ADAPTS Vietnam Handbook for Adaptation Measures - Both ENDS

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ADAPTS VIETNAM

Handbook of Adaptation Measures for Local Communities


As part of the ADAPTS project implemented in Vietnam from 2008
-
2011,
CSRD visited a large number of communities along the Huong River Basin in
Central Vietnam to assess their climate risk perceptions and to identify ways
in which they are already adapting to climate changes. This resulted in the
identification of various local, mostly low
-
cost adaptation measures that
have proven to be highly effective. Most of these simple measures have
been developed by the people themselves. This demonstrates that climate
change adaptation advisers must work collaboratively with local
communities to

build on local knowledge and local responses to changing
conditions in developing climate and adaptation strategies and policies.


This simple handbook is intended as a practical source of inspiration for
vulnerable communities and authorities in Vietnam, as well as in other
countries similarly impacted by climate change.




INTRODUCTION OF THE HANDBOOK



Adaptation Measures


CENTRE FOR SOCIAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT (CSRD)

2/33Nguyen Truong To, Hue City, Vietnam

csrd@vnn.vn, www.csrd.vn

STORM CONDITIONS

Picture 1. The house with additional frame

(Add:
Trần

Đình

Cho, hamlet 2,
Huong

Loc commune, Nam
Dong District,
Thua

Thien

Hue Province)


Additional frame to strengthen the roof

(
Xiên

Thượng
)


1. Function

The additional frame is designed to connect the beams and
the roof in order to create a solid block capable of
withstanding up to a force 10 gale.

This roof is capable of lasting for more than 20 years.


2. Technique

The additional frame is a wooden, rectangular frame. It
strengthens the house by connecting the walls with the roof.


3. Feasibility

Total cost of building this house is 60,000,000VND.

This model suits rural areas. It has been popular in the
past, and it is very suited to today’s changing weather
conditions.



SAFE HOUSE MODELS

STORM CONDITIONS

SAFE HOUSE MODELS

Tail beam


1. Function


This is the buffer bar between the concrete beam and the wooden
beams of the roof. It protects the wooden beam from rotting, and
thus increases the sustainability of the house.

2. Technique

Additional beams are made of wood to protect them from rotting.

At contact point, mortar is used to fasten the beams together.

3. Feasibility


This modification is cheap and easy to make.

This technique is good for tiled roofs.


Picture 2. Tail beam

(
Thuy

Bieu

commune, Hue City)

Tube
-
tile combined with water trough (downspout)

1. Function

The tube
-
tile is used to keep other tiles stable, and to prevent rain and
wind damage. The water trough is used to catch rain water.

The combination of tube
-
tile and water trough protects the roof from
rain water and strong winds. Storms cannot blow the roof off when the
roof is fixed flat.

2. Technique

The tube
-
tile is a commonly
-
used material in the building industry.

The tube
-
tile is used to cover the top of the house and the roof edge,
after the roof is completed.

The water trough is made from concrete. The bottom of the trough is
not absorbent. It is built underneath and encloses at the end of the roof.

3. Feasibility

The cost of tube
-
tile is not high.

Picture 3. Tube
-
tile combined with water trough

(Add:
Hoàng

Trung

Sơn
,
tổ

9,
Thủy

Biều
, Hue City)


STORM CONDITIONS

SAFE HOUSE MODELS

Multi
-
roofed house

1. Function

This model is designed to break up the wind as it
hits the roof. Thus the impact of the wind is less and
the roof can withstand storm conditions.

2. Technique

This kind of roof is made from wood and is divided
into many eaves. The frame of the house needs
many beams and uprights.

3. Feasibility

Cost of this roof is high but it is a good solution for
houses which are frequently affected by storms.


Picture 4. Multi
-
roofed house

Picture 5. Strengthen house model

How to strengthen the house to cope with storms

1. Function

The roof is tied to the beams so that the wind cannot blow it away.

2. Technique

Material: nylon wire or rope; tightening stakes.

Method: Tie wire or rope across the top of the roof, parallel with
the roof beams. Attach the two ends of each wire to the ground,
using the tightening stakes.

After the stormy season, remove the wires which might otherwise
cause the roof to rust by trapping wet leaves and rubbish.

3. Feasibility


This technique is very cheap and simple to implement.


