CONSTRUCTION

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CONSTRUCTION

Housing 1

6.02

Starting Out

Building standards are set by:

1)
State Agency

2)
Federal Agency

3)
Local Agency



The Foundation

The foundation is the underlying
base and support of a home.
It consists of the
footing

(a
continuous concrete base that
supports the foundation walls
below ground level. (p259)
Foundation walls are made
from poured concrete or
concrete block.


The foundation has to be
waterproofed. Waterproofing
material (black plastic) is
applied on the outer face of
the foundation.

There are three types of foundation constructions:

1)
Basement

2)
Crawl Space : 18”
-
24” between the foundation
and ground

3)
Slab

: poured concrete @ 4” thick. Usually
found in warmer climates, parts of the
plumbing and heating systems are often put in
place before the concrete is poured

The Frame

The Frame is the
skeleton of the
housing structure. It
supports the wall and
roof materials. If not
properly constructed,
the roof may sag or
collapse.

The Floor Frame

The first piece of floor
frame attached to the
foundation is the
sill
plate
. The floor frame
consists of
girders,
(major support
beams that support
the floor joists)
joists,
(floor joists are nailed
to header joists at
max. intervals of
20”.) and
sub
-
flooring: rough
flooring made from
plywood

The Wall Frame


The wall frame is built
on top of the floor
frame. It supports
the ceiling, upper
floors, and roof. The
frame consists of
vertical
studs
(vertical wall framing
members) placed
every 16
-
24” apart.
Can be wood, steel
or any other
manufactured
product

WALLS


Header
: small built up beams that carry the load
of the structure above the doors and windows


Studs are attached at the top & bottom to
horizontal members called
PLATES
.


Single sole plate
: supports the wall at bottom


Double top plate
: supports the ceiling joist and
roof

The Ceiling Frame

When beginning to frame the
roof the series of beams
that would be constructed
first is the
ceiling joists
(horizontal beams that act
as floor joists for second
and attic floors). On most
roofs the
rafters
(parallel
beams that support the
weight of the roof) hang
past the edge of the
exterior wall to provide the
overhang, which prevents
water from running down
the walls.


Ridge
: horizontal line at which 2 slopes of
the roof meet, usually the highest point of
the house


Roof truss/truss rafters
: group of
members forming a rigid triangular
framework for the roof, often assembled
at a factory delivered to site, & attached
directly to double top plate

Finishing the Exterior

Rough board called
sheathing
is applied to
the outside of the wall
framing and roof.
Sheathing is either
oriented strand board
(OSB board) or
plywood.

After
sheathing is up builders
usually wrap the home
with heavy waterproof
material. This creates a
protective envelope that
keeps out water and
moisture.

Finishing the Exterior Cont..

Brick, wood, stucco,
stone, and
siding

are
used to finish the
exterior of a house.
Wood
is commonly
used for siding
material but is ranked
as high maintenance.
Aluminum
siding is
better because is helps
lower heating/cooling
costs, is durable &
resists weather and
corrosion. Dents and
conducts electricity.

Vinyl siding

is brittle and can crack or break
under extreme weather conditions.
Requires little maintenance and is durable.


Fiberglass

looks like wood shingles and
comes in a variety of natural wood colors,
requires no painting


The Roof

The roof protects the home’s interior from
the weather.
Light colored roofs are
popular in hot climates because they keep
the home cool
. By reflecting sunlight,
lighter roof colors can
reduce heat
reduction

20
-
50%.

Roofing materials.

Shingles
-

are thin
pieces of material
laid in overlapping
rows that cover the
roof
. Asphalt shingles

are the most widely
used roofing material
because of their
fire
-
resistant qualities
and low cost.

Roofing materials


Slate/Tile
: used in areas of USA with hot sun
and little snow/rain. Made of heavy material and
requires proper roof design to support the extra
weight, expensive but will last the lifetime of the
home.


Metal
: Aluminum & tin
-
plated steel in sheet
form. Cooper may also be used on the entire
roof or as accent. Price will depend on quality.

The Chimney

A chimney has two parts:

1)
FLUE
-

vertical shaft through
which smoke and hot gases
are carried to open air.

2)
CAP
-

the top of the chimney


Flashing
(consists of strips of
sheet metal that is placed
around the chimney and other
roof openings to prevent
moisture from leaking through
the roof openings.

Insulation

The purpose of insulation is
to reduce the passage of
heat through the walls and
roof. The effectiveness of
insulation depends on its
R
value. The R value of
insulation is a measure of
the capacity to resist winter
heat loss and summer heat
gain. The higher the R
value the better the
insulation.


Forms of Insulation

The basic types include:

1)
Flexible
-

comes in
blanket form made of
fiber glass

2)
Loose fill


can be
poured, blown in, or
packed. The most
effective insulation for
floors.

3)
Foam
-

pumped through a
tube and expands after
application to fill in the
cracks and crevices.


Windows

Sash
-

frame work that
surrounds the glass

Muntins
-

the strips
that hold individual
small pieces of glass
within the sash.

Frame
-

surrounds and
holds the sashes.


*Refer to (p 271)

Wiring

Wiring should be
checked every 5 years

to reduce concern
about electrical fire.

Current building codes require that wall receptacles, or
outlets, include a ground wire/ground fault (an electrical

conductor that is connected to the earth).

The ground wire provides protection in case there is an
abnormal flow of electric current.
Ground fault circuit
interrupters (GFCI)
are receptacles that guard against
electrical shock.

A panel box

also called a service entrance or fuse box, is a
device that controls the distribution of the electricity to
the home wiring system.

Heating and Cooling Systems

HVAC
-

Heating, Ventilation, Air Condition

Air conditioners cool and circulate air and they also
remove excess moisture from the air.

There are 2 main types:

1)
Room A/C

-

enclosed in a cabinet that fits into
a window or wall.

2)
Central A/C
-

located outside the home, that
with the help of the furnace blower and ducts,
supplies cool air to reach the rooms.

Types of

Portable heating and cooling

1)
Fan

2)
Plug in heater


Heating and Cooling Systems Cont…

Heating Systems


Forced air system

-
air is warmed by a furnace, then
propelled by a blower through ducts to registers in
each room.

Provides the fastest method of raising
room temperature.


Radiant heat system
-

heating elements
-

either hot
water piping or electric wiring
-

are hidden in the floor,
ceiling, or baseboards. Heat radiates from elements.


Heat pump
-

uses an electric refrigeration unit to heat
and cool a living space. The refrigeration unit contains
a compressor, circulating fluid (refrigerant), and two
heat exchangers. It operates by removing heat form
air or water. In cold weather, heat is removed form
outside air and pumped into the house. In warm
weather heat is removed from the air inside the house
and is pumped outside.


.


Life on the Amazon




Resources


Housing Decisions
, pages 196
-
211


Housing and Interiors
, pages 215
-
239


www.lowes.com


www.homedepot.com


www.hometime.com


www.thisoldhouse.com


www.architecture.about.com


www.oldhouseweb.com



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