shrewdnessmodernΚινητά – Ασύρματες Τεχνολογίες

14 Δεκ 2013 (πριν από 7 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

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Poster Presentations

Inclusive Education

Positive Behavior Support



Diversity & Cultural Competency

Community Living


Inclusive Education


Participation of High School Students with Severe
Disabilities in Service

Michelle Bonati, Stacy Dymond

A qualitative case study of a high school service
learning program that involved students with
severe disabilities will be presented. The purpose of the study was to examine how students wit
severe disabilities participated in a service
learning project in the community at a local food pantry.
Data were collected through observations, document reviews, and interviews of the special
education teacher, paraprofessionals, and the community par
tner from the service
learning site.

Creating Inclusive High School Communities Through Service

Michelle Bonati, Stacy Dymond, Julie Pickens, Alicia Pence, Sarah Ballard, Rah Kyung Kim

learning is a promising practice for promoting in
clusive schools and communities. The
implementation of an inclusive service
learning project (SL) in three high schools will be described.
The goal of the SL project was to develop an inclusive art project called Ben’s Bells. High school
students with sev
ere disabilities, typically developing peers, and preservice teachers collaborated
to create ceramic wind chimes called Ben’s Bells to distribute throughout the community for
individuals to randomly find, take home, and be inspired to perform acts of kindn
ess. Often
students with severe disabilities are the recipients of SL projects. Through this SL project, students
with severe disabilities were able to provide a service to their community while learning skills
connected to the school curriculum and furthe
r developing an inclusive community.

A Strategy for Increasing the Problem
Solving Skills in Elementary
age Students with

Debra Cote

Students with disabilities benefit from problem
solving instruction that encourages autonomous
problem solving
and teaches additional skills (e.g., choice making, decision making) that can be
used throughout the course of their lives (Palmer & Wehmeyer, 2002). Another benefit is that
students understand their abilities to influence the outcomes of the problems base
d upon the
choices they make (Friend, 2011). As a result of this understanding, students develop into problem
solvers who are better prepared for learning in general education classrooms, school
situations, and inclusive communities (Agran & Alper, 20

Parental Perspectives on Approaches for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) : An Analysis of
Interviews with Parents in Canada

Seonghwi Bang, Byungun Jeon

Many approaches to deal with children with autism have been developed. Researchers reviewed

all of the approaches were effective in producing large developmental gains, less restrictive
school placements, and relatively large increases in measured IQ. However, what is missing in
much of the literature is the perspective of parents. How do the pa
rents of children with autism feel
about the approaches that their child has received? The purpose of this research is to look at
perspectives of parents of children with autism in Canada. This research will help to review what
kind of approaches have been

used for children with autism, how they have affected the children
and what can be suggested to make the approaches better. Three parents of children with autism
will be interviewed for this research. The research will also include a more in depth researc
hes on
parental perspectives about various approaches for autism in USA and South Korea.

Inclusive Secondary Education via Project
Based Learning

Kristen Uliasz



















fully inclusive,








more about





how it
















more traditional

secondary school




Increasing and Linking Early Literacy Skills Acquisition of Students with Autism from
School to Home

Neal Nguyen

As up
date, little is known on early literacy skills learning of students
with ASD as well as the
lack in effective parental involvement for students with ASD from school to home. According to
Ingersoll & Dvortcsak (2006), with the limited school
home connections as well as research and
participation of students with ASD in p
revious literacy studies, there seems to be an immediate
need for an effective and systematic reading program that based on the five strands of effective
reading instruction for students with ASD. One of the key components of this proposed
presentation or
project is the on
going communication of progress monitoring and reporting
between classroom teachers and parents that drive the weekly instructional planning and delivery.

Paraeducators in Self
Contained Special Education Settings

Amanda Bock

cators make up a significant percentage of the special education workforce, but research
about this essential group of personnel is scant. This study uses participant observation and
interviews to shed light on some of the issues faced by paraeducators and

teachers negotiating
paraeducator roles and responsibilities as they collaborate to educate students with severe

iPads and 21st Century Skill Development in Inclusive Elementary Classrooms

Teresa Hess

Collaborative learning strategies p
romote learning and achievement of all students. iPad
technology allows special education students to be integrated in grade level academics in a
meaningful and productive way. Students work together in diverse teams as they complete group
projects. Collab
oration enables students to develop key 21st Century skills including; leadership
roles, working respectfully and creatively with diverse teams, and valuing the unique contributions
of each member.

Consultation for the Inclusion of Students with a S
ignificant Disability in the General
Education Classroom

Litzy Ruiz

Inclusion of students with a significant disability in general education classrooms requires that both
general education teachers and education specialists shift their roles. In additio
n to serving as
educator, each party must also serve as consultant. The general education teacher assumes more
responsibility for the design, implementation and evaluation of the students’ educational program.
Additionally, the education specialist must pr
ovide consultation and support to the general
education teacher and para
educator as well as a variety of direct and indirect services to the
students. The purpose of this presentation is to provide strategies to some of the challenges
related to the inclu
sion of students with a significant disability in the general education classroom.
A model for consultation between the education specialist and the general education teacher will
be examined. The presentation will include some hands
on activities.


Does Research Tell Us About IEP Development? A Review of Literature Published
Since 1997 IDEA Reauthorization

William Blackwell

This presentation will discuss findings from an in
depth literature review of published, peer
reviewed journal articles in th
e field of special education that have examined IEP development
since the 1997 IDEA reauthorization. The presentation will describe the methods and procedures
used for the literature review, and will discuss the implications of the findings for the childr
en and


youth with severe disabilities, their parents, classroom practitioners, and researchers.

Open Books Open Doors: Early Literacy Practices for Young Children with Down Syndrome

Kathleen Whitbread

Research shows that the overwhelming majority of c
hildren with Down syndrome (Ds) can learn to
read yet these children routinely receive inadequate, sub
standard reading instruction.
Consequently, many adults with Ds lack even basic literacy skill, significantly limiting
independence and quality of life.
This project provided parents of young children with Ds the
knowledge and skills needed to ensure quality literacy instruction for their child.

Providing Special Education Knowledge through Social Media: What Can be improved?

Songtian Zeng, Barbara T

The purpose of this study is to understand how media preference influences the reception of
special education knowledge of Chinese 80’s mums who have children with disabilities. Quality
and quantity study were applied and data was collected throug
h 4 focus groups, 20 in
house visits,
and 300 surveyed. Results indicated that social media is considered the most promising
communication pathway. Based on the result, a survey focused on the current use and
suggestions of social media in obtaining specia
l education knowledge was conducted through
members of Friends of Children with Special Needs (FCSN). Insights and implications for
educators and policy makers are discussed.

How can we better support students who use speech
generating devices in inclu

Ching Chung, Erik Carter

We will present findings of an intervention study that focused on promoting peer interactions of
students with intellectual disabilities who used speech
generating devices (SGDs) in inclusive
classrooms. We w
ill share strategies that teachers and paraprofessionals can use to support the
participation of students with communication challenges. We will also discuss practical
implications and the need for future research in supporting team members working with st
who use SGDs.

LRE Revisited: Are There Really Different LREs for Different Students?

John Filler, Keith Hyatt, Conrad Oh

The presenters have just completed a review of over 13,000 descriptive reports and research
articles published ove
r the last 50 years to provide a comprehensive review of literature relative to
the evolution of definition(s) of “least restrictive environment” and b) to ascertain the extent to
which current definition(s) of LRE can be, and have been, used to justify pl
acement of students
with severe disabilities in restrictive educational settings. The results of this review are presented
with additional initial results from a series of meta
analytic summaries of effect sizes across
studies that have focused upon questi
ons regarding cost and effectiveness of various inclusive

Developing the Capacity of Librarians to Meet the Diverse Needs of All School Children

William Myhill, Ruth Small

School libraries are required to ensure children with disabilities h
ave equal opportunity to use and
benefit from library programs and services. Research indicates librarians often lack the training,
knowledge and skills to provide services that meet the needs of students with disabilities. Project
ENABLE responds to this
shortfall by designing, implementing and evaluating a professional
development program in New York State. Based on a social model of disability, the program
includes week
long workshops for teams of librarians, special educators and general educators,
lopment of action plans for creating more inclusive library programs and services,
collaboration capacity building among participant teams, a train
trainer model, and the creation


of free online learning modules. Project curriculum development, data co
llection and training
impacts are presented. Recommendations and resources for professional development, and the
next steps for the project are discussed.

Can alternate assessments change the world?

Debbie Taub, Donna Wickham, Anne Denham

AAS have
moved the field of low
incidence disabilities from a focus on functional curriculum to
an academic, general curriculum one but there is more potential for what these assessments can
do to provide a holistic and inclusive education. A part of this potential

lies in how states and
schools plan for and implement CCSS and the new AA
AAS being developed by two large
consortia. It is important that we are all aware of what ESEA has done for students with significant
cognitive disabilities and what alternate asses
sments CAN do for these students.Presenters
taught in the classroom as alternate assessments developed, and have personally experienced
the requirements and struggles of a changing field. We show that it is possible to provide
instruction and assessment b
ased upon the Principles of UDL that facilitate progress in the
curriculum. We also discuss the need to move beyond the special/general education divides and
think about education that includes everyone.

The Impact of Inclusive Education and Inclusive
Field Experiences on the Attitudes of Pre
Service Teachers Towards Inclusion

Karla Curry

Preparing pre
service teachers with the skills necessary to teach students with disabilities in the
general education classroom requires significant changes in how i
nitial teaching programs are
preparing teachers to meet the needs of all students in general education classrooms. In order for
positive attitudes towards disability and inclusion to be developed and shaped in initial teaching
programs, pre
service teacher
s need to be provided with the information, skills, and resources to
effectively teach students with disabilities in inclusive classrooms. The purpose of the research
study is to determine if university training and inclusive field experiences influence pr
teachers’ attitudes towards disability and inclusion. The data gathered in this study will provide
initial teaching programs with strategies to promote positive attitudes towards disability and
inclusion in pre
service teachers.

Evidence Base
d Practice for preventing stalking behavior by individuals with autism

Michal Post, Keith Storey, Correna Kelley

Individuals with autism may have trouble reading social cues and understanding the viewpint of
others. In addition, due to difficulty with T
heory of Mind, they may engage in inappropriate
romantic and/or sexual behavior (sometimes identified as intimacy seekers or incompetent suitors
in the stalking literature) and have charges of stalking brought against them. Though the
prevalence of stalki
ng behaviors among individuals with autism is not known, it could be
increasing as individuals with autism are increasingly served in inclusive school and work settings.
The purpose of this presentation is to provide an overview of stalking behavior in sch
ool and
community settings for individuals with autism. The co
presenters will provide possible
interventions strategies that research has found to be effective for supporting successful
participation in inclusive settings for individuals with autism.

Challenging Answers Left Unquestioned: Collaboration in Action for Successful Inclusion

Randy Seevers

This session presents the outcomes of a collaborative project where university candidates
established partnerships with local school districts to suppo
rt all children’s learning and well
in an inclusive environment. A fair
like event provided an opportunity to build collaborative
partnerships with local school districts and the parents, teachers and children they serve.
Examples of activities that
took place at the event are included.


A Multi
Component Autism Awareness Training for Typical Peers

Sarah Pelangka

The current study challenges the widespread belief that sharing child
specific information with
typical peers leads to stigmatization.
A multi
component peer awareness training succeeded in
positively changing both typical peer attitudes and behaviors toward a peer with autism. The
researcher conducted a 6
week training, whereby the peers met once a week, any where from 20
50 minutes. All

peers and the child with ASD were observed daily for 10 weeks, and initiations and
responses were scored. The data shows that for all peers, both initiation and responsivity rates
increased, as well as attitudes changed.

Collaborating with Students in
Instruction and Decision Making: The Untapped Resource

Richard Villa, Jacqueline Thousand

How can you meet the needs of a diverse student population in mixed
ability classrooms and
maintain a cooperative, caring, and active learning environment? Student
s are the perfect
resource! Learn how students can be co
teachers in instruction, advocates for themselves and
others, and decision
makers in all aspects of classroom and school governance.

Universal Design in Science: Impact on Students with Autism Spe
ctrum Disorder

Kevin Dorn

It is imperative to adapt educational programming to support all students. Little research has
focused on how to include students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in science and nature
education. Multi
sensory universal desi
gn for learning effectively supports students with ASD.
This study aims to qualitatively assess the affects of retooling a universally designed, multi
sensory science activity based on family satisfaction and student engagement that can be applied
to scho
ol settings.