FLOOD CONDITIONS

SAFE HOUSE MODELS

Picture 6. Half
-
completed floor

(Add:
Tôn

Thất

Dương

Đôn
,
Lương

Quán
,
Thủy

Biều
, Hue City)


Half
-
completed, upper floor


1. Function

This creates more space to store household belongings.

Some families use it for their ancestral altar.

In the flooding season, family members can occupy this space
and continue many of their indoor, daily activities.

In summer, this construction helps to keep the house cooler.

2. Technique

The half
-
completed floor is 2
-
2.5m high from the ground floor,
and is made from concrete.

To build this model, the house wall should be higher than usual.

3. Feasibility

The cost of this house model will suit households with a steady,
average income.


Girder (joist)

1. Function

To store and protect food in floods and the rainy season. It is
also possible for people to shelter up there.


2. Technique


Lay some planks across the collar beams in order to easily
create an attic space to be used when the house is flooded.


3. Feasibility

This
model is very simple
and easily set up
for all
households in inundated areas.

Picture 7.
Girder

(Add:
Quảng

Thái

commune
-

Quảng

Điền

district,
Thua

Thien

Hue
Province,
Vietnam)


FLOOD CONDITIONS

SAFE HOUSE MODELS

Raising the floor level of the house


1. Function

To avoid inundation in the flood season.

2. Technique

Raise the ground level higher than the average
flood level, by using sand or soil to raise the
foundations.

3. Feasibility

The cost of raising the ground floor level is
considerable but of great benefit to all households
living on low
-
lying land.


Picture 8. The floor level has been
raised

(Add:
Thủy

Biều

commune
-

Hue City)


House models to cope with HOT and COLD weather

Suspended ceiling

1. Function

The suspended ceiling may be helpful in lowering hot, summer
temperatures.

It also limits the possibility that a wind storm will blow the roof off.

2. Technique

Material: plastic or wooden or iron sheets; wooden beams and rafters.

Method: make a frame, using the beams and rafters, to fit on top of the
walls. Nail the sheets to this frame.

3. Feasibility

The cost for this ceiling is very reasonable and depends on the material:

iron sheet: 0.5USD/m2; plastic sheet: 0.3USD/m2. Wooden sheets: cost
depends on the kind of wood.


Picture 9. Suspended ceiling

(Add:
Hoàng

Trung

Sơn
, hamlet 9,
Thuy

Bieu

commune, Hue City)


HOT AND COLD WEATHER CONDITIONS

HOT AND COLD WEATHER CONDITIONS

Addition of a verandah to the house


1. Function

To drain water away from the house and to provide shade from the sun.

To create more space for daily activities.


2. Technique

Material: iron sheets, concrete or wooden uprights, beams and rafters.

Method: the uprights are fixed in the ground in a line in front of the house and connected to the front of the
house by beams. Collar beams and vertical beams are made into a frame onto which the iron sheets are
nailed or attached with steel wires.


3. Feasibility


A verandah is an inexpensive and popular addition in the rural area of
Thua

Thien

Hue Province.

Picture 10. Verandah

(Add:
Nguyễn

Văn

Thanh
, hamlet 16,
Vinh

Phu

commune,
Phu

Vang

district,
Thua

Thien

Hue province)


Picture 11. Verandah

(Add:
Trần

Quang

Thanh
, hamlet 3,
Huong

Loc commune,
Nam Dong district,
Thua

Thien

Hue Province


GRAVITY WATER SYSTEM

WATER USE MODELS


1. Function

To
utilise

water from streams in the highland areas for domestic and agricultural use.

2. Technique

This method includes four main steps:

a. Spillway: this is a small, concrete wall built in a stream to raise the water level.

b. Filter
-
bed: to screen the waste such as leaves, branches of trees and other heavy items in the water.

c. Water pipes: to bring water from spillway to households. They should be made from metal, plastic or rubber.

d. Taps: to distribute water to each branch of the water pipe system and thus to each household.

This system requires a good maintenance schedule to ensure that it continues to work well.

3. Feasibility

This method is very effective and useful for communities in highland areas who are not connected to a District water supply.

The communities themselves can build it and pay the costs.

If this system is carefully managed and responsibly maintained by the local people, it will work well.

Rain water use

Small containers

1. Function

To store rain
-
water
for domestic use.


2. Technique


Concrete containers
are easy to clean. A
simple cover should
be added.


3. Feasibility

This kind of tank is
easy for households
to use.

Picture 14. Contain water in small tanks

Medium tanks

1. Function

To store rain
-
water for domestic use.

2. Technique

Material: concrete.

Method: place this tank underneath the downspout of the house to
capture water from the roof.

Cover: the cover is made of iron or plastic. It prevents dust, rubbish
and insects from entering the water.

Capacity: each household can decide how much water they wish to
store.

3. Feasibility

This tank is useful for people in dry areas where there is no water
supply system.

It is simple to install, and cheap.



Picture 15. Water stored in medium tanks

RAIN WATER STORAGE

1. Function

To store rain
-
water for domestic use.

2. Technique

The system comprises a concrete tank and a
small tower which is made from 4 concrete

columns and a small tank with a lid. The tower
must be higher than the house in order to use
gravity to move the water to the taps below.

Pump and pipe: they move the water from the
tank on the ground to the tower.

3. Feasibility

This system requires a detailed design and
considerable investment. It is suitable for
average income households.


Self
-
contained water supply system

RAIN WATER STORAGE

Picture 17. Water tank

Picture 18. Water tower

Picture 16. Water tank on the roof

1. Function

To store rain
-
water for domestic use.

2. Technique

Material: concrete.

Method: install this concrete tank on a concrete roof.

Lid: the lid is made of iron or plastic to keep out dust, rubbish and
insects.

Capacity: tank size may be varied according to household needs.

3. Feasibility

This tank is useful for people in dry areas where water is limited and
where there is no water supply system.


This is a simple and cheap method.


FILTERING UNDERGROUND WATER

Separate filter tank


1. Function

To purify underground
water for domestic use by
using a multi
-
layer filter
tank.


2. Technique

This method has 4 parts:

a. Well or drilling well from
which to extract the
underground water.

b. Pump to raise water
from the well to the filter
tank.

c. Filter tank to clean the
underground water using 5
layers of gravel, sand and
active coal.

d. Container to store the
filtered water ready for
domestic use.

Water from
open well

Water is put
into active
coal filter tank

Water for
domestic
use

FILTERING UNDERGROUND WATER

Picture 19. Active coal filter tank (sinhquyen.com)

Picture 20. Combined filter and storage tank

In some households, they combine the storage
container and the water filter. This is smaller and
simpler to build than the system which has a separate
filter tank.

Filter tank combined with storage container

The structure of the active
coal filter tank.

TYPICAL GREEN FENCE MODEL

GREEN FENCES TO PROTECT HOUSES

Picture 21: House protection by planting trees around


Add:
Nguyễn

Phận
, hamlet 3,
Hải

Dương

commune,
Hương

Trà

district,
Thua

Thien

Hue Province


1. Function

To inhibit flood flow;

To shade the roads;

To break up winds and protect from

storm.

2. Technique

Local people plant three varieties
of plants to protect their houses:

-

Duong Lieu (
Casuarinaceae
)

This tree can be planted as a line
or many parallel lines in front of
the house. The distance between
the lines should be 2m. After 3
years, they may be 4m high.

-

Hop (
Bambuseae
) Local people
plant this tree to make fences
around their houses by raising its
branches.

-

Tra

(
Thespesia

populnea
) This
tree is planted along the riverbank
or lagoon bank to prevent erosion
and protect roads. The tree
branches may be raised to
increase its height.

3. Feasibility


These trees grow well in many kinds of soil.

For the lagoon communities which are very vulnerable to flood, storm and sea
level rising, this is an excellent model.


Earth canal to access water from sand dune

WATER FOR AGRICULTURE

Picture 22. Canal to access water from sand dune

This

approach

is

used

by

a

lagoon

commune

where

water

for

agricultural

use

completely

depends

on

rainfall
.

This

canal

supplies

water

for

a

one
-
crop

field

in

Hai

Duong

commune,

Huong

Tra

District,

Thua

Thien

Hue

Province,

Vietnam
.

EROSION PREVENTION MODELS ALONG COASTLINE

Picture 23. Concrete sea dyke

P
icture 24. Rock sea dyke

Picture 25. Forest after one year

Picture 26. Forest after seven years

English version revised September 2012


Editor



Lam Thi Thu Suu




Design and Presentation



Pham Thi Dieu My



Tran Ba Quoc




Contact


Centre for Social Research and Development (CSRD)



2/33 Nguyen Truong To, Hue City, Vietnam



Tel/fax. +84 54 3837714



Website.
www.csrd.vn




Email.
csrd@
vnn.vn