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Attribution Model
-
Integrated Food
Protection Training
System


Kieran J. Fogarty, PhD.

Interdisciplinary Health Sciences
PhD. Program

Western Michigan University


Agenda



Brief Overview of IFPTI, FDA, CDC and other Federal Agency Efforts in
Food Safety Training for Food Regulators



Panel Discussion



Feasibility of Conducting Impact/Attribution Modeling for Food
Safety Training for Food Regulators



Operational Steps for Implementation of Impact/Attribution Modeling
in Food Safety Training for Food Regulators


Under
-
Trained,
Under
-
Funded


State and local agencies perform more than 90% of all
food safety inspections conducted at U.S. food
manufacturing and distribution establishments. Yet, there
is:


No Mandatory Training Requirement


No Career
-
Spanning Standards
-
Based Training Curriculum


No National Integrated Food Safety System



The overwhelming reason for the lack of training at the
state and local level is inadequate funding.









50 State Meeting
-

1998





FDA Food Protection Plan
-

2004




50 State Meeting


2008




GWU Report


“Enhancing Roles of State & Local…”




FDA Internal & External Workgroups




White House Working Group




2011 Food Safety Modernization Act


Integrated National Food Safety System


FDA Training and Certification System

IFPTI Role In Building IFSS Training Infrastructure

Specific Aim #1

Develop and deliver
standards
-
based
training programs not currently
offered through a Curriculum


Specific Aim #2

Develop a Training Network
to provide
technical, management, and
leadership training to regulatory and
public health officials

Specific Aim #3

Serve as a hub for the administration

of
the Training Network


Specific Aim #4


Build an Instructor Cadre

Food & Agriculture Protection Training Consortium

Over 700 existing courses
identified and classified

Food Safety Course Inventory

Challenges
-

Existing Courses:




Lack standardization



Availability



Consistency



Lack peer review



Updating to current policies



Duplication



Contradictions



There are no standards in place for food
protection course development, determining
course needs, setting priorities, etc.

Knowledge, Skills, Abilities

Education



knowledge base

Training



skills development

Employee Development
-

growth of skills
and abilities through conscious and
unconscious learning


Development includes

education and training

as well as:



Coaching



Observing



Mentoring

Key Deliverables


Inventory all existing training courses


Identify competencies and job descriptions


Sync with FDA JTA process


Build the national curriculum


Identify quality course standards


Develop course acceptance procedures


Prioritize development against curriculum


Pursue IACET and ANSI quality standards





Building a National Food Protection Curriculum

Certificate and CEU Issuance (IACET/ANSI)

Leadership

Professional Level Program Certificates

Train the Trainer

Executive Program

Leadership
Program

Annual Updates

Emerging Issues

Advocacy

Budget

Change
Manageme
nt

Continuity
of
Operations

Human
Resource
Manageme
nt

Legislative
Affairs

Policy
Making

Public
Relations

Resource
Leveraging

Risk
Analysis

(Manageme
nt &
Communicat
ion)

Stakeholde
r Support

(Leadership)


L4
-

4000



Technical
Specialist:

Professional Level Program Certificates

Fellowship in Food Protection

Animal Drugs

BSE
Investigations

Medicated Feed

Non
-
Medicated
Feed

Rendering Plants

Shellfish

Tissue Residue

Acidified Foods

Aseptic
Processes

Biotechnology
and
Nanotechnology

Dietary
Supplements

Economic
Adulteration

Infant Formula

Juice HACCP

Low Acid Canned
Food

Medical Foods

Pasteurization

Seafood HACCP

Web Site
Reviews

Specialized
Process

Standardization

(Master)

L3
-

3000



Unprocessed Concentration

Electives

Manufactured Concentration

Electives

Retail Concentration

Electives



Audit

Food Defense Vulnerability Assessment (Carver Plus
Shock, etc)

Food Emergency Response (ICS)

Risk Analysis

Electives



Research
Design

Statistical
Analysis



Journey Level:

Professional Level Program Certificates

Aquaculture

Dairy

Food Animals (Eggs)

Produce (Sprouts, Leafy
Green Vegetables)

Shellfish

Additives

Animal Food Processing

Commodity
-
Specific

Feed

Food

Milk or Milk Products

Meat & Poultry

Packaging

Seafood/ Shellfish

Active Managerial Control

Catering

Cottage Foods

Food Preparations
Techniques

Food Service

Grocery

Plan Review

Retail HACCP/ Variance

Vending, Temp, Other

Unprocessed Concentration

Electives

Manufactured Concentration (labeling. etc)

Electives

Retail Concentration (labeling, etc.)

