Does the Gender of School Personnel Influence Perceptions of Leadership on the Teacher Working
Mudiwa and Les Bolt
Leadership and Educational Studies,
Appalachian State University
whether the gender of school building leaders, teachers and other
building roles influences perceptions of leadership as measured by the Teacher Working Conditions (2008)
Survey in North Carolina Schools Public Schools. Using ANOVA techniques on data tha
for confounding variables through data mining and propensity score matching techniques, the study
revealed that the gender of the respondent did not have a significant difference on teacher perceptions of
leadership among schools in North
Carolina although the role of the respondent was significant across all
The interaction effects between gender and role of the respondents were significant on the
major dimensions of leadership (School Leadership and Educator Leadership).
Environmental surveys generally seek to solicit feedback about the levels of satisfaction on organizational
In North Carolina, Governor Easley enacted the Teacher Working Conditions (TWC) Survey
Initiative in 2001, makin
g North Carolina the first state in the nation to initiate a survey that asked educators about
what they needed to be successful in their jobs (Maddock, 2009). The TWC survey is an anon
ymous online tool that
by certified public educators in K
every two years
is key to influencing th
culture (Huang, 2001) through reinforcing
the vision, shared assumptions, espoused and shared core values,
Ferguson & Hann
original data set, the 2008 North Carolina Teacher Working Conditions Survey (N = 103,276), was
subjected to random data mining techniques that allowed for the protection of the assumption of equal variances
between gender groups while balancing the ce
izes (N = 38,647).
And the subsequent sample was re
using a propensity score stratification procedure to generate a sample where the probability of any impact of
confounding variables in the data set on gender was reduced to a coin flip (N = 7,287)
. The final sample was then
examined to verify that this data preparation regimen retained the relative characteristics of the original data set.
After this was verified, ANOVA procedures including plots of estimated marginal means were used to identify an
explore any significant main or interaction effects for gender or role of respondents may have had on the two
leadership dimensions, (School Leadership and Educator Leadership
Gender, Role and
Dependent Variable: School Leadership
Partial Eta Squared
Gender * Role
R Squared = .112 (Adjusted R Squared = .111)
INFLUENCE OF GENDER ON TEACHER PERCEPTIONS
On the School Leadership
gender did not indicate a significant effect (F = 3.31, p < .069) but
role (F = 382.89, p <
.000), and the interaction effect between gender and role (F = 4.18, p < .015) were significant.
An examination of the marginal means for the interaction effect indicated that females in Instructional and
Administrative roles had higher scores than males
but females had lower scores than males in the Other role.
Gender, Role and Gender/Role Interaction
Dependent Variable: Educator Leadership
Partial Eta Squared
Gender * Role
a. R Squared = .133 (Adjusted R Squared = .132)
On the Educator Leadership
dimension (Table 2)
, gender did not indicate a significant effect (F = .120, p < .729) but
role (F = 473.12, p < .000), and the interaction effect between gender and role (F = 3.03, p < .049) were significant.
An examination of the marginal means for the
interaction effect indicated that females in Instructional and
Administrative roles had higher scores than males but females had lower scores than males in the Other role.
summary item about school leadership gender (F = .536, p < .464) and the inte
raction effect between gender and role
(F = 1.79, p < .167) did not indicate significant effects but role (F = 94.60, p < .000), was significant. Since there
was a lack of interaction effect, marginal means were not examined.
Although the study did not yield a statistically significant result between gender and school leadership, the
principalship is a performance based job and the principal still influences the school working conditions regardless
The significant in
teraction between gender and role
on school leadership invites attention
to both practice
and theory regarding
of teachers and principals
in higher education
both teachers and
, modifying and/or consolidating
the goal of creating satisfying work
teachers and principals need to be equipped with functional literacies that promote the enculturation of leadership
practices that benefit schools.
Ferguson, M., & Hann
Developing teacher leaders: How teacher leadership enhances
. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Maddock, A. (2009). The North Carolina teacher working conditions: The intersection of poli
cy and practice.
ary 6, 2011 fr
, S. (2001). Teachers’ perceptions of high school environments.
Learning Environments Research