Current Work in Standard Test Methods Development

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Committee D30 on Composite Materials



Current Work in Standard Test Methods
Development

Carl Rousseau, D30 Chairman (LM Aero)

Adam Sawicki, D30 Vice
-
Chairman (Boeing)

Jen Rodgers, D30 Staff Mgr (ASTM)

2

Outline


ASTM D30 Overview and Overall
Objective


D30 Organization


ASTM Process Description


D30 Standards Summary


New Standards


2005 to 2009


Current Work Items


Future Objectives


Relationships

3

ASTM International Fast Facts


Formed in 1898


World
-
Wide Development of Voluntary, Full
-
Consensus Standards

for Materials, Products,
Systems & Services


12,000 Standards Developed by 138 Technical
Committees

are Administered, Published, and
Distributed by ASTM International


Over 32,500 Members from 125 Countries

Participate on ASTM Committees


ASTM Standards are Living Documents,
Continually Revised to Meet Stakeholder Needs,
Reflecting Current Technology

Each member


not
a company or
country


gets a
vote

4

Committee D30 on Composite Materials

“The Committee will develop standard test methods, practices,
terminology, and guides; sponsor symposia; stimulate research;
and exchange technical information pertaining to composite
materials (primarily those with fibrous reinforcement), as well as
to reinforcing fibers with a Young's modulus greater than 20
GPa (3 Msi).

This Committee will not develop standard specifications.”

Committee D30 formed in 1964 (with heritage to

the early ‘50s) out of Committee D20 on Plastics

Current (2009) D30 Scope

D30 Objective

A complete, effective, and coordinated suite
of testing standards for composites

5

D30 Committee Membership


OEMs


Testing Laboratories


Material Suppliers


Component Fabricators


Academic & Research Institutions


Government and Certification Agencies


US Army, Air Force, Navy, NASA


FAA, CAA


NIST, non
-
US standards groups




6

ASTM Technical Committee Organization

MAIN COMMITTEE

Subcommittee

.01

Subcommittee

.02

Subcommittee

.03

Task Group

1

Task Group

2

Technical Committees form
to address specific industry
issues. They develop
scopes to define their
jurisdiction.

Subcommittees are
established to address subsets
of specialized subject matter
under the scope of the Main
Committee.

Subcommittees further
organize their expertise
into small Task Groups.
This is the level at which
documents are first
developed and are
subsequently revised.

The 138 Technical Committees, 2,000+
Subcommittees, & thousands more Task Groups
produce 1,200 drafts, or revisions to drafts,
annually.

7

D30 Committee Organization


D30.01 Editorial and Resource Standards


D30.02 Research and Mechanics


D30.02.03 Test Method Reconstruction


D30.02.04 Interlaminar Fracture Analysis Benchmarking


D30.03 Constituent/Precursor Properties


D30.04 Lamina and Laminate Test Methods



D30.05 Structural Test Methods


D30.05.01 Civil and Marine


D30.06 Interlaminar Properties


D30.09 Sandwich Construction


D30.90 Executive


D30.91 Planning


D30.92 Awards


D30.94 Technical Specialists




8

ASTM International Balloting Process

TASK

GROUP

SUBCOMMITTEE

MAIN COMMITTEE

COMMITTEE ON
STANDARDS (COS)

1)

Starting Point.

Documents are drafted,
and continually revised, in the Task Group
by a few members who specialize in the
subject matter. This is where the bulk of
the activity occurs.

2)
A completed draft is voted on by the
Subcommittee. If approved, it moves to a
Main Committee vote. If not, it returns to the
Task Group for re
-
drafting.

3)
After S/C approval the Main Committee votes. If
approved it is presented to the Committee on
Standards for final review. Otherwise it returns to
the Task Group for re
-
work & balloting is repeated.

4)
As a final check, a standing committee
(COS) of the ASTM Board of Directors
reviews the process by which each standard
is developed or revised, to ensure compliance
with ASTM regulations.

9

D30 Standards Breakdown, 2009

Subcommittee

Standards

No.

