EBP ACT-FAP workshop - Association for Contextual Behavioral ...

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23 Φεβ 2014 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

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Toward

a

functional

contextualist

neuroscience


some

considerations


ACBS WC8 Reno
June

22nd 2010

Benjamin Schoendorff
MSc

benjamin.schoendorff@gmail.com




Aim of talk

Look at some cool studies

Propose a possible way forward for
neuroscience that could help better

integration with a

functional

contextualist

perspective

Hide my vast

ignorance of

the subject

Goal of a functional
contextualist

neuroscience

Prediction and influence of behavior

Precision, depth and scope

Give non
-
reductive accounts across levels
(psychological/neurobiological)

Criteria:


Consistency across levels


Clinical utility


Process
-
based

(Fletcher, Hayes, Schoendorff 2010)


Words of caution for
funkycons


Neuroscientists tend to look for :


The neural
basis

of

[social] cognition.


brain areas that are

responsible for [empathy]


representations [of others’ pain]



I like to think of the brain as a muscle


ACT processes




Acceptance


Defusion




Present moment







Self
-
as
-
context



Values


Committed action

Mid
-
level terms

Mapping onto clinically relevant processes

Contextually defined

Largely interacting

As yet no neuroscience studies of ACT
processes

But interesting studies nonetheless…

Mindfulness and neuroscience

Lots of studies…


But mindfulness topographically
(
meditation)rather

than functionally defined


No point
-
to
-
point mapping of the four ACT
mindfulness processes:




Acceptance


Defusion




Present moment







Self
-
as
-
context



Values


Committed


action

Attentional

effects


3 months meditation retreat

Attentional

blink paradigm

Brefczynski
-
Lewis et al 2007

E

G

G

Z

Z

A

N

3

Q

P

G

2

W

Q

E

G

G

Z

Z

A

N

3

Q

P

W

Q

Attention is plastic


More plasticity


Increased cortical thickness in Anterior
Insula

(Lazar 2005,
Hölzel

2008)


Activation of
insula


consistent across

studies
(
eg
:
Farb

et al.

2007)

Main findings


Meditation activates and
strengthens


Attentional

networks

and performance


Insula




Clinical relevance?

Meditation is good?


Is that for neuroscience to validate?


What brain activations/plastic changes
correlate with clinically relevant change?



Perhaps insular habituation

to
interoceptive

stimuli

reduces avoidance and anxiety?



Contrast with exposure therapy?

Meditation on the brain…

Are topographically different forms of
meditation functionally similar ?

Are topographically similar

forms of meditation

functionally different ?

What are the clinically

relevant brain activations ?



More clinical relevance

Empathy in context

Empathy (pain, disgust, taste, touch) Anterior
Cingulate
, Secondary
somatosensory

cortex,
Anterior
insula


(Hein & Singer. 2008)

Perspective
-
taking :

Medial prefrontal
cortex, Temporal
pole, Superior
temporal
sulcus
,
Temporal junction

Empathy and social cognition


affective state (excludes perspective
-
taking)


isomorphic to another person’s state
(excludes sympathy)


elicited by observation or imagination of
another’s affective state (excludes self
-
observation)


one knows that the other person is the source
of one’s own affective state (excludes
contagion)
(
deVignemont

& Singer 2005)

Empathy in context

Automatic or contextual response?

Empathy pathways activation modulated by :
sex of observer, attention, intensity of
painful stimulus, affective link between
observer and sufferer, rationale for pain
(de
Vignemont

& Singer 06)

or even whether
observer is vegetarian/omnivorous
(
Betti

et
al. 2009)

What of RFT
-
designed experiments…

Empathy in context

Omnivore Vegetarian Vegan

(
Fillippi

et al. 2010)

L
ikely

plastic

Values
-
sensitive

Empathy in context
-

synchrony


‘Empathic resonance’ in the shape of
γ
-
band coherence in SI and MI cortices
when observing painful stimulation of
another’s hand (
Betti

et al 2009)


So role of networks rather than areas…


Wider brain context (Lutz et al. 2008)

Compassion and admiration


The first values
-
driven
neuroscientific

study?
(
Immordino
-
Yang et al. 2009)



Compassion for social pain


Admiration for moral virtue



Empathy for physical pain


Admiration for physical skill


AV/CSP produced more activation in regions involved in
homeostatic regulation : ACC, AI, HT










AS/CPP produced more activation in regions related to
the musculoskeletal system : PI, LPC (inc SMG) SPL

A cool study for ACT

(
Immordino
-
Yang et al. 2009)

Role of TPJ and
mPFC


Central role in social cognition processes:
Intentionality,
ToM
,


Integration of non
-
simultaneous perceptions
(relational framing?)


(
Overwalle

2009)

(
Immordino
-
Yang et al. 2009)

Dn300
fronto
-
central


parieto

occipital






dN400
fronto
-
parietal for
equivalence


RFT and neuroscience

Work on equivalence classes

Reflexivity
vs

Equivalence (arbitrarily derived from previous
training)



Unrelated
equivalence

Unrelated
reflexivity

Early component matching effect on reflexivity, late
component equivalence matching effect P3



(Yoro et al. 2009)

Tentative conclusions

Functions of contextual neuroscience ?


Consistency across level


eg
: experiential avoidance and left
hemishphere

in avoiding unpleasant images
(Cochrane et al 2008)

Perhaps more interesting to look

from point of view of RFT

processes

Clinical utility ?