Supporting parents in developing compliant IEPs

Kathleen Winterman, Clarissa Rosas

Use of an IEP by general educators to inform them on instruction planning has not been common
practice. Providing parents with the education and training
to expect this to be common practice is
the key to the IEP being implemented on a regualr basis. Parents involved in the development of
the IEP have a greater chance of integrating learning goals of individual student's into their daily
life. Explicit demo
nstration of how knowledge of specialized instruction can benefit the construction
of a general education classroom stands a better chance of survival. Building capacity of parents
around IEP goals can directly enhance instructional strategies that allow

all students to be
successful within the classroom.

Using Data to Drive Change and Support Sustainability in Inclusive School Reform

Meghan Cosier, Sara Beggs

Although literature on school reform indicates the importance of systematic data collectio
n in the
evaluation of reform efforts, schools and leadership teams may need additional guidance and
more examples from the field in order to collect and evaluate data in meaningful ways. This
presentation will cover the systematic data collection used to
assess outcomes of inclusive school
reform and how this data was used to support change and the sustainability of the inclusive
service delivery model at the school.

Special Education Teachers’ Beliefs about Inclusion in School Clubs

Alicia Pence, Stac
y Dymond

The wide range of school
sponsored activities offered in middle schools today leads to valuable
learning opportunities for all students. For students with disabilities, meaningful school
participation contributes to more well
rounded transition
experiences; as these youths are able to


explore their personal interests, gain important skills, and strengthen relationships with peers,
teachers, and school staff. A survey was designed to investigate special education teacher’s
beliefs about inclusion

and barriers to participation in school
organized clubs for students with
disabilities. Participants were public middle school and junior high special education teachers of
students with moderate to severe disabilities from one midsize southern state. R
implications will address strategies for special education teachers in overcoming these perceived

Teaching Comprehension Skills Using Age
Appropriate Literature

Stacey Heiligenthaler, Carrie Pavalella, Lisa Gavros

This presentati
on will discuss strategies to both create and adapt age appropriate literacy
materials for middle and high school students with significat disabilities. In addition, sytematic
comprehension strategies will be shared. Classroom teachers will shared their ex
periences in
using this practice in their classrooms in both improved student achievement and interactions with
general education peers.

Setting the Stage for Everyone to Learn: Universal Design for Learning, K

Whitney Rapp, Susan Hildenbrand, Katr
ina Arndt

Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is an important topic in the field of inclusive education. This
presentation discusses how UDL is not a special or general education initiative, but simply an
education initiative. UDL is a set of principles

for developing curriculum, classroom space, and
supports so all students' needs are met for equal opportunity to learn. The relationship between
UDL and full citizenship in the classroom is explored. Addressed are ways that UDL encompasses
assessment, se
advocacy, and transition to adulthood.

A Seat at the Table: A Framework for More Equitable Voices in the IEP Meeting

Susie Lund, Amy Petersen, Kathy Kottmeier

Based upon a research study that sought to understand educator, parent and student perce
of the Individualized Education Planning (IEP) meeting when a Penny Reed IEP framework (n.d.)
was implemented, this presentation expands on that framework to provide families, students, and
educators strategies for carrying out equitable IEP meeting
s. This research revealed a number of
strategies for carrying out IEP meetings where all team members could contribute in meaningful

Academic instruction for students with intellectual disabilities: Rethinking current practice

Mindy Roden

What d
o we know about how teachers deliver grade level curriculum to students with intellectual
disabilities? As part of a larger study, the presenter examined current classroom practices,
specifically looking at how instruction was delivered, the setting it was

delivered in, and who
delivered the instruction. Results indicate that students received high quality instruction linked to
grade level standards delivered, in most cases, by the special education teacher. However, all
instruction was delivered in a segre
gated special education classroom. Implications for policy
include the need for sustained professional development for teachers in order for them to have the
necessary information to question current practice.

The Future is Now: Postsecondary Education

for Students with Intellectual and
Developmental Disabilities

Donna Yerby, Deboral Zuver

Opportunities are expanding for students with intellectual and developmental disabilities to
continue their education past high school. Postsecondary education (pse
) for this population was
once unthinkable but major developments are underway in this aspect of education reform. The
presentation addresses the current status of pse and the importance of early planning and


preparation for pse readiness. It targets the i
mportance of relevant instructional practices and
transition considerations through middle and high school in order to support students and their
families to make pse a reality. Topics include components of effective pse programs including
evaluation of a

model demonstration program, best practices for educators to prepare students,
employment outcomes for students who participate in pse, and the barriers and considerations
inherent in changing attitudes and expanding opportunities. The format is multi
ia with open
forum for discussion.

Are the “right” students taking the alternate? What do we know?

Alan Sheinker, Patti Whetstone, Julia Shaftel

The demand that all students participate in an assessment system has been met, but educators
continue t
o question whether the correct students are taking the alternate. First Contact Survey is
designed to capture student data from service providers, which may influence the design of the
Alternate assessment. Participants will examine the survey, review the
validation process, and
discuss next steps toward large scale usage. Data from the 13 consortium states will be shared, if

Energize your Classroom with Positive Humor to Promote Inclusive Behaviors

Alicja Rieger, Ewa McGrail

This presentati
on demonstrates several ways teachers can use humor to facilitate positive and
inclusive learning environments for students with and without disabilities in their classrooms.
These ways include: creating opportunities for shared laughter, using comic strip
s and cartoons to
stop oppressive and offensive jokes and replacing them with non
oppressive and non
humor, and promoting “insider” disability humor.

Implemented Interventions for Students with Developmental Disabilities in Inclusive

Julia Hochman, Matthew Brock, Blair Lloyd, Erik Carter

mediated interventions have emerged as a promising strategy to promote access to the
general curriculum and increase social interactions for students with disabilities. An exhaustive

of the literature was conducted and over 80 research studies were analyzed with respect to
participant characteristics, settings, intervention components and primary results, contextual
variables, and observation procedures and measurement reliability. Ou
r poster will provide a
synthesis of these research efforts across the grade span and offer recommendations to shape
future research and guide practice.

Inclusion of High School Students with Moderate to Severe Disabilities in an AP Biology

ew Maizel, Carey Anderson

At Diamond Ranch High School we are including students with moderate to severe disabilities in
an AP Biology class using a co
teaching model. The scope and sequence of the course is that of
other AP Bio classes, but the curriculu
m is modified by the Ed Specialist to meet the functional
and academic needs of the students with disabilities in the classroom. In the time we have been
implementing this model we have seen students grow academically and socially, making a
wide imp

Changing Inclusive Practices Statewide: Lessons Learned

Sharon Leonard, Debbie Taub, Jeannine Brinkley, Deb Brown

Through its Membership, Participation and Learning project, Pennsylvania focuses on educating
students with complex support needs i
n general education classrooms. Recently, PA assembled
national experts with varying expertise such as accessible academics, systems change, and skills
necessary for post
secondary success. The panel’s findings and recommendations have important


lessons fo
r anyone working toward inclusion. This session will share an analysis of the results of
this panel discussion

Inclusive Education and the General Ed. Student

Vicki Root

Including students from a moderate to severe class has not only changed me and ho
w I view
people, but has changed my 6th grade general education students as well.

Breaking Down the Barriers: Helping General Education Teachers Provide Specialized

Bethany Smith, Leah Wood

General curriculum access includes three compone
nts: context, content, and learning. For many
students with severe disabilities, their parents, and teachers the component of context is of the
upmost importance. This presentation discusses the barriers special education teachers often face
in gaining the

support of the general education teacher to the extent they begin to provide
specialized instruction. This presentation will also describe three research
based interventions that
general education teachers have successfully implemented and outline key con
siderations for
special education teachers in gaining support from other teachers and administrators. Finally, the
presentation will include the perceptions and experiences of one general education teacher who
taught elementary level mathematics in an incl
usive classroom. Participants of this presentation
will be provided with resource materials to help support all teachers in the education of students
with severe disabilities.

A School Without a Speech Room: A Model for Inclusive Service Delivery

Steers, Adie Buchinsky

An SLP and special education teacher discuss a model of consultative/collaborative service
delivery as practiced at a fully inclusive charter school in Los Angeles, CA. Principles of evidence
based practice coupled with practical st
rategies for role
sharing and curricular modifications will be

Inclusive Service Delivery: It Starts with a Goal

Ali Steers, Adie Buchinsky, Dina Murphy

A model of collaborative IEP goal development is presented from the perspectives of a s
language pathologist, physical therapist, and special education teacher who work in a fully
inclusive K
8 setting. Practical strategies that reinforce principles of evidence
based practice will
be presented.

iStimulation: iPad Pilot Study and iP
ad Applications for children with visual impairments
and multiple disabilities

Laura Campana, J. Joseph Calica, Vilay Ortega, Jan McNeal, Diana Lopez Trujillo

The workshop will focus on discussing cumulative data collected on iPad use with children with
visual impairments and/or multiple disabilities. The cumulative data will focus on 60 children
participating in a 6 month study focusing on an iPad curriculum and skills gained. It will also
introduce multiple applications on the iPad iOS platform that hav
e been tested on children with
visual impairments and/or multiple disabilities. This workshop will delve into the multiple features
found on the device and some additional hardware that can go with it, including video presentation
on specific skills to use

with the most popular applications used during the pilot study.

We Matter: Equal Opportunity Diploma

Lori Suggs, Wesley Mullinax, Daphanie Dean

Our Founding Fathers of this Great Nation declared,"We hold these truths to be self
evident, that
all mena
re created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights,


that among these are Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness."Disappointingly so, this does not
hold true for all students with disabilities. SC and many other st
ates do not recognize the
achievements of these students. The current practice, upon high school completion, awards these
students with a certificate of attendance. We desire to establish an Equal Opportunity Diploma
based upon modified graduation requirem
ents. This would require SC/other states to recognize
their state alt assessment as an alternate to the exit exam, which would give these students an
opportunity to Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness. We desire for our children to be treated
ly and to have opportunities to flourish and be a viable part of society.

The Construction of Learning in Inclusive Classroom Settings by Children Labeled with
Autism and Children Who Are Not Classified

Keonhee Kim, Hyosin Lee, Sohyen Kim

This presen
tation shows that how educators at American and Korean sites view the ways in which
children labeled with autism and children not categorized as disabled construct their learning. The
purpose of this session is to explain how both of these groups of childr
en derive benefits from the
inclusive classroom. This study is based on cross
cultural qualitative research with experienced
educators. These findings will help in creating appropriate educational environments for all

General Middle School
Teachers’ Perception on Instructional Adaptation and Cooperative
Teaching for Access to the General Curriculum

Hyoung Jun Kim, Seung Chul Kwak

The purpose of this study is to investigate how the instructional adaptation and cooperative
teaching with spec
ial education teachers for their students with disabilities in the inclusive settings.
The study participants were general middle school teachers working at the 55 different middle
school located ChungNam state, South Korea. For this study, the survey was
developed and
distributed 55 general middle schools, total of 440 middle school teachers. To analyze the
collected questionnaires, Kruskal
Wallis one way ANOVA by rank based and Kai square were
used. In this study result and implication were discussed.

A Comparison of Preschool Service Delivery Models and Inclusive Placements in Five
Large Districts

Mary Sheppard

Although all school districts are required to comply with IDEA mandates, preschool service
delivery models vary by district. The data presen
ted will include descriptions of the service delivery
models of five large school districts. In addition, data on student populations and the percent of
students in inclusive classrooms will be presented, followed by a discussion of how each model
may infl
uence, positively or negatively, the number of inclusive options.

Planning for Assistive Technology Use in General Education Classrooms: A Systemic

Margaret Bausch, Melinda Ault

States are mandated to consider and document AT for students wit
h an IEP. To date, emphasis
has been placed on this consideration process. Unfortunately, providing quality AT services has
not received the same amount of attention. It is the responsibility of teachers to ensure that AT is
used in the classroom in order
to help students achieve their goals. Lack of training based on
needs and skills leads to the most common reason for abandonment of AT devices and learners
with special needs are directly impacted as they are denied the devices they need for FAPE. The
enters will outline a process that administrators and teachers employed in one district to
ensure that AT was implemented and evaluated. Participants will 1) describe the components an
AT implementation plan, 2) become aware of a district planning process
for AT implementation, 3)
understand the importance of documenting the effectiveness of AT.