Name

Published

Draft

D30.01

Resource Standards

6

0

D30.02

Research and Mechanics

NA

NA

D30.03

Constituent/Precursor Properties

8

0

D30.04

Lamina/Laminate Test Methods

20

3

D30.05

Structural Test Methods

13

6

D30.06

Interlaminar Properties

5

1

D30.09

Sandwich Construction

20

4

Total

72

13

10

2009 D30 Standards Summary

(with most pre
-
existing standards updated)

Constituent

Lamina(te)

Structure

Other

Tension

Compression

Shear

Unnotched Fatigue

Short
-
Beam Strength

Flexure Response

Fiber Volume

Mode I Fracture

Mixed
-
Mode Fracture

Mode I Fracture Fatigue

Ply Thickness

Moisture Absorption

Glass Transition

(and more)

Open
-
Hole Tension

Open
-
Hole Compression

Filled
-
Hole Tension

Filled
-
Hole Compression

Bearing

Bearing
-
Bypass Interaction

Bearing Fatigue

Damage Impact Resistance

Residual Strength After Damage

Sandwich Beam Flexure

Sandwich Panel Flexure

Sandwich Flexure/Creep

Fastener Pull
-
Through

(and more)

Fiber Tension

Fiber Density

Tow Density

Fiber Content

Resin Content

Volatiles Content

Fiber Areal Weight

Core Density

Core Thickness

Core Shear

Core Compression

Core Shear Fatigue

Core Water Absorption

(and more)

Terminology

Fabrication Practice

Orientation Code

General Test Guide

Textile Test Guide

Database Records

11

D4762

Gateway to D30 Standards

Standard Guide to Testing
Polymer Matrix
Composite Materials



The major 2004 revision now
briefly summarizes the scope,
advantages, and disadvantages
of related D30 standards, as well
as other commonly referenced
related standards of other ASTM
committees.


An aid in education and selection
of appropriate standards for use
with advanced composite
materials


2008 update has been
published, includes
information on standards
published 2004
-
07

12

2005
-
09: New D30 Standards

D 7078/D 7078M
: Test Method for Shear Properties of Composite Materials by the V
-
Notched Rail Shear
Method

D 7136/D 7136M
: Test Method for
Measuring the Damage Resistance of a Fiber
-
Reinforced Polymer Matrix
Composite to a Drop
-
Weight Impact Event

D 7137/D 7137M
: Test Method for
Compression Residual Strength Properties of Damaged Polymer Matrix
Composite Plates

D 7205/D7205M
: Tensile Properties of Continuously
-
Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composite Bars

D 7248/D7248M
: Test Method for Bearing/Bypass Interaction Response of Polymer Matrix Composite
Laminates Using 2
-
Fastener Specimens

D 7249/D7249M
: Test Method for Facing Properties of Sandwich Constructions by Long Beam Flexure

D 7250/D7250M
: Practice for Determining Sandwich Beam Flexural and Shear Stiffness

D 7264/D7264M
: Test Method for Flexural Properties of Polymer Matrix Composite Materials

D 7290
: Practice for Evaluating Material Property Characteristic Values for Polymeric Composites for Civil
Engineering Structural Applications

D 7291/D7291M
: Test Method for Through
-
Thickness "Flatwise" Tensile Strength and Elastic Modulus of a
Fiber
-
Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composite Material

D 7332/D7332M
: Test Method for Measuring the Fastener Pull
-
Through Resistance of a Fiber
-
Reinforced
Polymer Matrix Composite

D 7336/D7336M
: Test Method for Static Energy Absorption Properties of Honeycomb Sandwich Core
Materials

D 7337/D7337M
: Tensile Creep Rupture of Fiber Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composite Bars

13

2005
-
09: New D30 Standards (cont)

D 7028
: Test Method for Glass Transition Temperature (DMA Tg) of Polymer Matrix Composites by
Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA)

