Identify the propositions as A, E, I, or O and determine whether they ...

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16 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

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Identify the propositions as A, E, I, or O and determine whether they are OP (Ordinary
Propositions), CQP (Circumstantially Quantified Propositions), MP (Modal Propositions), or IP
(Indeterminate Propositions).

e.g.

a. Cebuanos

are industrious. a. I


IP


1. Material security is not always a guarantee for one’s happiness.

2.
Every citizen has to pay taxes.

3.
It is impossible that huge energy explosions in the universe are caused by heavy
electromagnetic fields.

4. Usually, t
hermal energies cause metals to expand.

5. Many Filipinos dream of having a corruption
-
free government.

6.
Plasma cosmology need not conform to the claims of big bang cosmology.

7. Whatever is done in love occurs beyond good and evil.

8.
Nothing beats the
real thing.

9. It is possible that a possible world will come true.

10. Not every government official is morally bankrupt.

11. Several totalitarian governments are now transitioning towards a democratic society.

12.
All corporate officials are expected to
file their income taxes before the deadline.

13. A lot of dengue cases are detected in the northern part of Cebu.

14. Most Filipino dishes are innovations from Spanish dishes.

15. Everything in this world is temporary.

16. Oftentimes, the workers’ rights a
re not respected.

17. Investors in Cebu are cautious about the increasing cases of common crimes.

18. At no time should a student be complacent about his or her studies.

19.
No law is retrospective.

20. Learning need not be dull.


B. Inferences

In each
number below do the following: a) determine the opposition between propositions;
and b) determine the correctness of the inference by applying the laws of oppositional
inferences.

If the inference is wrong, give the truth
-
value (true, false, or doubtful) o
f the
conclusion.

e.g.

b.
It is true that many clients are demanding. Hence, it is possibly true that every client is
demanding.

Answer. b.

Subalternation; Correct.


1.
To say that all government officials are corrupt is false. Hence, it is true that some

government officials are corrupt.

2. It is true that it is impossible for a human being to fly without navigational aids. Consequently,
is also true it is necessary for a human being to fly without navigational aids.

3. It is false that some animals are
plants. Then, it is true that some animals are not plants.

4. To say that it will not always rain is true. Ergo, it is possibly true that it will always rain.

5. It is true that it is necessary that all motor vehicles pass emission tests. Thus,
it is neces
sarily
true that it is impossible that all motor vehicles pass emission tests.

6. Some trees bear flowers on February. Ergo, it is necessarily true that some trees do not bear
flowers on February.

7. No restaurant offers discounts on Valentine’s Day is fal
se. Consequently, it is true that some
restaurants offer discounts on Valentine’s Day.

8. Love always endures is false. Hence, love sometimes endures is true.

9. Theories cannot accept contradiction is true. Therefore, theories need not accept
contradictio
n is also true.

10. Every engineer has professional license is false. Hence, no engineer has professional license
is also false.

11.
It is true that s
ome biologists advocate
sentiocentrism. Hence, it is false that no biologist
advocates sentiocentrism.

12.

Under some conditions, evil is allowed is true. Thus, evil is, in no condition, allowed is false.

13. It is true that it is necessary that you register in order to vote. Hence, it is also true that it is
impossible that you register in order to vote.

14.
Philippines will never be better is false. Ergo, Philippines will always be better is true.

15. Few SUVs (Sports Utility Vehicles) are stolen is true. Hence, every vehicle is stolen is false.