“I hated high school.” Bullying and autism

Tiffany Rodriguez, Erica Howell

The social deficits associated with high functioning autism and Asperger syndrome pu
t this
population at
risk for bullying relationships. The bullying experiences of twenty young adults with
HFA/AS were examined using mixed
methodology and the findings indicated that bullying was a
significant problem for every participant in the school s

A Survey of General Curriculum Access for Students with Moderate to Severe Disabilities
who are English Language Learners

Joshua Baker, Christopher Rivera

A survey design was used to understand special educators’ needs and practices when acce
the general curriculum for students with moderate to severe disabilities who are English Language
Learners (ELL). The current survey was designed to extend the research of Mueller, Singer, and
Carranza (2006) in order to examine a larger population’s

opinions in regards to training, best
instructional practices, resource availability, and administrator support for these students.
Descriptive statistics and predictor variables will be discussed.

From Inclusive Consulting to Inclusive Communities: E
valuation of Effective Educational

Colin Saby

Evaluation findings of consulting services provided by an advocacy organization are shared. The
Alberta Association for Community Living (AACL) challenges schools to provide high quality
inclusion b
ut also simultaneously support their instructional capacity by offering ongoing resources
to teachers. Individualized support is provided to increase the academic and social participation of
students with developmental disabilities in the general classroom
. However, given AACL’s
advocacy efforts, consulting is introduced within the context of trained family
school relations.
Despite this fragility, many positive outcomes have been demonstrated, including increased
teacher capacity and greater family contrib
ution. A multiple methods case study assessed the
efficacy of the services. Success stories illustrate how to build inclusive school communities. Learn
best practices, including: an effective strength
based approach, curriculum modification
framework, and
strong collaborative approach.

School efforts in Collaboration

Tina Arora, Tania Hughes, Amanda Romero

This presentation will describe two collaborative action research projects conducted to analyze the
collaborative efforts of two low performing scho
ol sites.

A cautionary examination of response to intervention (RTI)

Andrew Granite

Response to Intervention has gained national popularity over the course of the last decade as a
delivery model of supports for all students. However, RTI fundamentally

is a disabling system in
which students with diverse abilities are marginalized and physically moved away from the general
education classroom and curriculum as they receive increasing levels of supports. This process of
segregation yields profoundly dif
ferent educational and social experiences for these students. It is
the author’s intent to make the case that RTI is incompatible with inclusive education and should
be rethought as a panacea for diverse student performance.

Sibling relationships: Perc
eptions of play from the voices of the child who has a sibling
identified with ASD

Amy Papacek

This study captured the voices of siblings of children with ASD to understand their perceptions and
responses to the notion of ASD and its impact on their sib
ling interactions. I wanted to gain a


deeper sense of how siblings and their parents describe sibling relationships. From both these
perspectives I gained a deeper appreciation of how children engage with their families and the
world around them in a purs
uit to make meaning, construct and shape their identity. These
perspectives included how siblings experience play and social interactions with their brothers, how
they interpret their roles in the family, what they understand about these roles, how these
roles are
produced and maintained, and what they know, don’t know and choose not to know about the
autism label. The siblings in this study view difference as a reality of life, not a focus. These
findings are relevant to families of children identified AS
D, educators, researchers and
professional service providers.

Training & Supporting Paraprofessionals in Inclusive Settings: Moving the Conversation

Dina Traniello

Resources available to train and support paraprofessionals who work with studen
ts with severe
disabilities are minimal. We will review lessons learned from the presenter’s work in providing
professional development and discuss results from a pilot study of paraprofessionals in
Massachusetts who work in public schools. We will focus o
n types of supports needed to best
prepare these personnel to gain and maintain the skills necessary to effectively work with our
students in inclusive settings.

The Critical Factors Which Facilitate the Inclusion of Young Children with Multiple and
evere Disabilities

Megan Foster

This poster session will review a current research study that is examining the critical factors which
facilitate the successful inclusion of children with multiple and severe disabilities into the regular
education classro
om. The research takes places in New York State which has historically been a
state with one of the highest percentage of segregation amongst its special education students. In
fact, despite increasing pressure to include children in the least restrictive
environment, New York
State has dramatically increased the number of students in both separate classrooms and
segregated facilitates since 2005 (Report to Congress, 2006). In this case study, a school that is
an “exemplarily” model of inclusion is research
ed at length and compared to a school of similar
demographics that is still segregating its students. The factors that make inclusion success
successful will be analyzed and discussed in this poster session.

Peer Power Uses Peer Mediated learning to pr
omote individual & school wide inclusion

Bonita Holman

Through video examples CBI describes the implementation of the 3 levels of Peer Power to
promote social inclusion interventions individually, classroom wide and school wide. Peer Power
addresses the exclusion, isolation and misunderstandings of students with disabilities. Outcomes
of the 3 levels; Individual Support Groups, Friendship Presentations and Diversity Days will be
presented. Successful implementation of Peer Power results in a

noticeably inclusive school

Collaboration promoting higher education for students transitioning from a local education
agency (K
12) to the University system in Juneau Alaska

Margie Thomson, Lynn Marvel

This interactive presentation will pre
sent case studies of an small isolated Alaskan community and
stories of the successes that a close collaboration between the local school district and the higher
educational institution can happen. The combined resources and seamless transition for studen
graduating from local K
12 education agencies result in student success and growth in an exciting,
university setting. We will cover some important skill categories that are important for student
success in post secondary settings; self
advocacy, commun
ication, social interactions and


problem solving.

Labels Are For Jars, Not For Children and Not For Classrooms

Ann Land, Darrell Mattingly, Karen Guettler, Alson Cole

TASH has long advocated for inclusive settings but in order to truly make that h
appen we need to
revisit our teacher preparation programs, classroom organization and staffing, and student
expectations. Standards and curriculum indicate that there are a set of skills that are needed by
all students to be college and career ready by th
e end of their school career. This session will
explore the idea of restructuring classrooms to enable successful inclusion and and systemic

A Comparison of Embedded Total Task Instruction in Teaching Behavioral Chains to
Massed One
One Inst
ruction for Students with Intellectual Disabilities: Accessing
General Education Settings and Core Academic Content

J. Matt Jameson

This presentation reports the findings of a study that compares embedded instruction of behavioral
chains with more tradit
ional (one
one massed trials in special education setting) instructional
procedures for teaching behavioral chains to students with significant cognitive disabilities. While
embedded instruction has emerged as a promising potential instructional procedu
re, no literature
has examined the efficacy of embedded instructional procedures to teach more complex chained
behaviors. To date all research on embedding instruction in general education settings has
focused on teaching discrete skills (Jameson,McDonnell

& Johnson, 2007). This study compares
instruction of embedded total task chains with more traditional (one
one massed trials in
special education setting)instructional procedures for teaching behavioral chains. The chains
targeted for instruction were
selected by state core educational needs and functional skill

Development and Use of Curricular Adaptations for Students Receiving Special Education

Jennifer Kurth, Lissa Keegan

one educators submitted adaptations created

for students in inclusive settings. These
adaptations were reviewed for type, quality, and “fit” with the general education curriculum. The
adaptations were found to vary by geographic area, experience level of the educator, and type of
educator (genera
l or special education teacher and paraeducator). Implications and
recommendations will be discussed.

Embedding Incidental Information when Teaching Grade Level Academics

Amy Spriggs, Victoria Knight

This presentation will summarize the results of tw
o studies where students were taught core
content facts with embedded related and non
related incidental information. In the initial study,
Kindergarten students were taught basic math facts related to Kindergarten standards. In the
second study, elementa
ry and high school students were taught facts from core content standards
that were assessed via alternate assessment tests. Increasing academic grade level skills can
increase effective inclusion in core content classes, where more than just socialization

can be

SWAT: Special Ways And Tactics for Effective and Meaningful Inclusion

or Extensions of
Good Teaching Practice?

Stephen Shore

This presentation examines the development and use of educational accommodations as
extensions of good tea
ching practice. For example, a student with special needs in a regular
education choral class who is unable to stand still and sing can be afforded another way of


meaningful participation in the choir performance. Attendees will come away with easy to
ement, practical solutions for including children with autism and other special needs at all
levels into the regular education experience.

Writing Measurable IEP Goals

Andrea O'Brien, Sherry Mulholland

This breakout is designed for anyone in your scho
ol/district who writes IEP goals, such as: special
education teachers and related service providers (such as counselors, speech therapists,
occupational therapists, physical therapists, etc.), as well as family members who want to more
fully understand the
ir child’s IEP. This Participants will learn how to: • Write specific and compliant
PLAAFPs • Understand and create baseline data • Write specific, measurable, and compliant
annual goals • Align goals to Common Core and state Standards • Understand and
create Target
Levels of Mastery • Understand and determine appropriate Measurement Tools


Let's get started!

Andrea O'Brien, Sherry Mulholland

This presentation will introduce participants to the basics of co
teaching. By pairing educat
ors with
differing areas of expertise (the general educator typically identified as the content specialist and
the special educator as the expert in modifications, accommodations, and behavior management),
teachers are able to better collaborate and differ
entiate (Dieker, 2001). This results in improved
inclusive practices and learning for all learners. Functional approaches to planning, instructing,
and assessing as co

teachers are discussed. Long
term and short
term co teaching
arrangements and the b
enefits and scheduling challenges of both are investigated. Different
models of co
teaching are also discussed such as complementary/lead teaching, station teaching,
etc. Finally participants will be taken through a process of developing a reflective fra
mework for
evaluating the effectiveness of their co
teaching arrangement for both the students and the

Role playing with a parent to promote collaboration skills among future special educators

Joanne Eichinger, Bethany Hamilton
Jones, Adam


This presentation will share the use of role playing with a parent of a student with Down Syndrome
to promote collaboration skills among pre
service special educators. Students are asked to review
the student's IEP and come prepared to assume the
role of the special educator to discuss the
student's (new to this school) daily instructional program. Students are evaluated by the professor
and parent on their communication skills, and on their knowledge of appropriate instructional

ilitating Participation in Person
Centered Planning: Results from a Postsecondary
Program for Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

Valerie Mazzotti, Kelly Kelley

Little research has been conducted in postsecondary education programs for individuals

intellectual disabilities and person centered planning. This presentation will (a) provide an
overview of how person
centered planning is conducted at the college level to promote inclusive
education, employment, and independent living for college st
udents with intellectual disabilities
and (b) discuss results from a study which investigated the use of the Self
Directed Summary of
Performance to promote participation in person
centered planning meetings for these students.

Postsecondary Programs: L
essons Learned from Students, Families, Employers, and

Kelly Kelley, David Westling

The University Participant (UP) program is a model program designed to provide a two
year, on
campus living and experiences for individuals with intellectual disa
bilities. The program concludes


with a transition into community living and employment. Key members of the program (i.e.,
families, college faculty, natural supports, employers, university participants) will share highlights
and lessons learned through vid
eo interviews or in person relating to their involvement in the

Collaboration for Inclusion: Improving Skill Acquisition through Coaching, Mentoring,

AmySue Reilly, Dennis Campbell

We will demonstrate the components of an innovative

early intervention training program that
collaborates with several partners, family members, child, providers, teachers, early
interventionist, and preservice teachers. Eleven preserve teachers and twelve community based
providers participated in this inc
lusion collaboration project. Training was provided to both groups,
followed by demonstration and modeling of targeted best practices skills in each room.

The Effects of Professional Development on Attitudes and Perceptions toward Person
centered Planni
ng (PCP) of Secondary Special Educators

Hyunjoo Lee

Centered Planning (PCP) contributes to the seamless transition by focusing on students’
strengths and needs as well as empowering their family members. This study investigated the
perceptions of
120 secondary special educators in order to examine the effects of professional
development they experienced on their attitudes and perceptions toward implementing Person
Centered Planning (PCP). The Secondary Special Educators Person
Centered Planning Sur
(SSEPCP) was developed to collect data on teachers demographic information as well as
knowledge and attitudes toward person
centered planning. Implications for promoting transition
content on person
centered planning in professional development program
s are discussed.

Disability categories under IDEA: Do they promote segregated classes and programs?

Amy Hanreddy

Disability labels have generated controversy for generations, but have played a critical role in
educational programming, as well as in th
e lives of people with disabilities and their families, since
their role became central to the criteria for eligibility for special education under PL94
142 (later
IDEA). Over the past 36 years, practices have evolved that rely heavily on the validity of
eligibility labels, and the assumed inherent differences between them. This presentation will
outline problems with the current disability categories under IDEA in general, how they promote
“specialized” thinking and placements, and how we might advo
cate for change.

Educational Quality of Life for Students with Severe Disabilities and Severe Health

Mary Pearson, Janet Filer, Patricia Kohler

Children and their parents encounter difficulties in obtaining a positive quality of life
because of the
effects of their health impairments (Jaff, n.d.). This may be true with childhood development
(Tennant, Hiller, Fishwick, Platt, Joseph, Weich, Parkinson, Secker, & Stewart
Brown, 2007)
especially related to education. Although negative issu
es related to quality of life for are known
about (Suldo, Shaffer, & Riley, 2008), few studies have looked at specific groups of children and
their families dealing with severe disabilities and health problems. This presentation discusses the
results of a
quantitative study of the educational quality of life for students who have severe
disabilities and severe health problems. The presentation will discuss descriptive results,
emphasizing how these results may be used to improve the educational quality of l
ife for students
and families, and assist in training education and medical personnel in ways to improve
educational outcomes.

The Schoolwide Applications Model: A Research
based Integrated Model for
Implementation of Response to Intervention


Melinda M
itchiner, Holly Morsbach

Research has repeatedly shown that schools in stressed
out neighborhoods and communities can
overcome poverty and other obstacles and produce students who achieve at the highest levels. In
the SAM process, schools become d
based learning organizations that proactively address
social development and citizenship. At SAM schools, all resources are configured to benefit all
students and all instruction is guided by regular education. SAM schools are open to families and
community and enjoy district support during the extensive systems
change activities required
to implement SAM.In this presentation, the critical features of SAM will be explained, and research
from district's implementing SAM will be shared.

Training N
eeds of Paraprofessionals in Inclusive Settings: Why are We Not Supporting Our
Support Providers?

Kira Austin

As inclusive practices are increasing, paraprofessionals are a vital part of the support services for
students with disabilities. Paraprofession
als are consistently held with low regard by the
educational community and receive little training and support. Research literature shows that
training paraprofessionals increases student success, and yet education systems are not providing
professional de
velopment for this large portion of their staff. For paraprofessionals to truly be
effective members of the special education team and help students reach their potential, there is a
need to understand the barriers to receiving training in order to effect
change. Research
describing these barriers from the perspectives of multiple stakeholders will be discussed. This
session will provide practical tips for training paraprofessionals, as well as suggestions for change
within the educational system that can h
ave a large positive impact on our students.

Partnering to Address Unanswered Questions

Karen McCaleb, Mary Fernandez

he world of special education can be challenging to navigate! Although special educators may be
able to assist families in the logist
ics of school services, they may not understand the emotional
issues that are directly impacted by school. School counselors have this expertise and can assist
educators in working supportively with families. This presentation challenges the traditional sc
of professional partnerships to include a more therapeutic approach.

Peer Tutors Teaching Core Content via Systematic Instruction

Amy Spriggs, Victoria Knight

This presentation will summarize results of a study where peer tutors in high school tau
students with disabilities grade level core content using systematic instructional procedures.
Having peers provide instruction on grade level content, both students with and without disabilities
can learn the information targeted. Providing opportunit
ies for interactions between peers with and
without disabilities is important because it can facilitate friendships that extend beyond the school

Including Students with ASD and MSD in Grade Aligned Content Via Suppoted eText

Victoria Knight
, Amy Spriggs

This presentation will provide results of a series of studies examining supported eText and explicit
instruction to deliver core content to students with ASD and MSD in secondary settings. During the
session, participants will receive inform
ation on how
to use the UDL Book Builder™ program to
facilitate academic inclusion in content areas. The Book Builder™ program is a free, teacher
friendly tool allowing teachers and students to digitally author books and include embedded
supports for learning. Particip
ants will learn how Book Builder™ can be used in the classroom to
supplement instruction as a pre
teaching tool, a strategy to augment existing academic instruction,
or to remediate instruction for students who need additional support in comprehending acad


Effects of Direct Instruction on Preposition Acquisition by Students with an Intellectual

S. Christy Hicks

Students with a moderate intellectual disability commonly struggle with significant language delays
or impairments an
d often require explicit instruction of language skills. In this session, participants
will learn about a short Direct Instruction strategy that is effective in teaching students with a
moderate intellectual disability to use and respond to prepositions. M
ethods and results of two
studies will be discussed along with implications for practice and needs for future research.

Perceived Factors Leading to Postsecondary School Outcomes for Students with Multiple

Marie Orlando, Diane Ryndak
, Debra Duran, Deborah Reed, Andrea Ruppar

In this qualitative study, researchers conducted interviews with students with disabilities who use
AT and their caregivers to elicit information about their primary and secondary educational
experiences, the ste
ps they took to acquire the educational supports they needed, and the
decisions they made that led to the student’s eventual enrollment in postsecondary education
programs. The perceived factors that led to these postsecondary outcomes will be shared durin
the presentation.

based Transformational Experiences: Working to change a Middle School

Deborah Reed

Students with severe disabilties often receive their educational experiences in “portables”, away
from the general student popula
tion. One middle school culture and practices were limiting
students’ abilities by placing very low expectations upon them. An intentional partnership was
developed between a middle school and the University of North Florida teacher preparation
program to
address a large population of students with moderate to severe disabilities in a self
contained middle school context. The first year of the partnership will be explored with a
discussion on the initial steps taken toward changing the school culture on inc
lusion and what is in
store for the future.

Based Mathematics for Students with Disabilities

Christine Macfarlane

Identifying appropriate mathematics curriculum for students with moderate and severe disabilities
aligned with core content st
andards is important for delivering quality instruction to students. The
results of a research study conducted in a small school district will be discussed, including the
potential for generalization from one level to the next.

The Effectiveness of Dir
ect Social Skills Instruction to Students with Severe Disabilities

Sungho Park, Sookyung Shin

Social skills instruction is one of the most important parts of a well rounded special education
curriculum. Also, it is critical that high school students with

severe disabilities develop social skills
so that they could make a more smooth transition from school to real world. In this study, the
effectiveness of direct social skills instruction to students with moderate to severe disabilities was
investigated. T
wo separate social skills curriculums were taught to two of the groups of students
over an eight week periods, while the third group received no in
class direct social skills
instruction. The students from the three groups had their social skills ability p
tested before an
eight week instructional period and post
tested after that eight week period. The result of the study
shows that the groups that were taught using direct social skills techniques showed more social
skills proficiency than the other grou


How Do We Make Inclusion Happen? The Triumphs and Challenges of a New Teacher

Eva Brotherton

My presentation will draw upon my experiences as a second year teacher in an urban school
district for students with moderate to severe disabilities. I wi
ll share the challenges that I face in
teaching and managing a caseload of 8 students. I will also describe the triumphs that over
shadow the challenges. Our school held an event to support “Spread the Word to End the Word”
Campaign for Special Olympics an
d Best Buddies. At this event we recognized 19 students in their
support of our class.

Effects of cooperative learning group on academic related behaviors of students with

Jemma Koh, Christine Charlie, Bora Lee

This study aimed to examine the
effects of cooperative learning on academic related behaviors of
students with autism. Three students with autism and six typical peers in grades 4, and 5
participated in this study, as part of after
school tutoring program. Fifty
minute tutoring sessions
were held twice a week for 10 weeks at participants' school. A multiple
baseline across
participants was used to examine the effects of cooperative learning group on three major
behavior measures of students with autism, including appropriate responses, ve
rbal initiations,
and inappropriate behaviors. The students with autism demonstrated more frequent and related
responses and initiations during intervention condition than baseline condition. The frequency of
their inappropriate behaviors did not increase
throughout the intervention condition. Thus,
cooperative learning group was effective to promote appropriate academic related behaviors for
students with autism.

Literacy Access Supports for High School Students with Significant Disability in Age
riate Fiction and Functional Texts

Jordan Shurr

This single subject study presents a replication and expansion of a combined visual supports and
discussion intervention used with typical age
appropriate texts (Shurr & Taber
Doughty, in press)
read aloud
to high school students with intellectual disability. Students were read aloud grade
stories, newspaper articles, and employee handbooks and assessed for their comprehension of
the texts. The intervention proved successful in improving the comprehens
ion abilities of each of
the students while presented in both segregated and inclusive settings. Implications of this
research include an expansion of literacy access methods and options available to teachers and
researches in support of improving literacy

access for students with significant disabilities.

Effects of Computer
Assisted Instruction on Social Studies Skills for Students with Autism

Bethany Smith, Fred Spooner, Karen Diegelmann

Despite the emerging research on the effects of using compute
assisted instruction (CAI) for
students with disabilities, a paucity of literature on using CAI to teach academic subjects,
especially social studies to students with autism exists. In this study, three elementary school age
students with autism were tau
ght mapping skills using explicit CAI instruction. Using slide show
presentations, students were taught to identify legend symbols on a map using a multiple probe
across participants design. A functional relation, with immediate change in trend and level,
established between the CAI program and number of correct responses on social studies mapping
skills concepts and all students met mastery on the goal. All three students were able to
generalization across untrained legend symbols and maps. Additionall
y, implications of this study
and suggestions for future research CAI research are discussed.

The Learning Program: Literacy for Individuals with Down Syndrome

Susan Leonard
Giesen, Dana Halle

The Down Syndrome Foundation of Orange County began “The L
earning Program” for children


and youth with Down syndrome in 2004, based on research by Sue Buckley (from the UK). The
going outcomes for the participants reflect marked increase in reading, math, and general
adaptive behavior skills. Research with fam
ilies of the children explains how their active
participation in the program has a positive effect on the results.

The Use of "Storyline" and "Associations Pyramid" Strategies for Language Development
with 5
Year Olds in Inclusive Classes

Joanna Smogo
rzewska, Grzegorz Szumski

There is strong theoretical support for the use of “Storyline” and “Associations Pyramid,” strategies
for creating and telling a story, with typical students and in inclusive classes. This session presents
findings from a study o
f the use of these strategies on the development of language skills with
typical 5
year olds in regular classes in Poland. The findings indicate that these strategies focused
on children’s interactions are effective in increasing children's language, can i
nfluence children's
cognitive abilities, and can impact the development of social skills. At the same time these
strategies can be a source of satisfaction and joy, with every child becoming a story teller.

Positive Behavior Support

Beyond Treats and Timeouts to Humanistic Behavioral Supports: Transforming Practices
in the Inclusive Classroom

Chelsea Tracy
Bronson, Julie Causton


This presentation will offer critical lessons drawn from a humanistic philosophical approach to

traditional behaviorist approaches. Behavior systems traditionally utilize a combination of rewards,
consequences, and punishments to set behavior expectations and support students who
demonstrate challenging behavior. We offer a critique on these tradit
ional behavior systems, with
a particular emphasis on the effects for students with disabilities in inclusive classrooms. We then
offer classroom
level and student
level strategies that educators can utilize to promote inclusive
communities where all stud
ents feel a genuine sense of connectedness that allows students to
maximize their academic and social potential.

Beautiful Music makes a Beautiful Life

Jon Thompson, Jon Freer

As behavior consultants we strive to create a functional support system fo
r individuals
experiencing challenges in their life. We have found that there are many different sections that
need to work together in order for the individual to see change. We view this process as an
orchestra with its individual sections. Apart from

one another they may struggle but when they all
come together they can create a beautiful harmony just as when a person’s supports come
together they make a beautiful life. We will use the orchestra as a metaphor to show how eclectic
approaches create “b
eautiful music” and beautiful lives.

Increasing On
Task Behavior for Students with Autism using Mobile Technology

Christopher Rivera, Lee Mason, Shane Crosby, Iffat Jabeen

Helping students with autism stay on
task during the course of the school day
is critical to their
functional and educational success. Additionally, it is also important to teach educators ways to
positively shape student behaviors by using positive reinforcers. This session will address how the
use of mobile devices (e.g., iPhones
and Android devices) and the MotivAider® application can
help increase both positive behaviors for teachers (i.e., the use of praise statements) and on
behaviors for students with autism. Implications for research and teaching will be discussed.

ow Inservice Training in School Wide PBIS Substantiates Preservice Training in
Individualized PBIS for Students with Significant Disabilities

Jan Weiner, Barbara Kelley

The work of Horner & Sugai has resulted in having all teachers trained in Schoolwide
PBIS at the
service level. This has created the necessary culture for the sustained use of the evidence
based practice, as pre
service teachers are being trained in Individualized PBIS (Anderson, et al,
1993). General education and special education per
sonnel and families are collaborating to
ensure success and a positive environment for all students.


Vocational education and training for student with disabilities in Japan

Yongjae Lim, Young
Gyoung Kim

This session will provide an o
verview of the literature on vocational education and training for
students with disabilities in Japan. Data will be presented from a comprehensive review of federal


laws, policies, regulations, and national curriculum related to vocational education and t
raining for
students with disabilities. Implications for future directions will be discussed.

How to implement auditory prompting procedures and other self
management strategies in
community and work environments.

Keith Storey, Michal Post, Correna Kel
ley, Joyce Montgomery

We will provide a "how to" session on the use of auditory prompts and other self
procedures. Auditory prompting is a self
management strategy that gives an antecedent cue to
increase the probability of a desired behaviora
l outcome. Support providers, such as a job coach,
often encounter situations where ongoing auditory prompting is needed for correct job or
community performance. Individuals with severe disabilities may need prompting to remember the
sequence of steps f
or completing a task, to maintain focus on their work, to improve quality, and/or
to increase the fluency of their work pace or community task completion.

Engaging the Youth for Leadership Building

Buna Dahal

The strength of our movement tomorrow wil
l depend upon wise investment today, for this our
greatest asset are the young and upcoming members. We must commit ourselves to the
development of youth leadership so we can perpetuate our dreams and achievements. So that this
presentation will create a m
omentum for new leadership through youth recruitment we will
consider; how to identify those young people for leadership molding, where to recruit them, and
methods for keeping them engaged with our independent living movement. We leaders in the field

accept the roles we play and the responsibilities we delegate.

Current Practices and Future Directions of the Special Education School
Based Enterprise
Transition Model for Youth with Disabilities in South Korea

Yun Woo Lee, Kyounggun Han

The purpose

of this study is to suggest future directions in further improving the special education
based enterprise transition model based on the identified issues from in
depth interviews
with special education teachers who are in charge of the school

enterprise model and
analyses of successful institution stories with implementation of several school
based enterprise
models in South Korea.

Increasing Employment and Post Secondary Options for Students with Intellectual

Eric Hartz, Mar
cia Ingvalson

Memorial High School in Madison, Wisconsin has created an innovative transition program based
on research that increases paid employment in the community and post
secondary options for
students with Intellectual Disabilities who are between
the ages of 18
21 years old. The program
focuses on building employable skills in real life environments that are focusing on the strengths of
the student. the program has created a video to show students with disabilities in action and on
the job and give
s an inside look at the students perspective and employers who have people with
disabilities working at their place of employment.

Innovative Practices in Placing Persons with Brain Injuries in Competitive Work

Jim Swain

This session will discuss and
review practices within North Carolina that have been effective within
the Vocational Rehabilitation System in placing persons with brain injuries in competitive work.
This presentation will highlight how utilizing cognitive rehabilitative therapeutic tech
combined with standard vocational rehabilitative services results in significantly higher results in
preparing individuals with mild to significant brain injuries for competitive work. Vocational
Rehabilitation historical data is reviewed and presen
ted to the audience demonstrating effective


practices for serving this population.

After School Work Camp: Paving the way for Competitive Employment

Leslie Molina, MaryAnn Demchak

The After School Work Camp has had a profound impact on students with

significant disabilities.
The primary focus of this project was two fold. First was to develop potential career preferences
through hands on experiences of a variety of employment responsibilities. Secondly, was to open
dialect and build relationships
with local businesses for competitive employment to become a
reality for our students. Outcomes are promising: four of twenty
two students entering the
community workforce.

The Add Us In Initiative

Merging Diversity and Disability into Business Oppor

Day Al
Mohamed, Laura Ibañez

Add Us In is a new initiative sponsored by the U.S. Department of Labor's Office of Disability
Employment Policy (ODEP). The initiative is designed to identify and develop strategies to
increase employment opportunitie
s within small businesses, including those located in or serving
underrepresented and historically excluded communities, to employ adults and youth with
disabilities. Small business is the engine of U.S. economic growth, and the data on minority

growth clearly shows that minority
owned and operated firms are a significant contributor
to the long term health of the United States economy. Over the past 10 years, minority
businesses have grown at approximately double the rate of all firms in t
he U.S. economy. Given
this level of growth, the Add Us In Initiative seeks to create business engagement models that can
be replicated on a national scale that will connect small employers with the underutilized talent
pool that is people with disabiliti

Utilizing Corporate Job Development to Expand Work Site Learning and Employment

Linda O'Neal, Richard Rosenberg, Paul Harvey, Ann Sebek, Kristin Chacon

This presentation will address the high unemployment rate for individuals with s
disabilities. A retired Executive from Nissan North America and two school district job developers
will focus on specific corporate job development strategies that have proven successful in opening
many work site training and employment opportun
ities for individuals and groups with significant
disabilities. Specifics will include overall corporate diversity commitment, outsourcing contracts,
liability concerns and key advantages to hiring individuals with a wide range of developmental
s. Methods to support workforce development will be the focus. This will include specific
strategies to build business partnerships with public, private and non
profit businesses.
Specialized job development techniques will be outlined to support effecti
ve job matches. Methods
for supporting business partners in hiring and retaining individuals with disabilities will be

Understanding SSA Benefits & Work Incentives to Promote Integrated Employment for
Transition Youth

Richard Rosenberg, Li
nda O'Neal, Teri Chang

Failure to focus on Social Security benefits during Transition is a missed opportunity and
disservice to students & families. Understanding the effect of earnings on cash benefits and
medical insurance is critical. A Certified Comm
unity Work Incentives Coordinator and service
providers will present an overview of benefits planning & management supports needed by
consumers with significant disabilities who plan to work or currently have jobs. A power point
summary will be distribute
d and handouts provided specific to the following areas: Supplemental
Security Income (SSI), Work Incentives including Impairment Related Work Expenses (IRWE),
Student Earned Income Exclusions (SEIE) and expedited reinstatement. Case studies will be used
o demonstrate work incentive provisions with the goal of reduction in reliance on public benefits
and ultimate movement to self
sufficiency. Wage reporting specifics and benefits over/


underpayment responses will also be addressed.

Inclusion in the Wo
rkforce: Supporting Adults with Intellectual Disabilities with Options for
Independence and Living a Meaningful Life through Vocation.

Karleen Haines, Sabine Maynard

In our presentation we will discuss vocational and work opportunities for people with
disabilities, in addition to some of the challenges and successes. We plan to focus on the
concepts of vocation in various forms (ex: community job placement, work center opportunities,
and mobile work units). Presenters will include individua
ls with intellectual disabilities who will
share their stories.

Skills to Pay the Bills: Mastering Soft Skills for Workplace Success

Michael Huberman, Patricia D. Gill

This session explores the soft skill areas employers identify as vital for new h
ires to have.
Attendees will experience a free curriculum released by DOL’s Office of Disability Employment
Policy that youth service providers can use to introduce and develop soft skills with youth,
including youth with disabilities. During this interac
tive session, participants will get to share best
practices in teaching soft skills and learn about the key role families play in the development of
soft skills.

Using Peer Support Data to Identify Career Strengths and Abilities

Deborah Reed, Andrea R
uppar, Diane Ryndak, Debra Duran, Ann
Marie Orlando

Students with severe disabilities often leave school unprepared for competitive employment. Job
placement programs are typically structured as pre
defined unpaid work experiences in areas
such as grocery

stores or fast
food restaurants. Ambitious career goals are seldom explored.
Individualized experiences are vital for potential career opportunities. High school peer support
programs provide a framework for increasing meaningful participation of students

with severe
disabilities. Peers from a high school program provided one
one modified instruction to students
with severe disabilities in a general education context. Identifying strengths for purposes of
developing career opportunities will be explored
. Discussion will address plans for using this
information to increase student engagement and identifying student opportunities for transition to
working life.

A Life Changed: A Court Decision That Impacted Thousands

Deborah Reed, Debra Duran

employment remains a persistent problem for individuals with disabilities. Disincentives exist
that present barriers to employment, leaving people with severe disabilities with a difficult choice

work in a low paying job or lose benefits. Hear how one m
an’s journey of successful employment
led to termination of his eligibility on the Florida Home and Community Based Waiver, leaving him
unable to maintain his independence in the community and heralding the potential loss of services
for many other individ
uals with disabilities.

Employment First in Action: Establishing an Employment First Agenda

Laura Owens

The real engine of social change is not money, but rather expectations. Employment First policies
allow states to tap into the skills and contribu
tions of individuals with disabilities to match employer
demand for a reliable, productive workforce through supported and customized employment
opportunities. We are in a position to move the Employment First agenda forward by ensuring that
youth graduat
ing from high school have opportunities for meaningful work with real wages and
benefits, in local businesses. There has been a lot of talk about “Employment First,” but what does
it really mean? Employment First is not just a slogan

across the nation,
many states and
organizations are adopting Employment First policies and practices. This session will explain the


movement, take a look at what other states are doing, and explore what we can be doing in our
own states to move this grass roots agenda forw

Working Through Employment Barriers for Substainable Living

Terence Pollard

This session is for staff who work with individuals with various barriers. Learn my easy
employment steps to employment success. I will share with participants the How T
o's of breaking
through employment barriers and getting to YES. I will introduce individuals with strategies for
creating and establishing important links throughout their community.

Human Rights

Undressing Normal: Using the Uncon
ference Format to Bridge Gaps between Academic,
Service, and Self
Advocate Agendas

Bev Harp, Kathy Sheppard

The democratic tenets of the unconference format make it an ideal tool for including individuals
with developmental disabilities in discussi
ons normally conducted in the academic realm.
Presenters from the University of Kentucky’s Human Development Institute will share the results of


a recent unconference on disability and sexuality, and will offer strategies for hosting a successful
event bas
ed on this model.

Strengths, Supports, Spirituality, and Well
Being of Individuals with Significant Disabilities:
Promoting Flourishing

Erik Carter, Thomas Boehm

We present key findings from a mixed
methods study exploring the strengths, community
periences, spirituality, and well
being of young people with intellectual disabilities or autism. In
particular, we will highlight policies and practices that can support youth with disabilities to flourish
in all aspects of their lives.

Reducing the R
isk of Abuse: A Practical Model for Any individual or Family

Nora Baladerian

This workshop describes a practical risk reduction approach, to reduce or eliminate both
vulnerability to attack or exploitation as well as to reduce psychological trauma after
the event.
Case examples are provided.

Awareness of Sexuality and Preventing Sexual Abuse for Adolescents with Autism

Supattra Andrade, Weeramol Locharoenrat

The purpose of this study focused on the awareness of sexuality in adolescents with autism
puberty. The presentation discusses the interventions to develop sexual education and contribute
to these students for expressing emotional and social interactions appropriately. The advantage of
this presentation shows the importance of supporting
sexual education and providing the
knowledge of sexuality to prevent sexual abuse among adolescents with autism who are moving
toward adult status for enhancing better quality of living within the inclusive communities.

Lessons from Pennhurst UPDATE: Cr
eating a National Disability Museum and Site of

Ellen Tierney, James Conroy, Jean Searle

America needs a memorial, a museum, a site of conscience for remembering how we‘ve treated
people with significant disabilities. Pennhurst, the infamous i
nstitution shut down by court order in
1987, seems an ideal location but its campus remains under private ownership. Our
unconscionable practice of institutionalizing people must be remembered to avoid repeating it!
Join us for an update on plans to carr
y this legacy forward, and learn what it’s like to live in an


Excluded From School in 2012: A Case Study of Support and Collaboration

Fredda Brown, Stacy Nonnemacher

It is 2012

many professionals, families, and advocates are

fighting for higher quality behavioral
and educational supports for individuals with significant disabilities. Unfortunately there are still
families fighting a more basic battle

to have their children attend school. This presentation is
about a family

whose child continues to be excluded from school. Four years ago the family was
given a “choice”

state residential program or nothing. The family refused the residential
placement. He has now been at home for 4 years, without support of a teach
er, paraprofessional,
or related services. Their fight continues. This presentation will focus on the collaborative work
between the family, consultants, and attorneys, in their fight for his educational rights.



service teachers’ perceptions on augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) in
South Korea and the United States

Gyoung Kim, Kyung Im Han, Yongjae Lim

Special education majors (juniors) were surveyed in terms of AAC related experienc
e, knowledge,
concerns, and suggestions in the United States and South Korea. Special education majors’
perspectives on AAC in two different countries will be compared in this session. The results of the
study will also provide implications for curriculum
development at higher education institutions, and


give directions to parents and teachers as to how to support students who are using AAC.

