Working Group 1:

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29 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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Working Group 1:

Reconciling national planning instruments


Questions:

1. What were the main successes experienced over the
past 20 years of strategy
-
making for SD with respect to
reconciling national planning instruments?

2. What were the main challenges and failures?

3. What do we need to do today to build on the successes
and overcome the challenges?

Dr. Ingeborg Niestroy

PublicStrategy

for Sustainable Development

www.ps4sd.eu

inge.niestroy@psd4sd.eu

(1) Lessons learned: SDSs need…


a cyclical, iterative process with monitoring and revisions


objectives and (quantified) targets (for credibility, accountability and keeping course), with
indicators,


similar issues with come up in the context of
SDGs!


to be embedded in a governance setting that enables/supports

-

crossing multi
-
sector, multi
-
level, multi
-
actor and

-

long
-
term: finding ways to avoid or soften (political) U
-
turns

-

metagovernance
: smart mixtures of governance styles (hierarchy, market, network)

-

transgovernance
: involvement of a broad range of knowledge


leadership AND ownership, bottom
-
up AND top
-
down



where to focus on depends on the starting point


moving towards the other ‘end’


More concrete:


Governments to do their job

(at all levels):

-

there is no way around improving policy coherence and establishing mechanisms for horizontal and
vertical coordination

-

this needs to have commitment and need to be (powerful) arrangements

-

openness for dialogue (on policies) and partnerships (in action) is a must


Civil society to take action,
(continue to)
raise awareness, keep steam in the kettle


Business to explore opportunities
(R&D to be fostered? Top
-
down regulation often triggers
innovation?!): positive examples of business being engaged in SD + showing it


Overall:

How to design strategies (processes) in a way that they foster “
transitions
”?

Inge Niestroy, 14.11.2012

UNOSD Korea

2

(2) Supporting instruments / approaches


SD (and similar) strategies
:



support needed for the ‘governance of strategies’

.. do not use it as a ‘plan’ that needs to be implemented, but as a
process steering instrument


SD councils
:

-

invention of Rio 1992, as a tool for better policy coordination
and

the
involvement of non
-
governmental actors

-

but: the label was used for the governmental coordination mechanism
(closed shops), bodies often
died out

-

Rio outcome document now says: “multi
-
stakeholder bodies”


(
Sust
.) Impact Assessment
: European Commission’ system as
credible role model for assessing the impacts of all policy proposals in
the 3 SD dimensions



useful, check for simple use, do not get lost in sophistication (e.g. of
modeling etc.)



but not instead of EIA/SEA

Inge Niestroy, 14.11.2012

UNOSD Korea

3

(3) SDSs and other strategies/plans


Example EU SDS
:

-

also difficult relation with ‘Lisbon strategy’ “for growth and jobs”, now ‘Europe 2020’
“for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth”

-

also somewhat complex [see graph]

-

criticised

for ‘only reflecting policies in place’, but:



the conceptual work was/is:


-

setting priorities (criteria: urgency, irreversibility..)


-

identifying links and contradictions (i.e. contribution to policy coherence)



Problem
: relation of different strategies/plans/(policies)

-

power and commitment behind one or another

-

ideally SDS the ‘overarching one’, as it is the only holistic one

-

but: only in few cases close to that (e.g. CH, DE…), and even there:



always and over and over necessary to make it strong(
er
), put it in the spotlight,
always against short
-
termism of politics (fallacy of democracies)

-

coherence of strategies is a challenge because of different ownerships:



always raise awareness, embrace, foster ownership/’own’ gains

-

political communication and ‘engineering’ is key




Can another strategy take over the role of an SDS?

-

if another overarching one: needs to be ‘
sustainablised


-

rather
sectoral

ones: no



Inge Niestroy, 14.11.2012

UNOSD Korea

4

Inge Niestroy, 14.11.2012

UNOSD Korea

5

Inge Niestroy, 14.11.2012

UNOSD Korea

6

(5) SDGs: a unique opportunity?!

MDGs


… to bring the two worlds/agendas/goals together (SD and
development cooperation), because of:
universality of the SDGs


Will be challenging already methodologically


same goals, different
targets


Take the opportunity,
-

at crossroads!


Stake is apparently felt high:

-

quite some quarrels about membership in the ‘open working group’

-

competition with
MDGs post 2015 process


hopefully getting
constructively solved


SDGs will bring back approaches and instruments that are weaker in
the outcome document than before, in particular:

-

SD strategies: much stronger commitment in
JPoI



to solve: relation to other strategies, e.g. National Development
Plans, Poverty Reduction Strategies (mainly in the South; in Europe:
EU 2020), semi
-
sectoral

strategies, e.g. for climate change

Inge Niestroy, 14.11.2012

UNOSD Korea

7

(1) Environmental integration
-

SD


Environmental problems



from end of the pipe to the “
environmental integration
requirement
” (since 1987 in EC Treaty)



‘greening’ all (
sectoral
) policies (… incl. aid + dev. coop. …)

… now typically called “environmental sustainability”


Procedural instruments since 80s/90s, in EU and beyond (US
earlier!):
EIA/SEA

(also: Espoo Convention for
transboundary
)


+ social aspects + global dimension (equity) + long
-
term



“sustainable development” (
Brundtland
)


Tension between N and S, between environment and development



sustainable development agreed as concept to reconcile

(1992 Rio)

Inge Niestroy, 14.11.2012

UNOSD Korea

8

(2) Rio debates on GE


The conflict is back, or has
never disappeared and
becomes (more) apparent with
emerging economies:

-

“first develop then clean up”

-

suspicion about GE

(green protectionism,
monetization of nature), fueled
by..








Inge Niestroy, 14.11.2012

UNOSD Korea

9



Despite the well
-
known links that environmental degradation hits the
poorest first and most


However: The North has reduced environmental pollution, but not its
ecological footprint,
and

economies are failing


was not so credible








(3) ‘Greening’ and ‘distribution’


Greening
:

-

Living within the carrying capacities of the planet (“planetary
boundaries”), environmental “guard rails”


-

Notion of limits / resource scarcity


Distribution / Equity
:

-

Fairer shares between N and S, but also:

-

What about equity within countries of the South (GINI coefficient …)?




Sustainable production, ok, but
sustainable consumption
almost
more challenging:

-

in the North anyhow (awareness (+), realities not)

-

but now also rising middle
-
class in the South, desiring western (US!)
high
-
consumption life
-
styles, follow bad models in urban development
etc.




Efficiency increase
is important, but not enough, decoupling does
not work, rebound effects etc.:
growth


de
-
growth debate



Inge Niestroy, 14.11.2012

UNOSD Korea

10


Contraction

and
Convergence

Inge Niestroy, 14.11.2012

UNOSD Korea

11

Environmental Space

Developing countries

Industrial countries

Former Eastern
European countries

Level of welfare

Use of natural resources pp

Ceiling (= overconsumption)

Floor (=
dignity life line
)

Based on Rochol

(4) Communities: Environment and ‘
Devco



The communities are strangely apart


along the lines

of the substantial / belief system (?) conflict



reasons ?


Among NGOs: partly conflicts, partly convergence


European Commission (DG ENV: DG DEVCO difficult to collaborate
with)<

European Parliament: two Committees (competition prevails)


National Ministries (and Parliaments): look for good practice
examples


Agencies for development cooperation:

some have enshrined SD (e.g. German GIZ), but…


UN system: also here a rather strong divide?

Inge Niestroy, 14.11.2012

UNOSD Korea

12

(7) Challenges for capacity building


From an environmental perspective: Governance is key for moving the
SD agenda ahead


Skills as ‘agent’ is key
for people working on SD:

-

making the links, being able to ‘webbing’ (into society, between silos ..)

-

strong communication skills

-

a team
-
based and collaborative approach is key: people are specialists,
but need to learn to talk and interact with other communities, while some
are needed that have the ‘SD glasses on’ (“champions”?)

-

include MGA in training?

-

Civil society actors need to learn to develop self
-
esteem (vs.
Calimero
)


Government
:

-

If high
-
level horizontal coordination bodies take only short
-
term decisions
(
politicised
),
ways

needs to be found to open it up (with experts and/or CS)

-

Set up inclusive systems, with a piece to gain for everybody

-

Be a role model with green/sustainable public procurement

-

Work on vertical coordination (UNDP to work across levels..)


Budget rules
internal and external:

-

not possible to switch between budget lines: amendments are required in
national and international rule

-

short term project orientation, and inflexibility, in international funding: to
be revised (finding a balance between flexibility and avoiding abuse)

Inge Niestroy, 14.11.2012

UNOSD Korea

13






Inge Niestroy, 14.11.2012

UNOSD Korea

14

2000: but now: