All About Bridges

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25 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

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All About Bridges

Bridge types, construction, and erection


Girder Bridge



A girder bridge is
the most common
and most basic
bridge. In modern
steel girder bridges,

Example: A log across a creek

World's Longest

Ponte Costa e Silva,
Brazil


Total Length

700m

Center Span

300m

the two most common girders are I
-
beam
girders and box
-
girders.

Arch Bridge

second oldest bridge
type and a classic
structure well suited to
the use of stone.


Arches use a curved
structure which
provides a high
resistance to bending
forces.

World's Longest

New River Gorge Bridge, U.S.A.


Total Length

924m

Truss Bridge

World's Longest

Pont de Quebec


Total Length

863m

Center Span

549m

Mostly all beams in
a truss bridge are
straight. Trusses
are comprised of
many small beams
that together can
support a large
amount of weight
and span great
distances.

can serve as a
distraction to drivers

Ca
bl
e


St
ay
ed


Bri
dg
es

A tower is erected on a continuous girder. From these
towers, cables stretch down diagonally (usually to both
sides) and support the girder.

extremely strong but very flexible

World's Longest

Tatara Bridge, Japan


Total Length

1,480m

Center Span

890m

Rigid frame bridges (Rahmen
bridges)

a rigid frame bridge is one in
which the piers and girder are
one solid structure

The cross sections of the beams in a
rigid frame bridge are usually I shaped
or box shaped

Suspension Bridges

World's Longest

Akashi Kaikyo Bridge, Japan


Total Length

3,911m

Center Span

1,991m

The girder or roadway is actually
hanging suspended from the main
cables. The majority of the weight
of the bridge and any vehicles on
it are suspended from the cables.
In turn the cables are held up only
by the towers, there is an
incredible amount of weight that
the towers must be able to
support.

Bridges in Literature

Braveheart

The Battle of Stirling
Bridge is depicted in the
1995 film
Braveheart

after
the novel. The director, Mel
Gibson, however, chose not
to depict the bridge at all in
an attempt to make it more
compelling cinematically.

Bridge in Movie

The golden gate bridge is an ironic structure.
An engineering masterpiece. A triumph of
human ingenuity and muscle over the
elements. More people choose to end their
lives at the Golden Gate Bridge than
anywhere else in the world. The sheer
number of deaths there is shocking but not
altogether surprising. If one wants to commit
suicide, there is an eerie logic in selecting a
means that is almost always fatal and a place
that is magically, mysteriously beautiful.

The Bridge is a visual and
visceral journey into one of
life’s greatest taboos.

Bridge Disasters


Location: Stirling, Scotland



Type: Beam


Cause: Overload by attackers during the Battle of
Stirling Bridge


Effect: The Battle of Stirling Bridge was a shattering
defeat for the English: it showed that under certain
circumstances, where the conditions were right,
infantry could be superior to cavalry.



Stirling
Bridge

Bridge Disasters


Location: Great Yarmouth,

United Kingdom


Type: Suspension Bridge


Cause: People crowded onto it to see a clown go
down the river in a barrel pulled by geese. The
weight of people shifted as the barrel passed
underneath, the suspension chains on the south side
snapped and the bridge deck tipped over.


Effect: Suspension chains snapped due to overload.

Yarmouth
Bridge

Bridge Disasters


Location: Ashtabula,

Ohio, United States


Type: Wrought iron truss bridge


Cause: Possible fatigue failure of cast iron
elements


Effect: One or perhaps two of the bridge designers
later committed suicide. The disaster helped focus
efforts to draw up standards for bridges including
adequate testing and inspection.

Ashtabula River

Railroad Disaster


Famous Bridge

Tower Bridge

135 feet high and 200 feet wide

one of
London's most
recognizable
symbols

Famous Bridge

Eitaibashi


(“Long Reign Bridge”)

sharply arched
wooden bridge

one of the most
famous bridges
in Tokyo

Famous Bridge

The Rialto

Bridge


the oldest bridge crossing the

Grand Canal in Venice.

The stone
Rialto
bridge
replaced a
previous
wooden
structure

There are 2 ramps which lead up to the
central portico and 2 ramps on either side

Bridges and Physics


Compression is a force that acts to compress or shorten the thing
it is acting on.


Tension is a force that acts to expand or lengthen the thing it is

acting on.












A simple, everyday example of compression and tension is a spring.
When we press down, or push the two ends of the spring together, we
compress it. The force of compression shortens the spring. When we
pull up, or pull apart the two ends, we create tension in the spring. The
force of tension lengthens the spring.







Stress: different types of materials can sustain different amounts
of stress


force put on the bridge when holding up an object


Strain: the force caused by stress.