Insights on Using the iPad with Young Students with Multiple Disabilities Including those
with Sensory Impairme

Gloria Rodriguez
Gil, Cristi Saylor

Service providers for students with multiple disabilities, including students with sensory
impairments, may benefit from learning about using iPads to better support the increasing number
of student users, their f
amilies and their team. This presentation will demonstrate ways in which
service providers and parents are using the iPad, discuss advantages and disadvantages of the
iPad and propose a learning sequence for initial learning with the iPad. Video clips of e
xamples of
students using the iPad will be used to stimulate discussion on how this device is benefiting these

Achieving greater physical independence when typing to communicate: a training study

Fernanda Orsati, Christy Ashby, EunYoung Ju
ng, Casey Reutemann, Chelsea Tracy
Marilyn Chadwick

Many individuals who once required intensive physical support to communicate through typing are
demonstrating the ability to type with no or limited physical touch. This study explores the supp
and strategies that are useful for developing greater physical independence when typing to
communicate. We have analyzed video data from training sessions with eleven FC user and
facilitator pairs collected over a four
month period. Preliminary data r
eveals that developing
strategies for eye
hand coordination; developing a relationship and relevant conversations; and
focusing on the technique is essential for pairs to gain physical independence in typing.

Augmentative Communication and Higher Educa

Kayla Takeuchi

In this session, my key team members and I will share my transformation from severely disabled
functional skills class member to high school graduate and college student.

Participation of High School Students with Significant Disab
ilities in School and
Community Based Activities

Matthew Brock, Erik Carter

In this poster presentation, we will describe the participation of 370 high school students with
disabilities in school and community based activities based on questionnaire data

collected as part
of a larger research study. We will focus on a subset of 135 students who have significant
disabilities (who qualify for alternate assessment), highlighting how their participation in school and
based activities differs from th
at of students with high incidence disabilities. Preliminary
analysis shows that overall, students with significant disabilities participate in significantly less
activities than other students, and much or their participation involves activities with pare
siblings, or other individuals with disabilities. Implications for research and practice will be

The Social Construction of Personhood: Family Perspectives on the Essence of People
Identified as Significantly Disabled

Kirstee Radley

his study explored the process by which families socially construct the meaning of their child’s
identity. The results from the research suggest that parents of children with significant disabilities
have a past that prepared them to value the identity of

their child, a present understanding of who
their child is and a future outlook that continues to portray the idea of personhood to their child.

Understanding and applying effective communication through positive support

Brenda Miranda


Every person

is able to communicate in some way or another. Learning each individual's
communication style is something that should be included in the support plan and in training.
Effective communication styles can reflect the individual's ability to function at scho
ol, work and at
home. By effectively teaching support staff to learn the communication of the individual served, the
staff will be able to better help, understand and support an individual.

Typing Lives: Blogging as life writing and a means to building

self advocacy in high school

Casey Reutemann

This project uses the documentary, Wretches and Jabberers and Stories from the Road (2010),
and an analysis of Larry Bissonnette and Tracy Thresher’s blogs, to explore potential contributions
of docu
mentary and blogging to the body of disability life writing. Based on this foundation, a
learning unit has been created, aimed towards inclusive high school classrooms, that hinges on
examination of Larry and Tracy’s blogs as models for those created by st
udents. Framed by a
screening of the film, the unit involves analysis of blog entries, lessons on life writing, and
examples of other blogs written by individuals with disabilities. The students will subsequently
develop their own blog entries on a private

site established for the class. The objectives of the
practice include students’ development a broad understanding of what constitutes life writing,
empowerment in knowing that their stories are important, enhanced collaboration skills, and
appreciation f
or varying communication methods.

Facebook and the Social Skill Development of Individuals with High Functioning Autism/
Asperger Syndrome

Susan Schultz

This study examines how Facebook supports the social skill development of Jacob, a young man
multiple disabilities and High Functioning Autism (HFA). Data include Jacob’s Facebook
interactions over a period of six months, and interviews with Jacob. Analysis was conducted using
social network theory and found that through Facebook Jacob increased t
he quantity and quality
of social ties he had with others. Data indicate that the ties built online also contribute to increased
face social interactions. Although online social networking has limitations, with
supervision, tools such as Facebook
hold potential for developing the social skills of individuals
with HFA/AS.

Generating All Possibilities through Person Centered Thinking

Jillian Van Leuven, Linda Andron
Ostrow, Gregory Way, Ksusah Miretski, Evan Carter

Generating All Possibilities (
GAP) is a transition program designed for individuals with Autism
Spectrum Disorders or other Developmental Disabilities who have received their high school
diploma. The GAP Program focuses on each individual's strengths, talents and interests and uses

Person Centered Modality to support each student as they work in various business, volunteer
and college settings. The GAP Program supports students by creating, carving or scaffolding
positions in each setting so that each person is a productive, contri
buting, included community
members. The students in the GAP Program will discuss the successes and challenges they
faced as they began incorporating the Person Centered Thinking Modality into all areas of their
lives and how the power of choice gives them

the autonomous voice they have been wanting.



Social Media for Advocacy

Marcia O'Malley

This highly interactive workshop will build the capacity of advocates by acquainting them with
current social media tools,

and helping them gain a greater understanding of social media and
how to use it as an additional strategy for their advocacy efforts. Topics include: • Overview of
social media: what it is, how it is used, and why advocates should embrace it • Examples of

successful social media advocacy strategies • Ways to use social media immediately, and how to
effectively plan strategies for the future • Additional tools and resources

Understanding the Complexity of Disability Experiences


Pushpa Parekh

Central t
o my inquiry is to understand the complexity of disability experiences. As a woman of
color with post
polio related disability and an academic, positioned across cultural and geographic
borders, I negotiate among disability centered identity politics, disc
ourses and the realities of my
disability experiences. Disability subject formations as well as disability experiences inform and
are informed by various intersecting engagements that I will explore in this paper.

The perception and Needs of the Fathers

of Young Children with Developmental Delays on
Family Support of South Korea.

Kang Seong
ri, Byoung
In Lee, Kyung Ok Lim, Mi
kyung Yoon, Ka
hwa Son

In this study, surveys were conducted to investigate the perception and needs of fathers of young
n with developmental delays, in order that we can meet needs for family supports of fathers
of young children with developmental delays by searching for the effective ways and by giving
foundation in developing and establishing adequate supports. One hundr
ed eighty two fathers of
young children, age one to five, with developmental delays enrolled in early childhood special
education related institutions in Seoul, Gyeonggi
do and Ulsan were surveyed. Research results
showed that perception in paternal parti
cipation and education and social supports was relatively
high, but perception in familial, psychological, and emotional support information was low.
Differences in perception for family support according to the father's general characteristics were
in this study.

Boards for All: Tools and Training in Basic Inclusive Practices for Nonprofit Boards and

Mark Starford, Charlene Jones, Jennifer Allen

The presentation discusses an innovative training series that promotes civic engagement
persons with developmental disabilities and community members on governing boards, councils
and committees. These plain language tools teach basic nonprofit governance for a range of
organizations and provide insight into support for individual members

to perform more effectively.
Boards for All serves two objectives: to increase personal empowerment and create opportunities
for persons with developmental disabilities to become community leaders.

Trisomy Advocacy Group

Susan Budd

The Prenatally and

Postnatally Diagnosed Awareness Act S1810 was signed into law on 10/08 as
an unfunded mandate. It requires updated, evidence
based information and resources about
prenatal or postnatal diagnosis of trisomy 21/Down’s Syndrome (DS) or other conditions prese
to women facing these diagnoses. Communities of trisomies other than DS do not have this level
of information sharing. Families facing trisomy are often faced with negative support systems/lack
of information necessary to make informed decisions, deni
ed medical treatment, and sometimes
subjected to medical futility policies. Instead of waiting for funding, a grassroots coalition of
organizations, volunteers, medical professionals, and other related support services can
accelerate the education, awaren
ess, and advocacy efforts of a population that is unrepresented
and inaccurately portrayed to medical professionals, institutions, and families facing these

Un/limited Dreams, Un/limited Opportunities: The Post
School World and Young Women
th Intellectual Disabilities

Danielle Cowley

Adolescent girls with disabilities frequently experience disparate post
school outcomes compared
to their male counterparts, including greater high school dropout, greater unemployment rates,
lower wages resul
ting from low
skill jobs, and higher poverty rates. Student
centered transition
planning, with a focus on self
determination, has been explored as a way to improve these post
school outcomes, yet disparities remain. Therefore, I employed a transformative,

mixed methods


approach, grounded in the theory and practice of Disability Studies in Education and feminism(s),
to better understand how young women with intellectual disabilities experience girlhood, schooling,
transitions, and agency. Through this prese
ntation, I highlight one key finding, “Un/limited Dreams,
Un/limited Opportunities: The Post
School World,” and provide recommendations for future policy,
practice, and research.

Disability Disclosure, Awareness, and Advocacy

Aliah Mestrovich Seay

advocacy involves strategy whether it be in the world of work, school, or in one’s personal life.
Disability disclosure can occur at any point during the interview process so it is important to be
prepared and confident to educate employers in a professi
onal manner. This workshop is geared
towards professionals who plan to serve job seekers with disabilities in creating opportunities
which transcend traditional career development. The American’s with Disabilities Act is also

Safety and A
dvocacy through Direct Communication including Legal Updates and First
Responder Interaction

Sandra Perez, Stuart Haskin

Stuart Haskin, Founder and Executive Director of Get Safe, has spent more than 30 years as a
on trainer in the field of persona
l safety and violence prevention. Through his innovative
curriculum he will provide real solutions that you can begin to use the moment you step out of the
seminar. Through his entertaining and engaging style, workshop participants will learn how to
ify and address communication barriers that impede advocacy for victims with disabilities.
Practical prevention, intervention and recovery strategies will be discussed, as tailored to your
specific population. Bring your thoughts and concerns; be ready to

interact, engage, have fun and
learn some life
saving information that will undoubtedly change the way you look at your life and
the lives of the people you help.

Empowered Parents: The Key to Opportunity

Sandi Ames

This presentation will provide pa
rents with tools and strategies to help them become empowered
members of their child’s IEP team. We will be addressing the process involved in determining
supports, services and placements for students, with an emphasis on the critical role a parent

Being an informed parent who understands the unique needs of their child, who has the
tools to be an equal member of their child’s educational team can make a huge difference in the
type of opportunities that their child will be offered. Relationships can

develop between the parent
and the educators that foster the level of collaboration needed for a child’s inclusive program to be
a success.

Duane’s Syndrome: Increasing Awareness of a Rare Visual Impairment

Anne Papalia

The purpose of this presentati
on is to increase participants’ awareness of Duanes Syndrome (DS),
discuss its impact on educational, social, and behavioral functioning, and to explore possible
accommodations need to help students with DS in the school setting. The presenter will also sh
personal experiences of living with DS.

The World According To Cory Through Linda's Eyes

Linda Andron
Ostrow, Cory Heads

This informative presentation is a journey from early childhood, through adolesence and into
young adulthood. It follows a ta
lented and very funny young man and his family through the eyes
of the therapist who had the great honor to share the journey. Each episode taught Linda an
important lesson that has informed her work with families over the years. This journey is a


for families through the many challenges and opportunities for growth that they will
encounter in living with autism. Each story is followed by the concept or lesson the story illustrates.
These include theory of mind, literal thinking, special interests,
friendships, empathy & support &
disclosure and self advocacy. As we move into adolescense and adulthood Cory takes over as
the narrator and Linda adds relevant commentary.

Supporting Parents of Children with Severe Disabilities: An Action Research St

Andrea Yates

Parents of children with severe disabilities face many challenges. They must adjust to the changes
in family dynamics, educational decisions, and the long
term implications of the severity of the
disability. This action research project

provides a detailed look into the lives of four families of
children with severe disabilities. The parent participants shared the challenges they faced in the
home, school, and community. Each family told a different story, unique to their family and
ined by their child’s individual needs. Yet, among the four families, three themes developed,
linking the case studies to one another. The parents expressed the need for help, the need for
comprehensive and correct information, and the need for supports an
d services that met their
child’s and family’s needs. Parents shared ideas for improving in their current struggles, strategies
for overcoming the challenges, and their hopes for the future.

Stigma and Discrimination

Brenda Calderon, Scott Barron

me meet your allies by attending our session on reducing stigma and discrimination. Through
information sharing and strategizing with peers, we can help bring awareness to this issue. Do
your part to reduce stigma and discrimination experienced by individu
als with disabilities, come
join us!

Diversity & Cultural Competency

Research on Asian Students with Autism

Hyejung Kim

According to the American Psychiatric Association autism is characterized by impairments in
social interaction and communica
tion, and restricted repetitive patterns of behavior. Ample studies
have shown that although individuals with autism are found in all cultural and ethnic groups and at
all socioeconomic levels, in the United States, a disproportionately high number of spec
education placements occur among Asian students. Even though a number of studies have
examined the overrepresentation of minority students with autism, few have focused on Asian
students with autism in particular. This literature review will examine th
e past decade of research
focused on: (a) the possible reasons for the aforementioned disproportionality among Asian
students with autism; and (b) Asian perceptions on autism. A goal of this literature review is to help
understand their Asian students with

autism as well as to build more fully inclusive communities.


A Literature Review on the Status of Evidence Based Parent Training Interventions for
Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Parents with Adolescents with Disabilities in the
Secondary Transit
ion Process

Maria Pijem

This Literature Review addresses the status of evidence based parent training interventions for
Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CLD) families of adolescents with disabilities in the special
education secondary transition p
rocess. CLD adolescents with disabilities appear to be at a
greater risk for poor transition than their non
minority peers with disabilities (Greenen et Al., 2005).
Although empirical studies show that parental involvement in secondary transition result in

successful employment outcomes for their child, CLD parents seem to be less involved in this
process as compared to other minority groups (Greenen et Al., 2001). Effective parent training
interventions for CLD families on secondary transition will im
prove parental involvement in
transition ensuring better transition outcomes. Findings are that there are few effective empirical
parents training intervention on this subject and a need for further research.

To Become a Culturally Responsive Teacher

yun Ju Kang

Culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students are disproportionately identified as having
disabilities and consequently are over
represented in special education programs in the United
States. In large part the over
representation of C
LD students is a result of poor academic
achievement which is most frequently attributable to limited English proficiency. A growing
literature demonstrates that the over
representation of CLD students is most likely attributable to
teachers’ limited cultu
ral exposure. To help special education teachers become more culturally
aware of the barriers that both CLD students and themselves face, this presentation provides the
tips and strategies on how to prepare for culturally responsive practices in classroom

Digital shared stories: Ways to increase English vocabulary for diverse learners with
Intellectual disability

Christopher Rivera, Fred Spooner, Charles Wood

Great strides have been taken to improve the education of English language learners (ELLs);
however, little is known about how to best serve ELLs with low incidence disabilities. This session
will discuss a study that used of multimedia
shared stories as a way to teach English vocabulary to
ELLs with intellectual disability. Results and implicati
ons will be provided.

Inclusion in Finland

New Opportunity for Special Student and Challenge for School

Vuokko Pöyhtäri

In Finland, inclusive education is still rare. Disabled students are usually placed in special classes.
They get labelled and ar
e at risk of being left outside of society. The Finnish Government has now
taken the prevention of social exclusion of young people as its key target. In my poster I introduce
the means inclusive education offers to prevent the social exclusion of Finnish
children and young
people in Finnish society.

A study of conflict and coping behaviors of special education teachers in Korea

Minjung Jeon

This study is about special education teacher’s conflict types, and it examines what the exact
causes of these
conflicts are. This study will also examine how these conflicts are dealt with

more specifically it will analyze the specific types of conflict management, and conflict resolution
that different special education teachers use. This study will provide gro
level information for
special education

in terms of how conflict issues can be dealt with in the most efficient and
effective manner. In order to achieve this goal this study involved a survey of 174 Gwangju special
education teachers. The survey res
ults were computed using the SPSS program in order to


conduct proper analysis.

Exploring the needs of mothers of adults with disabilities in Saudi Arabia: A pilot study

Reem Alrusaiyes, Lewis Jackson

The purpose of this research was to explore the ed
ucational and skills needs of adults with
intellectual disabilities (14
21 years old) from their mothers’ perspectives. The participants were
mothers of adult with intellectual disabilities their age between 14
21 years old in Saudi Arabia,
selected using
convenience sampling. The results showed some concerns that mothers expressed
about their adults’ future and about the services provided and services needed by their adult

What do we need to do now? Transition programs for persons with signif
icant cognitive
disabilities in Thailand

Supattra Andrade, Lewis Jackson

This study investigated what transition services are needed in Thailand to assure successful
employment of persons with significant cognitive disabilities after leaving secondary ed
The study analyzed perspectives of parents and educators, and focus groups, to seek solutions for
developing the transition program. The results of this study described essential components, and it
identified gaps between the educational system an
d businesses in the community that need to be
coordinated, to assist these students in having opportunities for engaging in better lives.

Transition and Vocational Resources Support Adolescents with Disabilities, and Their

Supattra Andrade


majority of parents have met experiences of failure during transition planning because of a lack
of information about available transition services. This study presents transition resources within
the State of Colorado including: (a) community living, (b)

transition supported parents’ training and
resources, (c) and vocational services. The advantages of this study present alternative service,
close the gaps of communication between schools and parents, and provide essential information
that should be rece
ived by establishing inclusive community together.

An Investigation of the Current Special Education System through the Views of Different
Professionals in relation to Current Legal Regulations

Idil seda Ak

The purpose of this study was to examine th
e views of different professionals on the current
Turkish special education system and the current legal regulations regarding the right to education
for children with disabilities, and views of the correspondence between these two issues. The
views of 24
participants were examined in this study. All participants were from Ankara, Turkey
and their views were investigated by a semi
structured interview protocol which was developed by
the researcher. Data analysis was performed through qualitative methods. Th
e findings revealed
that although the current special education system and the right to education of children with
disabilities had a strong legal basis in Turkey, it had several implementation problems. Therefore,
the participants did not see any correspo
ndence between the current special education system
and the current legal issues regarding the right to education for children with disabilities.

School Personnel’s Perspective of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CLD) Children with
in Special Education: Factoral Analysis

Joungmin Kim

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the needs of special education teachers working with
CLD students throughout the state of Kansas. A Multicultural and Special Education Survey
(MSES) was de
veloped to identify professional development training needs of regular and special
educators who work with multicultural students with and without mild disabilities. Survey items


were selected based on literature in the areas of multicultural, bilingual,

and special education
(Baca, 1984) MSES was distributed to 403 general and special educators that represented
geographical areas, as well as school districts with 10% minority enrollment and an enrollment
equal to or greater than 10 percent. According to

factory analysis, the result reveled that Varimax
rotation that accounted for 88 % of the common variance among the 73 items. About 45% of items
were reduced to a 6
factor solution and interpreted.

Culturally Responsive Interventions to Promote Social

Skills of Students with ASD and/or

Sunyoung Kim, Min
Chi Yan

IDEA (2004) and NCLB (2002) have mandated education practitioners (e.g., teachers) to
implement evidence
based interventions (e.g., social skill interventions) for students with and
t disabilities. Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) or Emotional and Behavioral
Disorders (EBD) typically have social skill deficits that impede them from appropriate interaction
with others. These vulnerable student populations include learners
with culturally and linguistically
diverse (CLD) backgrounds. Therefore, we would like to investigate the effectiveness of social skill
intervention s for CLD students with ASD or EBD. To the end, we conducted an empirical literature
review on the CLD stud
ents with ASD or EBD.

Culturally Responsive Strategies for Students with Significant Disabilities

Saili Kulkarni

Promising practices for students with significant disabilities from culturally and linguistically diverse
backgrounds have been criticall
y under
researched in the field of special education. This
systematic literature review was created to identify promising practices for students with significant
disabilities form culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds. Implications for classro
practice and research will be discussed.

Individual Family Members' Perception of Family Quality of Life: A Korean
American Family

Joo Young Hong, Ann Turnbull

Beginning in the mid
late 1980s, the focus on individual quality of life has expanded

to family
quality of life (FQOL) in the field of intellectual disabilities. However, few studies examined FQOL
for families who have children with hearing loss. Furthermore, most studies focused on mothers’
perceptions of their FQOL. Therefore, the purpos
e of this study is to understand how different
members of a family experience their FQOL when there is a member with hearing loss and how
those experiences contribute to the aggregated FQOL perception as a family unit. Results
indicated each members indica
ted diverse perceptions of their FQOL. Implications for future
research were described.

Health Disparities among African Americans with Disabilities: Implicatons for Patient and
Health Care Delivery Reform

Stanley Holbrook, Michelle Holbrook

To exami
ne and compare health disparities among African Americans in the disability community.
To identify and review programs/intiatives that will help break down the barriers to health
disparities To share practical and best practice models how consumrers can b
egin to take
responsibility for their health and the health care services delivered to them Motivate folks to get
involved in designing better health care systems and to continually advocate for health care

Building Inclusion in School through

Equitable Practices That Affirms Diversity

Ashleigh Molloy

This session will explore the pluralistic cultures that comprise today’s classrooms. The
establishment of inclusive practices will be addressed through a cultural lens. Disproportionality in


h placement and academic outcomes will be discussed. A plan outlining equity within diversity
will be presented.

Aspirations of Lebanese mothers regarding educating their children with Down syndrome

Rima Hatoum

Presents the empirical findings of an ex
ploratory qualitative study of the views, concerns, needs,
and wishes of urban mothers of children with Down syndrome regarding education and related
services for their children in Lebanon, a country with limited resources and no special education
ucture where children with intellectual disabilities do not have access to the mainstream
educational system.

Teachers’ Perceptions of Children with Disabilities Attending Primary School in Northern

Megan Finnerty, Brenda Piloya

Uganda instit
uted Universal Primary Education (UPE) in 1997. As a result of this initiative, the
enrollment of children with disabilities attending primary schools has increased. Challenges are
known to exist for teachers who are responsible for educating all children
under limited resources,
lack of training, and high student classroom ratios. This presentation will share the findings from
an exploratory qualitative study that examined the perceptions of teachers who teach children with
disabilities attending primary s
chool in Northern Uganda. Lastly, a social and sustainable venture
model will be discussed to address possible approaches for facilitating local school community

Community Living

What Next? Optimal Community Transition for Adult Child
ren with Autism and Intellectual

Lucinda Kramer

This presentation addresses the adult outcomes for a child with ASD and Intellectual Disability (ID)
and community supports. About 60% to 70%of individuals with ASD and ID are dependent on
rs for their basic needs and 10% to 15% successfully live independently. Optimal transition
planning and support beyond high school is addressed including living arrangements, job training,
and health care.

Enhancing the Inclusion of People Who Are N
verbal through Direct Youth Outreach

Elizabeth Presberg


A discussion of the work I have been doing as a public speaker working to enhance inclusion
through expanding the perspective of children through an interactive presentation followed by a
free" Question and Answer session. The overall concept of the presentation is a straight
forward look into my life as a means to bridge the gap of taboo and create a natural presence
within the community.

Task Analyze Anything Using The iPad

Conrad Oh
Young, Christine Baxter, William Garnett, Katie O'Hara

Creating a task analysis involves identifying a task and then breaking down the task into separate,
easier to perform steps. Completion of all the steps results in the overall task. When teaching
ldren with disabilities a skill, a task analysis can be used to dissect a specific skill into different
components that can be combined with a strategy, such as most
prompts and chaining, to
teach that skill. This proposal will describe how educat
ors and families can use the iPad to
effectively and efficiently create a task analysis for virtually any skill.

Successes and Challenges of Conducting a Transition Fair in a Rural Community

Sarah Hawkins, Amy Clausen

The purpose of this study is to a
nalyze survey data collected from transition fairs over the last
three years hosted at Morehead State University. These data will provide future implications that
the researchers can act upon to increase the success of the transition fair. Due to limited
esources in our rural area, the transition fair also provides a one
stop shop for students, parents,
and teachers to gain access to agencies, organizations, and programs for individuals with
disabilities across the state of Kentucky.

Accessing Community
: The Use of Video Modeling

Michael Morrisett

Video modeling has been studied since the 1960s. With the recent advances in video technology,
there has been renewed interest in studying effective ways for people who require varying levels
of supports to a
ccess the community. This interactive session will present a brief history of video
modeling, discuss current trends, and provide suggestions for video modeling implementation.

Consideration on Effectiveness of Implementing Components for Siblings of C
hildren with

In Accordance with Literature Review and In
depth interview

Kang Seong
ri, Byoung
In Lee, Seong
Ri Kang, Mi
kyung Yoon, Hyun
Geun Jo

The purpose of this study is to consider the implementation components and application method

for effective supports for siblings of children with disabilities. Total 73 articles related to siblings of
children with disabilities were analyzed for this study. Focusing on siblings of children with
disabilities, in
depth interviews were conducted. Th
e results of this study showed five
implementation components for support of siblings of children with disabilities : information and
coping skills, psychological and emotional support, family functioning, social perception, resources
on community
use. It

is followed the conclusion based the result which six applications for
supports of siblings of children with disabilities : (1) supports based on family functioning, (2)
utilization of community resources, (3) reflection of siblings' needs and characteris
tics, (4) supports
based on relationship orientation, (5) sustainable support, (6) improvement of social perception.

