Status of Protocol - Caricom

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23 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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Understanding Biosafety

The concept of biosafety encompasses a range of
measures, policies and procedures for minimizing
potential risks that biotechnology may pose to
the environment and human health.


Establishing credible and effective safeguards for
GMOs is critical for maximizing the benefits of

biotechnology while minimizing its risks.

Unit Objectives

1.
Explain the scope and intention of the Cartagena
Protocol

2.
Distinguish between the categories of Living
Modified Organisms ( LMOs)

3.
Discuss the trans
-
boundary Movements of LMOs

4.
Illustrate the Advance informed agreement (AIA)
procedure

5.
Refer to the Biodiversity Clearing House

6.
Determine the role of Customs and border control
in implementing the CBD Protocol


Unit Outline

1.
Introduction

2.
Scope and Intention of Cartagena
Protocol

3.
Categories of LMOs

4.
Transboundary Movement of LMOs

5.
Advance Informed Agreement ( AIA)

6.
Role of Customs & Border Control

7.
Conclusion


Scope of the Cartagena Protocol

The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety is an
international treaty that seeks to protect biological
diversity from the risks posed by living modified
organisms (LMOs), also often referred to as
genetically modified organisms (GMOs), which are
a product of modern biotechnology.


The Protocol is a supplementary agreement to the
Convention on Biological Diversity.

Purpose of
the Biosafety Protocol


Contribute to ensuring
the
safe transfer, handling and use
of LMOs

resulting from
modern biotechnology that
may have
adverse
effects on
the conservation & sustainable
use of biological diversity
,
taking also into account
risks
to human health




* In accordance with the precautionary approach

* Focuses specifically on trans
-
boundary movements


On 29 January 2000, the Conference of the Parties to the
Convention on Biological Diversity adopted a
supplementary agreement to the Convention known as
the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety.


The Protocol entered into force on 11 September 2003,
ninety days after the deposit of the fiftieth instrument of
ratification.


Currently
163 parties to the Protocol


Status of Protocol

Status of Ratification in the Caribbean

Parties
to the
Protocol from the region
:

Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados,
Belize, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic,
Grenada, Guyana, Haiti, Saint Kitts and Nevis,
Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines,
Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago




Definition of LMO




A living modified organism
(LMO) is any living organism
that possesses a novel
combination of genetic material
obtained through the use of
modern biotechnology.










Also frequently referred to as genetically modified
organisms (GMOs)

Categories
of
LMOs

LMOs for intentional introduction
into the environment (e.g. seeds,
live fish)

LMOs intended for direct use as
food or feed, or for processing (e.g.
agricultural commodities


corn,
canola, cotton)

LMOs for contained use (e.g.
bacteria for laboratory scientific
experiment)



Categories of LMOs


These different categories of LMOs under
the Protocol have different requirements
for their handling, transport, packaging and
identification.



Article 18 of the Protocol (& related COP
-
MOP decisions) set out those
requirements.



Transboundary Movement Procedures

The Biosafety Protocol regulates the trans
-
boundary movement of living modified organisms
by establishing procedures for the export and
import of these organisms and maintaining an
information exchange mechanism known as the
Biosafety Clearing
-
House
.

Transboundary movements of LMOs intended for

intentional introduction into the environment of the Party

of import are subject to the advance informed agreement
(AIA) procedure, which applies before the first intentional
trans
-
boundary movement of the LMO in question.


Step 1


Notification by Exporter

Step 2


Acknowledgement of receipt of notification

by Importer

Step 3


Decision Making


Transboundary Movement of
LMOs

Transboundary movements of LMOs
-
FFP are
subject to the following two
-
step procedure:


Step 1:
Informing the Biosafety Clearing
-
House about the

final decision on domestic use.


Step 2
: Decision making by a potential importing Party.


A Party may take a decision on the import of an LMO
-
FFP
under its domestic regulatory framework.

Transboundary Movement of
LMOs
-
FFP

Precautionary Approach

The Protocol reflects a fundamental concept known as the
Precautionary Approach which means that a government
may decide not to permit a particular GMO to be imported
across its borders.


This is the case even if there is insufficient scientific evidence
about the GMO’s potential adverse effects.


Concerns could include the risk that imports of genetically
engineered foods may replace traditional crops, undermine
local cultures and traditions or reduce the value of
biodiversity to indigenous communities.

Precautionary Approach

Objective: Safe transfer, handling and use of LMOs


Handling, transport,
packaging,
identification:


-

Documentation for
shipments

-

Standards



Risk
Assessment



Risk
Management

-

Information
sharing

-

Awareness &
participation


Rules &
procedures


Decision making

Competent

National

Authorities

+
Advisors

Customs

+
Competent

National

Authorities

Society

(
public

+
private

entities
)

National / Regional Measures

The Ministry of Agriculture would be the government
agencies mainly concerned with the importation of animals,
plants and the products derived there from.


Some Caribbean States have not yet enacted legislation
specifically to deal with imports or exports of LMOs /GMOs
however they fall under the general requirements of the
Ministry of Agriculture.


Customs must receive either a Phyto
-
santitary certificate or
other permit before releasing such consignments



Case
Study

Biosafety
Issues for Belize

Read the document provided and discuss in
small groups with the aim of identifying some
of the challenges to be overcome in the
absence of specific legislation to deal with the
import of LMOs /GMOs in some member
states of CARICOM/ CARIFORUM

The Role of Customs Officials


In
implementing the Biosafety Protocol
customs
officials are required to:


Ensure LMO imports have prior
approval

(decisions)


Ensure LMO shipments are accompanied with
proper
documentation


Verify that contents of shipments match
accompanying documentation


Detect illegal LMO imports


Take appropriate measures




These information requirements can be
provided in different types of
documentation such as:



A commercial invoice;


A document required or utilized by existing
documentation systems; or


Other documentation as required by domestic
regulatory/administrative frameworks



The Role of Customs Officials


The Role of Customs Officials


When a shipment of LMOs arrives at a port of
entry, the role of customs is to:


1. Verify if shipment has proper import approvals & if
there are any conditions on its import


This information can be obtained from Competent
National Authority & BCH


2. Verify that documentation is complete


3. Ensure that contents of shipment correspond to
information in accompanying documentation


Follow national procedures on sampling &
detection



The Role of Customs Officials


When a shipment of LMOs arrives at a port
of entry, the role of customs is to (cont.):

4 a. Admit shipment to country if import of LMO
has been approved & documentation is complete

OR


4 b. Follow domestic rules and procedures for
refusing import if import of LMO has
not

been
approved and/or documentation is incomplete







The Role of Customs Officials


Other general responsibilities:


Regular communication with the
Competent National Authority
regarding LMOs arriving at the
ports of entry


Forwarding LMO import
documents to relevant national
authorities


Detecting and alerting relevant
authorities about possible illegal
imports and unintentional trans
-
boundary movements of LMOs



Summary


Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety recognizes the
potential of biotechnology if developed and
used with adequate safety measures



Protocol is intended to ensure safety of LMOs,
not to prohibit their trade



Customs officials have a central role to play in
implementation of the Protocol



Domestic

regulations

are
key



It is important to obtain relevant information
and keep abreast with new developments (see
information sources below)



Contacts for Further Information

Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity

413 Saint
-
Jacques Street, suite 800

Montreal, Quebec

Canada H2Y 1N9

Tel.: +1 (514) 288
-
2220

Fax: +1 (514) 288
-
6588

E
-
mail: secretariat@cbd.int

Protocol website:
www.cbd.int/biosafety

Biosafety Clearing
-
House:
bch.cbd.int

CNAs:

bch.cbd.int/contacts/authorities.shtml

NFPs:
bch.cbd.int/contacts/focalpoints.shtml



Unit Conclusion



Clarify any questions



Review Unit Objectives



Link to next Unit on Montreal

Protocol