Plant breeding and plant genetics: Biotechnology past, present and future

sidewalkhallΒιοτεχνολογία

23 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

71 εμφανίσεις

Plant breeding and plant genetics:

Biotechnology past, present and
future

Alan McHughen, DPhil.

Univ. of California

Riverside, Ca. 92521

USA


alanmc@citrus.ucr.edu

Plant breeding history


10,000 years of human agriculture


Selection


Introduction


Crossing, wide crosses


Spontaneous mutation


Induced mutation


Now, all plants are genetically modified

from their ancestral progenitors.

Environmental damage caused by:


Source




Example of problem


Prior regulatory scrutiny


Entire Genotypes

Naturally occurring invasions


Ordinary Successions



none


Unintentional introductions


Russian thistle in NA



none


? Intentional introduction;



Purple loosestrife; Eurasion milfoil


low/none


Intentional introductions,



Prickly Pear cactus in Australia


low

Unintended displacements


Johnsongrass in NA







Intentional introductions,

Intentional displacements



Soybean in NA



low






Single Genes


Intentional introductions,



Rht genes in wheat



low/moderate


intentional displacements:



Canola from rapeseed



moderate


GMOs




None recorded



high


Significant numbers


Number of field trials of GMOs




> 10,000



Number of countries conducting trials



23





Number of GM plant species tested




41



Number of hectares of GM crops, year 2002



> 50 M



Number of significant adverse safety incidents


0


Biotechnology’s four

concepts:

Number 1:


All organisms are made of cells and cell
products

Biotechnology’s four

concepts

Number 2:


All organisms are made of cells and cell products


Each cell in an organism contains the same
set of genes

Biotechnology’s four

concepts

Number 3:


All organisms are made of cells and cell products


Each cell in an organism contains the same set of genes


The genome contains all the genetic
information necessary to make an entire
organism

Biotechnology’s four

concepts

Number 4:


All organisms are made of cells and cell products


Each cell in an organism contains the same set of genes


The genome contains all the genetic information necessary to
make an entire organism


All organisms share the same


genetic language

Variety release requirements:

Conventional


Agronomic performance


Proximate analysis


Antinutritive factors

Variety release requirements:

Transgenic


Agronomic performance


Proximate analysis


Antinutritive factors


Plus:

Plus:









Molecular characterization of inserted DNA,


Southern and restriction analyses


PCR for several fragments,


Various enzyme assays (ALS, NOS, NPT
-
II)


Copy number of inserts


Size of each fragment,


Source of each fragment


Utility of each fragment


How fragments were recombined


How construct was delivered into flax


Biological activity of inserted DNA (genes)


Quantitative analyses of novel proteins (western
analyses)


Temporal activity of inserted genes


spatial activity of inserted genes


complete amino acid analysis


detailed amino acid analysis for valine, leucine and
isoleucine


Toxicity (feeding trials were not warranted)


Allergenicity (feeding trials were not warranted)


Biological analysis:



Pathogenicity to other organisms


dormancy,


outcrossing


potential for horizontal gene transfer


seed production


flowering time,


flower morphology


analysis of relatives


stability of inserted genes over seed generations


survivability in natural environment


survivability in agricultural environment in
presence of herbicide


survivability in agricultural environment in
absence of herbicide


Interaction with other organisms
-

alterations to
traditional relationships


Interactions with other organisms
-

novel species


Changes to persistence or invasiveness


Any selective advantage to the GMO


Any selective advantage to sexually compatible
species


Plan for containment and eradication in the event
of escape


US agencies regulating agricultural biotechnology


USDA
-

APHIS: environmental release



FDA: food safety



EPA: chemical (herbicide, insecticide) uses

Professional Scientific and/or Medical bodies
with an opinion on GM foods

Generally Positive



Generally Negative


Professional Scientific and/or Medical bodies
with an opinion on GM foods

Generally Positive


The U.S. National Research Council
(NRC)


U.S. National Academy of Sciences
(NAS)


The American Medical Association,
(AMA)


U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)


U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA)


U.S. Food and Drug Administration
(FDA)


American Society for Plant Biology
(ASPB)


Generally Negative

Professional Scientific and/or Medical bodies
with an opinion on GM foods

Generally Positive


World Health Organization (WHO)


Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)


Royal Society (London)


Brazil National Academy of Science,


Chinese National Academy of Science


Indian National Academy of Science


Mexican Academy of Science


Third World Academy of Sciences

Generally Negative

Professional Scientific and/or Medical bodies
with an opinion on GM foods

Generally Positive


The U.S. National Research Council (NRC)


U.S. National Academy of Sciences (NAS)


The American Medical Association, (AMA)


U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)


U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)


U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)


American Society for Plant Biology (ASPB)


World Health Organization (WHO)


Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)


Royal Society (London)


Brazil National Academy of Science,


Chinese National Academy of Science


Indian National Academy of Science


Mexican Academy of Science


Third World Academy of Sciences

Generally Negative

Professional Scientific and/or Medical bodies
with an opinion on GM foods

Generally Positive


The U.S. National Research Council (NRC)


U.S. National Academy of Sciences (NAS)


The American Medical Association, (AMA)


U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)


U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)


U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)


American Society for Plant Biology (ASPB)


World Health Organization (WHO)


Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)


Royal Society (London)


Brazil National Academy of Science,


Chinese National Academy of Science


Indian National Academy of Science


Mexican Academy of Science


Third World Academy of Sciences

Generally Negative

Documented benefits of biotech crops


Farmers


Increased yields


Decreased chemical costs


Cleaner fields


Less fuel used


Less tillage

Documented benefits of biotech crops


Consumers


Safer food (mycotoxins in maize)


Safer food (greater regulatory scrutiny)


Less pesticide


Environmental benefits

Documented benefits of biotech crops


Environment


Less pesticide burden


Safer pesticides


Improved soil from less tillage


Less fuel usage


Increased biodiversity

Product quality traits in GM plants under test:

Feed digestibility; Increased solids;

Higher amino acid content

Esthetic appeal; Improved shelf life;

Reduced caffeine coffee


Protein content; Oil profile; Fruit size; Fruit carbo profile


Toxin degradation; Phytate reduced; Heat stable; B
-
glucanase increased

Starch content; Increased stanol; Storage protein altered;

Lignin reduced; Glutenin added; Bruise resistance


Increased antioxidents; Amino acid enhanced

Plus:

Pharmaceuticals

antibodies vaccines enzymes nutriceuticals

Conclusion: prospects


Beneficiaries will continue to include farmers
and consumers


Benefits of products will be more obvious and
geared to consumers


Nutritional enhancements (Golden rice)


Safer foods (reduced allergens, toxins and other
natural antinutritional factors)


Safer foods (better storage and testing)