIENTS
.



http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16722787?dopt=Citation


Hui PN, Wan M,
et

al
.
J
Altern

Complement Med
. 2006;12(4):373
-
8.


Source:
Occupational Therapy Department, United Christian Hospital, Hospital Authority,
Kwun

Tong, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
peggyhui@mail.com



Abstract


OBJECTIVES:


The aim of the current study was to evaluate and compare two different behavioral
rehabilitation programs in improving the quality of life in cardiac patients in Hong Kong.


DESIGN AND SETTING:


The current study was carried out in the outpatient unit of Occupational Therapy Department in
the United Christian Hospital, Hong Kong. Convenience sampling with referral from the cardiac
specialty was used in the present study.


SUBJECTS:


A total of 65 subjects, with a mean age 65 (range, 42 to 76), were recruited in the study. The
cardiac diseases included myocardial infarct,
postcoronary

intervention, valve replacement, and
also ischemic heart disease.

24/ A
N

EVALUATION

OF

TWO

BEHAVIORAL

REHABILITATION

PROGRAMS
,
QIGONG

VERSUS

PROGRESSIVE

RELAXATION
,
IN

IMPROVING

THE

QUALITY

OF

LIFE

IN

CARDIAC

PATIENTS

(
SUITE
).



INTERVENTIONS:


Patients were alternately allocated to the two groups. The first group of patients received
instructions and practiced on progressive relaxation. The second group of patients underwent
training in qigong. A total of eight sessions were conducted and each session lasted 20 minutes.


OUTCOME MEASURES: