Wildlife and OffshOre drilling

shrillsmoggyΠετρελαϊκά και Εξόρυξη

8 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 5 μέρες)

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Coral reefs in the Gulf of MexiCo
Corals are distinctive for the symbiotic relationship between a
tiny animal and an even tinier alga. The coral itself is a primi-
tive animal related to jellyfish, consisting mostly of a stomach
topped with tentacles that they use to sting and eat floating
plankton. Inside its body, the coral harbors algae that help
nourish the creature. Corals usually live in large colonies, and
build hard skeletons of calcium carbonate around themselves
that can extend hundreds of miles long. These coral reefs offer
both food and shelter to other aquatic organisms, enabling the
reef ecosystem to pull itself up by its proverbial bootstraps and
create a marine oasis.
The Gulf of Mexico is a semienclosed sea with warm,
nutrient-rich waters. In the northern Gulf of Mexico, coral
reefs occur along the mid- to outer-edge of the continental
shelf off the Big Bend area of Florida, and especially at the
shelf break off Texas and Louisiana—an area that includes
One of nature’s most spectacular creations, coral reefs are also among the most
complex, diverse and economically valuable ecosystems in the world. They account
for only one-tenth of one percent of the world’s surface area, yet they harbor at least
5 percent of its known species and 25 percent of all marine species—leading some to
call them the rainforests of the sea. Sadly, coral reefs face myriad threats, including oil
spreading across the Gulf of Mexico from the BP Deepwater Horizon disaster.
Wildlife and OffshOre drilling
The 2010 Gulf of Mexico Disaster: Coral Reefs
the well-known Flower Gardens. Extensive areas of scattered
banks and individual coral heads also occur in very shallow
shelf regions around south and central Florida.
Flower Garden Banks of Texas
Beneath indigo blue waters approximately 100 miles southeast
of Galveston, Texas, lie the East and West Flower Garden
Banks—the northernmost coral reefs on the continental shelf
of North America. Consisting of two separate reefs 12 miles
apart, these submarine banks rise from depths of 328 feet and
crest in water 60 feet deep. They were designated as the Flower
Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary in 1992.
The Flower Gardens are topped by an assemblage of 28
species of reef-building corals and associated organisms.
Dominant species include boulder star coral, symmetrical
brain coral, mustard hill coral and the great star coral. A wide
array of other marine life—including rays, sharks, sea turtles
FloRiDa’s baRRieR ReeF CouRTesy Noaa; oil RiG © u.s. CoasT GuaRD
and marine mammals—also frequent the shallow, warm
waters here. More than 170 species of fish and approximately
300 species of reef invertebrates inhabit these banks. Colorful
corals and a diversity of marine life associated with them are
unique for this latitude, so far north from where most coral
reefs occur. The Flower Garden Banks are among the least
disturbed coral reefs anywhere in the Caribbean and western
Atlantic.
Within a radius of about three miles of this sanctuary,
there are currently 10 oil production platforms with
approximately 100 miles of pipeline. Within the boundary
of the East Flower Garden Banks, there is a gas production
platform.
Coral reefs of Florida
There are three main areas of coral reefs and banks in Florida:
the Florida Keys; the southeastern coast from northern
Monroe County to Palm Beach County; and the Florida
Middle Grounds in the eastern Gulf of Mexico, south of
Apalachicola and northwest of Tarpon Springs. In addition,
there are many coral habitats scattered along Florida’s west
coast shelf. New coral communities are still being discovered,
such as those documented along Pulley Ridge in 150-200
feet of water off Florida Bay.
Arching southwest almost 230 miles from south of Miami
to the Dry Tortugas, the reef tract of the Florida Keys is the
third-longest barrier reef in the world. Most of the reef tract
lies inside the 3,700 square miles of Florida Keys National
Marine Sanctuary. Dominant corals here include the great
star coral, massive starlet coral, fire corals, mustard hill coral,
finger coral and lettuce coral.
Coral reef ecosystems in Florida are extremely diverse,
supporting a total of more than 6,000 species—including
520 types of fish; 128 varieties of starfish, sea urchins, sand
dollars and sea cucumbers; 55 species of soft corals; and 63
species of stony corals. These are the nation’s only coral reefs
adjacent to the continent, and they also shelter one of the
largest sea grass communities in this hemisphere.
Reefs are important to the economy, with reef-related
tourism in the United States generating $17.5 billion each
year. In just a four-county area of south Florida, natural reefs
are estimated to be worth $7.6 billion. This capital value
generates $228 million in economic dividends each year,
including a reef-related catch of commercial fish ranging
from $22 million to $32 million, $35 million to $52 million
in local sales related to ecotourism and income of $22
million to $33 million to local residents; and reefs support as
many as 2,300 local jobs.
Endangered corals
Branching species like elkhorn and staghorn corals are now
highly imperiled. Elkhorn coral populations have declined at
least 90 percent since 1980. Threats to these corals include
disease, coral bleaching, predation, climate change, storm
damage and human activity from boating, pollution and
sedimentation. Both of these corals were listed as threatened
under the Endangered Species Act in 2006. Pillar coral is
listed as endangered by the state of Florida.
Among the creatures living in reefs in
the Gulf of Mexico is elkhorn coral,
which is listed as threatened under the
Endangered Species Act. Already beset
by climate change, disease, bleaching
and other problems, this rare coral is now
jeopardized by the oil spill from the BP
Deepwater Horizon disaster.
© CaRoliNe RoGeRs/NPs
iMpaCts of oil
Direct exposure from oil smothers corals, killing reefs.
Intertidal corals are the most vulnerable, since oil on the
surface of the water falls directly onto the reef at low tide.
Branching corals also are more susceptible to damage from oil
than are the larger plate-like corals. All corals are vulnerable,
however, because oil can mix with sediment or thin out from
sun exposure and then sink to the top of the reef. A 2-million
gallon oil spill on the Caribbean coast of Panama in 1986 led
to chronic oil exposure that reduced by up to 95 percent the
numbers of corals, total coral cover and species diversity for
years afterward.
Spilled oil must be prevented from reaching coral reefs.
Flexible booms can be used to isolate oil floating on the
surface, preventing it from spreading, while skimmers collect
it. This technique is effective, however, only if the oil is on the
water surface and only in fair weather. A particular concern
with the BP Deepwater Horizon spill is the unknown size and
trajectories of oil plumes beneath the ocean surface.
Indirect effects
Harm to corals from oil can be substantial. Coral tissue can
swell from oil exposure, lead to copious mucous production
and prompt a bacterial infection. Oiling can also impair
the reproduction of corals by harming adults, decreasing
the viability of larvae or polluting the reef flats upon which
the larvae settle to mature.
Researchers have found that oil dispersants are more toxic
to coral than the oil itself. In a study in the Red Sea, all Indo-
Pacific branching coral samples were killed by dispersants
applied in concentrations recommended by the manufactur-
ers. As a result, the use of oil dispersants is not recommended
anywhere near reefs.
Pollution associated with oil spills also makes coral
more susceptible to bleaching. Bleaching—the loss of
coral’s symbiotic algae—has occurred in reefs worldwide
because of warmer water temperatures, hazardous material
spills, boating accidents and other environmental stresses.
Bleaching can kill corals, and those that are able to survive
have impaired reproduction, slowed growth and reduced
healing capability.
Impacts of oil spills combined with climate change and
other threats
Mounting evidence suggests that climate change exacerbates
disease threats to corals. Other important effects from
climate change include more high-temperature anomalies,
changes in wind patterns, increases in extreme weather
events and ocean acidification. Corals have a fairly narrow
water-temperature tolerance. High temperatures stress coral
and lead to bleaching. High water temperatures also directly
benefit disease organisms like bacteria that attack corals.
Furthermore, higher temperatures allow these bacteria to
thrive in more acidic conditions, which overcome the coral’s
main defense mechanism, an outer protective coating.
Indeed, both factors may work to reinforce the damage,
with warm temperatures both stressing the coral and
exacerbating disease.
Coral reefs are known as the rainforests of
the sea because they support such a rich
diversity of life. Here a red night shrimp
perches on the reef in Flower Garden
Banks National Marine Sanctuary.
This unique reef is located about 100 miles
southeast of Galveston—perilously close
to the source of the Gulf oil spill.
CouRTesy G.P. sChMahl/FloweR GaRDeN baNks NaTioNal MaRiNe saNCTuaRy
DEFENDERS OF WILDLIFE
1130 17th Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20036
202.682.9400
www.defenders.org
What Citizens Can Do
• When boating and diving around coral reefs, keep
boats, anchors, anchor lines and diving equipment
away from vulnerable sites to eliminate the risk of
entangling and breaking corals.
• Select safe and biodegradable household cleaners,
lawn, and garden fertilizers, and reduce water use in
coastal areas near corals to limit water run-off that
can harm corals.
• Purchase only corals and live reef species that have
been certified as sustainably and humanely acquired,
whether from the wild or from mariculture busi-
nesses.
• Adopt sustainable recreational fishing practices that
don’t deplete unique reef fish communities.
• Urge your elected officials to pass comprehensive
climate change legislation that addresses the impacts
of global warming on wildlife and our natural
resources.
What poliCy Makers Can Do
• Ensure that BP funds long-term research necessary for
documenting impacts to coral reefs in all areas affected by
the spill, including mitigation for the long-term damage
caused to corals from nonlethal exposure.
Gittings, S. R., and E. L. Hickerson. 1998. Introduction to a Dedicated
Issue on the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary. Gulf of
Mexico Science 16(2):128.
Guzmán, H. M., J. B. C. Jackson, and E. Weil. 1991. Short-term ecological
consequences of a major oil spill on Panamanian subtidal reef corals. Coral
Reefs 10: 1-12.
Jackson, J. B. C., et al. 1989. Ecological effects of a major oil spill on
Panamanian coastal marine communities. Science 243: 37-44.
Johns, G. M., V. R. Leeworthy, F. W. Bell, and M. A. Bonn. 2001.
Socioeconomic study of reefs in southeast Florida. Report by Hazen and
Sawyer under contract to Broward County, Florida. 255 pp.
Loya, Y. and B. Rinkevich. 1980. Effects of oil pollution on coral reef
communities. Marine Ecology – Progress Series 3: 167-180.
Turgeon, D.D., R.G. Asch, B.D. Causey, R.E. Dodge, W. Jaap, K. Banks,
J. Delaney, B.D. Keller, R. Speiler, C.A. Matos, J.R. Garcia, E. Diaz,
D. Catanzaro, C.S. Rogers, Z. Hillis-Starr, R. Nemeth, M. Taylor, G.P.
Schmahl, M.W. Miller, D.A. Gulko, J.E. Maragos, A.M. Friedlander, C.L.
Hunter, R.S. Brainard, P. Craig, R.H. Richond, G. Davis, J. Starmer, M.
Trianni, P. Houk, C.E. Birkeland, A. Edward, Y. Golbuu, J. Gutierrez, N.
Idechong, G. Paulay, A. Tafileichig, and N. Vander Velde. 2002. The State
of Coral Reef Ecosystems of the United States and Pacific Freely Associated
States: 2002. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/National
Ocean Service/National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Silver Spring,
MD. 265 pp.
REFERENCES
For the latest information on the oil spill, visit www.defendersblog.org
• Support coastal management practices that mini-
mize the harmful effects of beach renourishment,
channel deepening and channel maintenance.
• Advocate shipping practices that eliminate hull
fouling and release of ballast water that introduces
harmful, non-native species to reef ecosystems.
• Impose greater safety and environmental standards
and develop comprehensive spill response plans on
existing offshore drilling operations.
• Prevent expanded drilling operations off the coast to
limit future spill risks.
• Enact comprehensive energy and climate change
policies to transition away from harmful oil and
fossil fuels.
Close-up of a sea fan, a soft
coral often found off the coast of
Florida. Not only does oil smother
and kill corals, it also makes them
more susceptible to disease,
bleaching and other problems. Oil
dispersants are even more toxic to
corals than the oil itself.
CouRTesy FGbNMs/NaTioNal uNDeRsea ReseaRCh CeNTeR aT The uNiveRsiTy oF NoRTh CaRoliNa wilMiNGToN