Personal Assistance Services Toolkit: It’s Hard to Find Good Help!

Patricia Gill, Jennifer Kemp

For transition
age youth, issues surr
ounding managing personal assistance services (PAS) can be
intensified by normal developmental concerns such as striking out on your own, refining your self
identity, and navigating the road into adulthood. In addition, systemic barriers from funding and
rogram eligibility complexities to legal and program culture issues can be daunting. The
practices and tools shared in this workshop come from the research
based guide, Making the


Move to Managing Your Own Personal Assistance Services: A Toolkit for Youth

With Disabilities
Transitioning to Adulthood. The “PAS Toolkit” was developed by The National Collaborative on
Workforce and Disability for Youth, a technical assistance center funded by DOL’s Office of
Disability Employment Policy. The PAS Toolkit comb
ines research with youth
friendly tools for
finding and managing PAS. Participants will receive a PAS toolkit and get hands
on experience
with some of the interactive exercises.

Integrated Transition Services for Adults with Autism (T.S.A.A.)

Joanne R

A consultant delivery model that contract with certified BCBA professionals.The BCBA team
supports Arc staff who work with clients with autism. When TSAA clients begin services each day,
they have their own, quiet space, individually catered to them,

allowing time to self
regulate. The
BCBA team provides observationand analysis for the client and on
going training and support for
TSAA staff. The team develops a plan for each clientserved and the BCBA team trains staff how to
implement the modalities o
utlined in the plan. Client success with these modalities is tracked and
revised as needed. Once effective modalities have been identified the client then enrolls in an
integrated service of their choice.

EOB Awareness Campaign

Susan Budd, David Gamb
le, Deitre Lawton, Julia Hetherington, William Springer

In SC, those receiving Medicaid benefits from SC Department of Disabilities and Special Needs
(DDSN) do not automatically receive EOBs. The EOB Awareness Campaign will help SC DDSN
Medicaid recipient
s to receive EOBs cost effectively, help consumers understand their healthcare
costs/benefits, potentially result in COST SAVINGS and possibly address some of the $7 million
budget shortfall. Budget areas not approved would allow for community supports in
homes (which
would prevent out
home placement and help keep everyone in more inclusive environments),
reduce waiver wait
lists for services needed to be more involved in the community, maintain
current services, and potentially allow funneling of money
from one area to another resulting in
more coverage. Moving Medicaid beneficiaries from apathy to engagement in the EOB process
could help them to better manage their services, appreciate funding issues, and improve
participation/involvement in the communi
ty (resulting in more inclusion).

Performing Together through Inclusive Arts Programming

Cynthia Chambers

POP Arts (Power of Performing Arts) is an inclusive performance arts program that provides a
based atmosphere that highlights positive s
trategies for supporting individuals of all
abilities. POP Arts connects community resources for successful inclusion efforts. This program
involves participants ages 5
30. Growth of participants has been described as “fast” and
“dramatic”. This presentati
on will discuss the program’s philosophy, strategies, and benefits to its
cast members, families, and community. Photos and video will be shared.

Smiling Faces, Beautiful Places: Bringing Community Inclusion to South Carolinians

Sarah Wilson

“I am a
n adult now.” Five simple words that speak for years of oppression. Across the country,
people with disabilities often live in congregate settings with no say in who their house mates are
or what part of the state they must live in. For many, this living

situation equates to unhappiness
and a lack of freedom, leaving some feeling like they are not yet an adult. A small program in
South Carolina is changing this reality one person at a time.

Turning Pages Together: An inclusive book club program

ia Chambers

Turning Pages Together (TPT) is an inclusive book club project for individuals of all abilities. Its


main objectives are developing literacy skills, achieving social connectedness, and participating in
community settings. Everyone involved wit
h the TPT community reaps some kind of benefit.
Individuals of all abilities are provided with an opportunity to advocate for themselves, form lasting
friendships in a social context, and develop their literacy skills. This presentation will highlight the
TPT book club model and its benefit to all participants as well as involved communities.

Friendship, Community, and Spirituality: The Three Essentials for Persons with Profound

Rodney Hume

People who are profoundly challenged eith
er intellectually or physically are spiritual beings. They
have the capacity to offer us some of life’s valuable insights. Yet, our pre
conceived notions and
stereotypes about the profoundly challenged have created a fence between those who are
“non disabled” and those that we tend to label “profoundly challenged.” I offer that
instead of focusing on trivial matters like: Are people with profound intellectual or physical
disabilities worth my friendship? Can I learn anything from them? People wit
hout obvious
disabilities, and even those with other forms of disabilities should focus more on the worth, value
and spiritual aspects of those with profound intellectual and physical disabilities.

Inclusion of Young Individual with Autism Spectrum D
isorder in Education

Joungmin Kim

This study employed a qualitative case study methodology to collect and analyze interview data
from face
face interviews with nine parents of eight children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
(ASD). This study explored par
ents’ views about critical social involvements for their young
children with ASD as well as inclusive education. The nine parents as participants in this study
shared their beliefs on how their children with ASD engaged in socialization activities in commu
settings after school. The findings revealed that most parents were satisfied with the inclusiveness
of their child’s current school placement. However, virtually all of them were dissatisfied with their
child’s inclusion in community settings after s
chool, especially parents who were concerned about
what they perceived to be the current lack of public awareness on ASD.

Community Presence Partnerships: Let's Have Fun

Craig Miner

This session describes a partnership between a group of young adults

with developmental
disabilities and college students. Based on individual preferences, college students and young
adults with disabilities participated in recreation and leisure activities.

Roads to Community Living: Closing a state institution and op
ening opportunities for an
inclusive community.

Carolyn Carlson, Tom Farrow

In 2011 Washington utilized a federal Money Follows the Person grant, entitled Roads to
Community Living (RCL), to support the closure of Frances Haddon Morgan Center, one of fiv
state institutions, the first institution to close since 1994. This resulted in opportunities for
individuals to direct their own lives, make more choices, and explore new interests in their new
home community. This presentation will cover the role of

RCL to support individuals move to the
community, as well as innovative projects and enhancements to Washington’s community system
of supports. This includes family and individual choice, individualized transition planning, family
mentor project, support
ed employment pilot project, crisis stabilization services, assistive
technology pilot project, and housing and environmental adaptations. Lessons learned and
suggestions for system improvement will be shared from the results of thirteen stakeholder focus

groups and other quality improvement activities.

Parent perspectives on the participation of their children in church communities


Erica Howell

concept, relationships, and a sense of belonging increase when individuals with disability are
given a
ccess to meaningful church involvement (Vogel, Polloway, & Smith, 2006). Despite
common barriers encountered in faith
based communities (Carter, 2007), young children with
disabilities rank attending church as a favored activity and it is the primary means

of community
involvement for individuals with moderate to severe disabilities (Succiamarra, 1990). This
presentation will report on a quantitative and qualitative investigation of 30 caregivers’
perspectives on the involvement of their children in church
communities located in southern
California and the Midwest.


Does Hollywood See Me?: A Look at Disabilities Through the Lens of Pop Culture

Alson Cole, Karen Guettler

This presentation explores the ways in which persons with dis
abilities are portrayed in the media
and popular culture. The intention is to suggest ways in which we can expand our thinking as a
society to acknowledge the individuality of persons with disabilities. We want to help dispel the
singular perception of per
sons with disabilities that is often presented in the media and popular

Don't Get Burned: Preventing Caregiver Burnout

Jon Thompson, Jon Freer

Participants will learn and gain a better understanding of the stress and emotional issues they fa
as caregivers. They will learn how to identify their own stress levels, and information and risks
associated with burn out. They will learn how challenging behaviors contribute to caregiver stress,


and how to handle challenging behaviors and prevent get
ting burned out. This workshop is
targeted for all people who have felt stress in their role of caregiving, and do not want to get

Including Positive Emotions: A Positive Psychology Program for the Inclusive Journey

Colin Saby

Many parents o
f a child with a developmental disability experience heightened levels of stress.
Experiences of positive emotions are associated with more effective coping and happier people
are better at developing relationships and building rich networks of support. Po
sitive psychology
outlines, “the conditions and processes that contribute to the flourishing or optimal functioning of
people, groups, and institutions” (Gable & Haidt, 2005). Interventions that focus on gratitude,
optimism, and other positive emotions hav
e demonstrated efficacy in significantly enhancing
psychological well
being. This session will introduce a positive psychology program with
based practical daily exercises and communication strategies that are effective at
promoting lasting and
noticeable increases in positive emotions and building strength within
individuals and families who are committed to creating meaningful and fully inclusive lives.

Mom and Dad blogs are “in”, but are professionals listening?

Amy Hanreddy

Blogging is

a popular way for families to share their experiences, connect with one another and
currently serves as a growing forum to discuss issues affecting families of children with significant
disabilities. For professionals, these parent blogs provide useful i
nsights into the world of
parenting a child with significant needs. In this session, themes among almost 30 parent blogs will
be shared, along with potential ways to integrate critical readings of these narratives into teacher
preparation courses and profe
ssional development activities in schools.

High School to Transition and Adult Life

Richard Rosenberg, Linda O'Neal

This presentation will share stories of indviduals navigating High School, Transition (18
22) and
entering the adult service system. In
dividuals and or their stories will be presented.

Based Evidence is What There is In Transition

Julie Pickens

The lack of effective transition practice strategies is not for a lack of funding and efforts. In the last
thirty years, the Office
of Special Education Programs (OSEP) has funded more than five
projects in the area of transition, education and services. Thousands of articles have been
published on this topic with limited a number contributing to the evidence base in secondary
transition and none living up to “the gold standard”. The few articles that contribute to the evidence
base are mostly in student development, just once facet of a successful transition. In the area of
interagency collaboration, an area often cited as crit
ical to ensuring that students with disabilities
have a successful transition, no best practices exist at all. No truly comprehensive transition model
of research exists and there is not one on the horizon.

Life after High School: An Open Discussion

ephen Shore, Pavan Antony

This session explores stories of two high school graduates with autism. One, a college senior with
Asperger Syndrome faces difficulties in completing a social work internship, and needs to examine
realistic career possibilities.
The other lives in a group home and is fully dependent on care for
activities of daily living. Are schools really preparing students for successful transition to

What Does the Future Hold? Transition Planning for Supported Adulthood


Mary Mor

Preparing youth with significant disabilities requires evidence
based transition planning and
experiences. This session will focus on providing school practitioners with strategies to support
effective and student
centered transition planning wit
h students and families. In addition, examples
of critical school and community experiences necessary for positive adult outcomes will be shared.

Start your Wellness Plan with Laughter!

Karen McCaleb, Mary Fernandez

Parents, caregivers, teachers and
all who are involved with the care of individuals with special
needs are in danger of burnout when it is least expected. Developing a self
care plan could
increase the joy, the management of strength and energy, and the ability to connect better with
rs minimizing the intensity and frequency of burnout. Research indicates that laughter is not
only healthy but also adds years to a life. Join us for a journey to develop your own self
care plan
and to experience the benefits of laugh therapy.

ing Data in the Digital Age

Charles Dukes, Sharon Darling, Michelle LaRocque

The rapid growth of computer

and internet
based methods of data collection has shaped the way
in which studies are formulated and conducted. This poster provides a brief premie
r on different
issues related to computer

and internet
based research as a means to introduce the concept as
well as provide some recommendations for practice when planning to formulate and conduct

or internet
based research.

Transition Plann
ing: How to make it work for the most challenging students

Suzanne Fitzgerald, Candice Styer

The focus of this presentation is to provide participants with innovative ideas for creating transition
plans for students with more significant intellectual imp
airments and behavioral challenges. The
workshop will discuss innovative ways to gather information to compile student's Functional
Vocational Evaluation and to utilize the information to better prepare students for living and
working in the community.

California’s College to Career Project

Wilbert Francis, Olivia Raynor, Denise Simpson

The College to Career (C2C) project is a partnership between the Department of Rehabilitation
and the CA Community College Chancellor's Office. It provides youth wi
th intellectual disabilities
with the opportunity to attend college, learn vocationa
l skills, and become independent. The goal is
for participants to become competitively employed in an integrated setting. This presentation will
provide a history of C2C, background on the five pilot sites, and details on the progress of the

rtnerships that Support Successful Transitions

Meada Hall, Beth Harrison, Vickey Riley

This session will discuss the post school outcomes of Kentucky youth; two transition initiative that
help students transition to work and/or postsecondary education; a
nd the interagency collaboration
that have made them possible.