D 7522/D 7522M
: Test Method for

Pull
-
Off Strength of FRP Bonded to Concrete Substrate


14

Recent Efforts: Updates

C271/C271M:
Core Density

C272:
Sandwich Water Absorption

C273/C273M:
Sandwich Shear

C274:
Sandwich Terminology

C297/C297M:
Sandwich Flatwise Tension Strength

C363/C363M:
Honeycomb Core Node Tensile Strength

C364/C364M:

Sandwich Edgewise Compression Strength

C365/C365M:

Core Compressive Properties

C366/C366M:

Core Thickness Measurement

C393/C393M:

Sandwich Core Properties by Long Beam Flexure

C394:

Sandwich Shear Fatigue

C480:

Sandwich Flexural Creep

C481
: Sandwich Laboratory Aging

D6416/D6416M:

Sandwich 2D Plate Flexure Properties

D6772:

Core Dimensional Stability

D6790:

Core Poisson’s Ratio

D7249/D7249M:

Sandwich Facing Properties by Long Beam Flexure

D7250/D7250M:

Determining Sandwich Beam Flexural & Shear Stiffness

D7336/D7336M:

Honeycomb Core Static Energy Absorption

F1645/F1645M:

Honeycomb Core Water Migration

9 D30.09 standards
updated to standard
D30 format to
improve
consistency.

15

Recent Efforts: Sandwich Long Beam
Flexure Standards

In 2006, C393
-
00 was replaced with 3 standards:

C393:
core shear stiffness and strength by long beam flexure (test method)


3
-
point loading configuration is standard; alternative configurations retained for
historical continuity.


Includes guidelines for specimen design to promote core shear failure.

D7249:
facing stiffness and strength by long beam flexure (test method)


4
-
point loading configuration is standard.


Includes guidelines for specimen design to promote facing failure.

D7250:
determining sandwich beam flexural and shear stiffness (practice)


Data reduction and calculations for flexural and shear stiffness determination
using C393 and D7249.

C393

D7249

16

Recent Efforts:

Civil Infrastructure Standards


D30.05 subcommittee working with ACI Committee 440 to publish civil
infrastructure composite test methods.


TG consists of about 20 D30 and ACI subject matter experts.


Key contacts are Drs. Abdul Zureick and Russell Gentry (Georgia Tech).


D30 met jointly with ACI in March 2009 (San Antonio, TX).


17 ACI 440 documents being transitioned into ASTM documents.


Four ACI standards are currently published as ASTM standards:


D 7205/D7205M:

Tensile Properties of Continuously
-
Reinforced Polymer Matrix
Composite Bars


D 7290:

Practice for Evaluating Material Property Characteristic Values for
Polymeric Composites for Civil Engineering Structural Applications


D 7337/D7337M:

Tensile Creep Rupture of Fiber Reinforced Polymer Matrix
Composite Bars


D 7522/D 7522M:

Pull
-
Off Strength for FRP Bonded to Concrete Substrate


Another ACI standard is in D30 committee ballot:


WK17184:

Tensile Properties of Fiber
-
Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites
used for Strengthening of Civil Structures

17

Recent Efforts:

New DMA Tg Standard


D 7028 for glass transition temperature by Dynamic Mechanical
Analysis (DMA) was published in 2007.


Based upon process improvements derived from a round
-
robin study.


Significant efforts by Mike Stuart (Cytec) and Joy Wu (Hexcel).


Key process improvements:


Guidance on equipment calibration.


Methods for characterizing and interpreting DMA thermograms.


A research report from the round
-
robin testing is in preparation.

18

Current Standards Initiatives


Draft standard test methods are currently in
-
work for a
number of other items, including:


Open
-
hole fatigue testing


Additional testing modes for interlaminar fracture


Sandwich cleavage fracture toughness


Non
-
ambient environmental testing


Sandwich panel impact resistance


Sandwich panel residual strength

19

Possible New Standards

Other technical areas for possible D30
standards development include:


HPLC and FTIR


Large
-
scale CAI


Creep


Stress
-
rupture


Notched laminate testing guide


FEM
-
based VCCT benchmarking


20

BENCHMARK PROBLEM: DCB SPECIMEN



2D plane strain and plane stress analysis


Full 3D solid
analysis


DCB benchmark



Virtual Crack Closure Technique (VCCT)

UD24: [0]
24

T300/914C

2h=3.0 mm

2L=150.0 mm

B=25.0 mm

a=30.5 mm



G
I

1
2

ab

F
yi



v
l


v
l
*






G
II

1
2

ab

F
xi



u
l


u
l
*






21

MANUALLY CREATING A BENCHMARK
SOLUTION FOR A DCB SPECIMEN*



G

P
2
2


C
P

A



G
T
G
c

P
2
P
crit
2





P
crit

P
G
c
G
T
,


crit


G
c
G
T

Mathematical relationship between load
and energy release rate


Load/displacement plots for different
delamination lengths a (

⼲/ㄮ〠浭)


Benchmark case

* R. Krueger, NASA/TM
-
2008
-
215123, 2008.

0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
a=30mm
a=31mm
a=32mm
a=33mm
a=34mm
a=35mm
a=40mm
load P,
N
applied opening displacement

/2, mm
G= 0.30 kJ/m
2

/2=1.0
G= 0.27 kJ/m
2
G= 0.24 kJ/m
2
G= 0.22 kJ/m
2
G= 0.19 kJ/m
2
G= 0.17 kJ/m
2
G= 0.11 kJ/m
2
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
a=30 mm
a=31 mm
a=32 mm
a=33 mm
a=34 mm
a=35 mm
a=40 mm
benchmark
load P,
N
applied opening displacement

/2, mm
G= G
Ic
=
0.17 kJ/m
2

c
ri t
/2=0.75
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
benchmark
ABAQUS
load P,
N
applied opening displacement

/2, mm
22

Future D30 Objectives


Add more quantitative precision statements based on
accurate and effective round
-
robin test programs


Improve balance between a concise lab procedure and
detailed explanatory guidance or requirements


Increase exposure and acceptance in non
-
aerospace and
international markets


Expand into non
-
aerospace statistical assurance of
measured properties

23

Current and Future Relationships


Cooperation with CMH
-
17 (MIL
-
HDBK
-
17) on consensus
test methods and testing guidance


Cooperation with SAE Committee P
-
17 on test methods for
consensus standard composite material specifications


Cooperation with ACI Committee 440 on civil infrastructure
standards


Standards supporting marine product development


Collaboration and joint meetings/conferences with
CMH
-
17, ASC,and SAMPE


Future interaction with independent test lab certification
organizations, such as PRI/NADCAP

24

D30 Committee Contacts

D30 Officers (2008
-
2009)

Chairman, Carl Rousseau (LM Aero)

Vice
-
Chair, Adam Sawicki (Boeing IDS)

Recording Secretary,
Mark Chris (Bell Helicopter)

Membership Secretary,
James Ratcliffe (NASA)

Past Chairman, Rich Fields (LM M&FC)

Past Chairman, Gene Camponeschi (US Navy)


D30 Members
-
At
-
Large

Bill Bertelsen (Gougeon Brothers)

Paul Lagace (MIT)

Jian Li (Boeing IDS)

Steve Ward (Consultant)


D30 Subcommittee Chairs

.01, Editorial/Resource, Paul Lagace (MIT)

.02, Research & Mechanics, Ron Kreuger (NIA)

.03, Constituent/Precursor, Bill Grant (Specialty Materials)

.04, Lamina/Laminate, Mark Kistner (USAF)

.05, Structural, Mark Chris (Bell Helicopter)

.06, Interlaminar, James Ratcliffe (NIA)

.09, Sandwich, Steve Ward (consultant)

ASTM Staff

Jen Rodgers, D30 Staff Mgr

Barbara Lake, D30 Admin Asst

Karen Wilson, D30 Secretary

Jessica Rosiak, D30 Editor

ASTM International

Committee D30 on Composite Materials

www.astm.org

www.astm.org/COMMIT/D30.htm