Electives

Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs)

Allergens

Food Processing & Preservation

Food Salvage & Disposal

Ingredients & Additives

Imports

Formula Review

Communication Skills

Epidemiology, Food
Borne Illness
Investigation &
Response

Food Defense &
Emergencies (ICS)

Food Safety Programs


(HACCP, GMPs, GAPs,
GWPs, SSOPs, Personal
Health and Hygiene,
Sanitary Design and
Construction )

Food Transportation

Investigation,
Sampling Techniques,
& Laboratory
Methodology

Law

Professional (soft)
Skills (EG time
management, etc)

Risk Analysis
(Management,
Assessment, &
Communication)

Science &
Technology

Traceability & Recalls



(Application)

L2
-

2000

(Applied Inspection
Techniques)

Integrated Food Safety System

Entry Level:

Professional Level Program Certificates

Unprocessed Foundations

Manufactured Foundations

Feed Only

Retail Foundations

Allergens (ORAU)

Labeling
(ORAU)
Manufactured & Feed

Food Defense Awareness
(ORAU)

Environmental Health
Safety (ORAU)

Inspections, Compliance & Enforcment (ORAU)

Sampling
(ORAU)

Integrated Food Safety System Orientation

(Knowledge)

Jurisdiction

L1
-

1000

Employee Safety



Communication Skills

Epidemiology (Not in Feed)

HACCP

Microbiology (not in Feed)

Prevailing Statutes, Regulations & Ordinances

Public Health Principles



(ORA
-
U Level I
-

Feed, Milk & Local, Shellfish, Standard 2: Manufactured, Retail)

Key Deliverables


Establish a learning
management system


Create a common registration
system/ house student data


Identify quality standards for
instructors


Build instructor capacity


Set certification paths through
program certificates




Certification & Standards

National Curriculum

CEUs


Maintenance requirements


Hours on the job


Standardization


Professional Certification


Course Certificates


Program Certificates


MN
-
42

WI
-
26

IA
-
6


MI
-
341

MO
-
6

IL
-
44


IN
-
23

OH
-
13

KS
-
9

NE
-
10

SD
-
1

ND
-
2

MT
-
6

WA
-

38

OR
-
23

CA
-
16

NV
-
1

ID

WY
-
1

UT
-
14

AZ
-
11

NM
-
4

TX
-
86

OK
-
9

CO
-
8

LA
-
65

AR


FL
-
66

KY
-
37

TN
-
2

MS
-
76

AL
-

39

GA
-
19

SC
-
12

NC
-
27

VA
-
55

WV
-
6

PA
-
22

NY
-
41

ME
-
2

AK
-
9

HI
-
3

VT
-
2

NH
-
11


MA
-
15


RI
-
1


CT
-
3

NJ
-
5


MD
-
30


DC
-
11

DE
-
1

Armenia
-
2



India
-
1

Canada
-
3


Turks & Caicos Islands
-
2

China
-
3


Vietnam
-
2

Iceland
-
3

Total # of Students:
1329

IFPTI Participants by State

Report Period: April 1, 2009
-

July 19, 2011

A
Community of Action
Advancing Food Protection

FOOD PROTECTION
TRAINING RESEARCH
COUNCIL



Purpose

Determine the feasibility and interest in the potential

establishment of
an impact model for determining the levels of attribution of an
integrated national food protection training system in reducing the
prevalence of food borne illness in the United States.


Members: USDA, FDA, IFPTI,CDC, DHS.




Research Council Goals


Develop
evidence of impact
of standards
-
based
training



Linking standard
-
based training to meaningful
associated outcome measures to
determine
effectiveness
.



Metrics to measure public health impact of a fully

integrated food safety training and certification
system




Issues to Resolve


Should we primarily focus the development of our
effectiveness modeling on outcomes linked to prevention
instead of adverse events (food borne illness)?



Should we utilize existing models or develop new
m
odeling
f
oundation for our specific needs?



Recognize disciplinary variances in assumptions
regarding modeling expectations (Economics,
Epidemiology, Applied Statistics, Managements)




Potential Data Sources




Closed Systems (easier to access)





Secondary data of existing surveillance systems





Study outbreaks associated to specific pathogens

linked to specific training efforts




Potential Analytical Issues




Do we need to determine the expected error rate of

what we should expect as the number of illnesses

with an ideal training system (baseline)?





Should we establish “errors of training’

measurements?




Agreement




We need a model that is rigorous enough that will allow us to

gather information to determine if training makes a difference.






The issue then becomes what we mean by “difference” which

seems to be a critical first issue to resolve.





Different levels of modeling based on specific needs of site

specific instances might be needed.





Link training to more probable outcome measures which

focuses more on prevention instead of a reduction in reported

food borne illnesses.





We should consider a model that accounts for quality

measures at each step in the food chain to determine:

knowledge/attitude/practice.




Summary




Need Interdisciplinary group with common interest in

attributing training initiatives to measure impacts





Realistic expectations


impact modeling has

inherent flaws





Foundation for cost
-
effectiveness analysis, policy


making and identifying EB training research


DISCUSSION


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