pentingnya fosfat bagi tanaman tebu

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FOSFAT


BAGI


TANAMNA TEBU




Diabstraksikan

oleh
:

Smno.jursntnhfpub.des2012


P DAN TANAMAN TEBU


Pengendalian P
-
tersedia dalam tanah sangat
menentukan hasil tebu dan gula.


Perkembangan akar tebu akan lambat kalau suplai
P
-
tersedia terkendala, sehingga akan muncul
gangguan dalam proses penyerapan air dan hara
oleh akar tanaman.


Defisiensi P banyak terjadi pada tebu
-
ratoon, dan
gejala defisisensi semakin parah dengan
bertambahnya umur tanaman.

P bersifat mobil dalam tubuh tanaman, sehingga
gejala defisiensi muncul pertama pada daun tua.
Defisiensi P ini mengakibatkan pertumbuhan
tanaman kerdil. Panjang ruas, panjang batang dan
diameter batang tebu semuanya mengecil kalau
terjadi defisiensi P.

Mula
-
mula gejala defisiensi pada daun tidak
tampak, kemudian daun menjadi slender dan hijau
kebiruan warnanya. Warna merah dan ungu juga
dapat muncul, terutama di bagian pucuk daun dan
tepi daun yang terkena cahaya langsung. Akhirnya
helai daun mati mulai dari ujung daun dan
menjalar sepanjang tepi daun.



PEMUPUKAN FOSFAT TANAMAN
TEBU



Bagi tanaman tebu ternyata hara P sangat penting
untuk pertumbuhan akar, pemanjangan batang,
kualitas tebu dan hasil gula.


Hara P membantu serapan N oleh tanaman, ketidak
-
seimbangan N/P tanaman menyebabkan tanaman
tebu mudah roboh dan mengganggu kualitas tebu.



Efisiensi pupuk fosfat biasanya agak rendah, karena
sebagian P
-
tersedia dalam pupuk setelah
diaplikasikan ke tanah akan diikat oleh komponen
tanah menjadi bentuk P
-
tidak tersedia.




Untuk mengatasi kendala fiksasi fosfat oleh tanah,
disarankan juga aplikasi fosfat melalui daun tebu.




KETERSEDIAAN P
-
TANAH:

HASIL DAN KUALITAS TEBU



Ketersediaan

P
-
tanah

dan

aplikasi

pupuk

P
sangat

memperbaiki

pertumbuhan

tebu
,
hasil

tebu

dan

kualitas

rendemennya
.


Indeks

luas

daun

tanaman

tebu

dan

produksi

bahan

kering

meningkat

pada

aplikasi

pupuk

P
dosis

tinggi
.


Distribusi

pertumbuhan

akar

tanaman

tebu

ke

arah

vertikal

dan

horisontal

juga

berhubungan

erat

dengan

ketersediaan

P
-
tanah
.


Hasil

tebu

maksimum

sebesar

76 t/ha
dicapai

pada

tanah

yang
kaya

P
-
tersedia
,
sedangkan

pada

tanah

yang
miskin

P
-
tersedia

ternyata

hasil

tebu

hanya

sekitar

53 t/ha.

Hasil

gula

pada

kebun

tebu

yang
kaya

P
-
tersedia

sebesar

12 t/ha
dan

pada

tanah

yang
miskin

P
-
tersedia

sebesar

8
t/ha.

Kandungan

P
-
tersedia

yang
terlalu

tinggi

dapat

menekan

penyerapan

Zn
dan

Cu
oleh

tanaman

tebu
.
Kandungan

P
-
tersedia

dalam

tanah

yang
dianggap

optimum
adalah

11
-

17 mg P2O5/100 g
tanah
;
ditinjau

dari

hasil

tebu

dan

gula
.




Sumber
:
Japanese Journal of Tropical Agriculture

41

(2)

52

59

RESPON TANAMAN TEBU thd

P
-
TANAH



Produktivuitas tebu dapat ditingkatkan dnegan
pemupukan P yang dikombinasikan dengan N, K, S
dan Zn.

Aplikasi pupuk P dosis tinggi dalam strategi
pemupukan yang berimbang dapat meningkatkan
hasil tebu dan hasil gula.

Perbaikan ketersediaan P
-
tanah dapat
meningkatkan hasil tebu hingga 31% lebih tinggi
dibandingkan dnegan kondisi kontrol.

Pendekatan pemupukan P yang lebih berimbang
ternyata diperlukan untuk meningkatkan hasil tebu
dan hasil gula.

Aplikasi pupuk P dapat merangsang pertumbuhan
akar tebu, merangsang tumbuhnya anakan ,
mempengaruhi pertumbuhan tebu yang dapat
digiling, dan meningkatkan hasil tebu per hektar.

Cukupnya status P tanaman tebu sangat
diperlukan untuk akumulasi simpanan gula dalam
jaringan batang tebu.

Sekitar 10
-

20% dari pupuk P yang diaplikasikan
ke tanah dapat dimanfaatkan oleh tanaman tebu
dalam satu musim tanam.


Sumber: Better Crops International

Vol. 17, No. 1, May 2003

Hubungan antara dosis pupuk P dengan P
-
tanah
ekstraks Na
-
bikarbonat setelah 20 hari masa
inkubasi tanah.

Sumber: Better Crops International

Vol. 17, No. 1, May 2003

REKOMENDASI PUPUK P
TANAMAN TEBU


Rekomendasi pupuk P didasarkan pada hasil
analisis tanah, disesuaikan dengan kapasitas
tanah untuk memfiksasi P.


Pupuk P diaplikasikan dalam larikan (alur)
untuk memenuhi kebutuhan P tanaman tebu
dan ratoon pertama.


Tujuan rekomendasi pemupukan P adalah
meningkatkan kandungan P
-
tanah hingga
mendekati 206 kg P
2
O
5
/ha, seperti contoh:

P
-
tanah

kg
P
2
O
5
/ha

160

115

68

28

Dosis

pupuk

kg
P
2
O
5
/ha

46

92

137

183

ASAM HUMAT MEMPERBAIKI
KETERSEDIAAN HARA DAN
SERAPANNYA OLEH TANAMAN



Penggunaan asam humat bersama dengan
pupuk ternyata dapat meningkatkan
ketersediaan hara dalam tanah dan
serapannya oleh tanaman.


Aplikasi asam humat 20 kg/ha bersama
dengan 100% dosis pupuk rekomendasi
dapat meningkatkan ketersediaan dan
serapan hara makro dan Fe, Zn.


Aplikasi asam humat 0.1% melalui semprotan
daun dapat emningkatkan serapan hara oleh
tanaman dibandingkan dengan kontrol.




Sumber: J.S.VIRGINE TENSHIA and P. SINGARAM

Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry,
Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore


ASAM HUMAT MENINGKATKAN
KETERSEDIAAN P
-
TANAH



Asam humat dapat memacu proses
pelarutan mineral fosfat dalam tanah secara
lambat & kontinyu, sehingga ketersediaan P
-
tanah meningkat.


Asam humat dapat memperbaiki aktivitas
ensim fosfatase dalam tanah, ensim ini
menghidrolisis ester
-
fosfat menjadi fosfat
anorganik, sehingga ketersediaan P
-
tanah
meningkat.


Asam humat mereduksi kemampuan tanah
memfiksasi fosfat, sehingga ketersediasan P
-
tanah meningkat.



ASAM HUMAT + PUPUK NPK

MEMPERBAIKI KETERSEDIAAN HARA
TANAH



Aplikasi asam humat bersama dengan pupuk
NPK meningkatkan ketersediaan unsur hara
dalam tanah (Vertisol dan Alfisol) bagi
tanaman.


Perlakuan aplikasi terbaiki adalah 10 kg ha
-
1
asam humat (soil application) + 0.1% asam
humat semprotan daun (dua kali) + 0.3%
asam humat + 100% NPK dosis
rekomendasi.


Perlakuan lain yang sama baiknya adalah
aplikasi asam humat 20 kg ha
-
1 HA (soil
application) + 100% NPK dosis rekomendasi.



Sumber:

Journal Acta Agronomica Hungarica

Volume 52, Number 3 / November 2004

P
-
tanah bagi TEBU



Kandungan P
-
tanah ekstraks air (Pw)
dapat digunakan sebagai dasar
rekomendasi pupuk P bagi tanaman
tebu.


Rekomendasi pupuk fosfat bagi tebu
dosisnya berkisar 0 hingga 75 pounds
P
2
O
5

per acre; tanah
-
tanah yang
mempunyai Pw lebih ebsar dari 6 lbs per
acre tidak perlu dipupuk fosfat.


Semua rekomendasi pemupukan P
disusun berdasarkan hasil analisis
contoh tanah yang diambil sebelum
tanam.


Hubungan antara kandungan P
-
tanah dan
hasil relatif tanaman tebu

Hubungan antara dosis pupuk P dengan hasil
tebu ratoon

Dampak pengapuran pada tanah
-
tanah yang
kaya Al dan Fe

Menjenuhi tapak
-
tapak sorpsi dengan anion
sejenis

PELARUTAN FOSFAT


Asam humat dan fulvat meningkatkan
pelarutan aluminum phosphate (AlPO
4
) dan
iron phosphate (FePO
4
).


Jumlah P yang dilepaskan oleh HA dan FA
meningkat dengan waktu. Asam humat lebih
efektif melarutkan logam
-
fosfat dibandingkan
dengan FA.


Hasil pelarutan ini mengandung ortofosfat
bebas dan sedikit kompleks P
-
asam humat.


Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa asam humat
berperan sebagai khelator Al dan Fe, dan
membebaskan anion ortofosfat..


Pertumbuhan tanaman yang diberi AlPO
4

atau FePO
4

menjadi lebih baik kalau ada
asam humat atau fulvat.


Sumber: Communications in Soil Science and Plant
Analysis.
Volume 29,
Issue 5 & 6,
1998, Pages 535
-

544

KOMPLEKS P


ASAM HUMAT



Al
dan

Fe
menjadi

jembatan

logam

dalam

pembentukan

kompleks

asam

humat



logam



P
anorganik
.


Bentuk

P
dalam

asam

humat

ternyata

tergantung

pH,
dimana

mereka

diendapkan

dari

ekstraks

alkali.

Pada

tanah
-
tanah

gambut

ternyata

P
-
anorganik

lebih

rendah

dibandingkan

dnegan

P
-
organik
.




Sumber
: Communications in Soil Science and Plant
Analysis .
Volume 28,
Issue 11 & 12,
1997, Pages 961
-

971


ASAM HUMAT MELEPASKAN P
-

TERIKAT



Pembentukan Fe
-
fosfat dan Ca
-
fosfat dalam tanah
terjadi pada kondisi tanah alkalin, tanah berpasir
dan tanah
-
tanah dimana banyak hujan.


Fe
-
phosphate dan Ca
-
phosphates tidak larut,
sehingga fosfatnya tidak tersedia bagi tanaman.


Asam humat mampu memecahkan ikatan antara P,
Fe dan Ca dalam tanah, sehingga ketiga hara ini
menjadi tersedia bagi tanaman.




Sumber:
BioLynceus, LLC

Estes Park, CO &

Lyons, CO


PUPUK HAYATI PK BAGI TEBU



Pupuk

hayati

dibuat

dari

batuan

fosfat

dan

kalium

yang
dicampur

dengan

belerang

yang
diinokulasi

dengan

bakteri

oksidasi

Acidithiobacillus
.


Aplikasi

pupuk

hayati

ini

dapat

mereduksi

pH
tanah
,
dan

memperbaiki

tanaman

tebu
;
meningkatkan

ketersediaan

Ca
dan

Mg
dalam

tanah
.


Pupuk

hayati

ini

sangat

cocok

untuk

tanah
-
tanah

yang
miskin

P
-
tersedia

dan

miskin

K
-
tersedia
.






Sumber
:
World Journal of Microbiology and
Biotechnology
.
Volume 24, Number 10
, 2061
-
2066,


BATUAN FOSFAT UNTUK TEBU




Aplikasi batuan fosfat dilakukan pada saat awal
tanam pertama tebu dengan dosis 125, 250, 500
P
2
O
5

kg/ha sebagai pupuk dasar.


Peningkatan hasil tebu tahun pertama terjadi pada
dosis batuan fosfat lebih dari 250 kg P
2
O
5
/ha.

Efek residu batuan fosfat pada tanaman tebu tahun
ke dua dan ke tiga hanya terjadi pada aplikasi
dengan dosis 500 P
2
O
5

kg/ha.


Aplikasi batuan fosfat ternyata cukup efektif bagi
tanaman tebu tahun pertama, tetapi juga
mempunyai efek residu yang bagus pada tanaman
tebu tahun ke dua dan ke tiga.






Sumber:
Proceedings of an International Meeting,
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 16
-
20 July, 2001 pp. 194
-
199

APLIKASI FOSFAT LEWAT DAUN TEBU



Percobaan

aplikasi

pupuk

fosfat

di

kebun

tebu

melibatkan

beberapa

perlakuan
:

1.
Kontrol

(RD) :
dosis

pupuk

(250 kg N, 115 kg P
2
O
5

dan

115 kg K,O)

2.
RD
tanpa

P
2
O
5

(250 kg N and 115 kg K
2
O),

3.
RD plus
aplikasi

fosfat

lewat

daun

8 kg/ha,

4.
RD plus
aplikasi

fosfat

lewat

daun

12 kg/ha,

5.
RD plus
aplikasi

lewat

daun

Boron (1%),

6.
RD plus
aplikasi

lewat

daun

Fe
dan

Zn (
masing
-
masing

0.5% )

7.
RD plus
aplikasi

lewat

daun

Si (2%).


Aplikasi

fosfat

lewat

daun

dan

aplikasi

unusr

hara

mikro

lewat

daun

dapat

meningkatkan

aktivitas

ensim

SS:
sucrose
synthase

dan

ensim

SPS: sucrose phosphate
synthase

.


Mean commercial cane sugar content was increased with foliar
application of phosphorous 8 kg/ha (14.39%), 12 kg/ha (14.56%)
and 0.5% iron and zinc (14.15%) as compared to control (13.68%).





Sumber
: Sugar Tech . Volume 5, Number 3, 161
-
165

APLIKASI FOSFAT LEWAT DAUN



Aplikasi fosfat lewat daun biasanya dicampur
dengan N dan unsur mikro.


Asam orthofosfat ternyata sangat efektif untuk
aplikasi lewat daun, dibandingkan dengan
senyawa fosfat lainnya.


Pupuk fosfat dapat larut yang mengandung N
juga dapat diaplikasikan lewat daun dengan
dosis yang lebih tinggi dari dosis asam
ortofosfat.


Senyawa lain yang dapat diaplikasikan lewat
daun sebagai pupuk fosfat adalah tri
-
polyphosphate dan tetra
-
polyphosphate.


APLIKASI ASAM HUMAT LEWAT DAUN




Aplikasi asam humat lewat tanah dan lewat daun dapat
memperbaiki produktivitas dan kualitas tanaman.


Humus padatan diaplikasikan ke tanah satu bulan sebelum
tanam dan asam humat cair diaplikasikan lewat daun dua kali .
Dosis aplikasi humus 0, 2 dan 4 g/kg dan dosis asam humat 0,
0.1 dan 0.2%.


Salinitas berpengaruh negatif terhadap pertumbuhan tanaman
jagung; bobot kering tanaman menurun dan serapan hara juga
menurun kecuali Na dan Mn.


Aplikasi humus ke tanah meningkatkan serapan N tanaman,
sedangkan aplikasi asam humat lewat daun meningkatkan
serapan P, K, Mg,Na,Cu dan Zn.





Sumber: Soil & Water Res., 6, 2011 (1): 21

29

CIRI
-
CIRI AKAR TEBU


Serapan hara N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Si dan S dipengaruhi
oleh sifat
-
sifat akar tebu seperti bobot akar, luas
permukaan akar, KTK, dan KTA.


Dalam tanah dan kultur larutan, KTK dan KTA akar
tebu tidak berkorelasi dengan jumlah serapan
kation dan anion; hal ini mungkin disebabkan oleh
karena serapan ion terjadi melalui proses aktif,
bukan melalui pertukaran ion.


Dalam kultur larutan, bobot akar, luas permukaan
akar, KTK dan KTA
-
akar tanaman tebu berkorelasi
dengan bobot batang dan serapan hara N, K, Ca,
Mg dan S.

Korelasi terbaik terjadi pada luas permukaan akar.

Dalam kultur tanah, hanya bobot akar yang
berkorelasi erat dengan bobot batang dan serapan
hara N, Mg dan S.




SUmber:
Journal of the Science of Food and
Agriculture. Vol. 26 No.7 p.923
-
931 July 1975


DISTRIBUSI AKAR TEBU &
SERAPAN P



Akar tanaman tebu yang berfungsi menyerap
hara terkonsentrasi di daerah bawah batang,
tidak ada akar pada jarak lateral lebih dari 4
feet dari pusat barisan tanaman (kedalaman 6
inchi) .

Konsentrasi tertinggi akar di sebelah sisi
batang ditemukan pada kedalaman 3 inchi.


Penyerapan fosfat oleh tanaman tebu
ternyata berbanding langsung dengan
pertumbuhannya.

Terjadi penyerapan fosfat yang lambat tetapi
mantap selama musim dingin dan musim
semi.



Sumber: Proceeding of the South African Sugar
Technologist ‘s Association. April 1964

P & TRANSPOR SUKROSE


Transpor sukrose ke dalam vakuole sel tebu
melibatkan sekelompok translokator.


Translokator ini tergantung pada UDP
-
Glucose (Glc) eksternal, dan melalui
serangkaian reaksi ensimatis di dalam
tonoplast; sucrose phosphate dan sucrose
diendapkan di dalam vesicles.


Fructose
-
6
-
phosphate tidak duiperlukan
untuk serapan UDP
-
Glc , dan juga tidak
diserap.


pH optimum untuk serapan UDP
-
Glc adalah
7.0. Serapan UDP
-
Glc dihambat oleh para
-
chloromercuribenzene
-
sulfonic acid, UDP,
dan GDP; carbonyl cyanide m
-
chlorophenylhydrazone juga sedikit
menghambat .



Sumber: Plant Physiology. Vol. 80, No. 1, Jan.,
1986

EFEK RESIDU PUPUK P TANAMAN TEBU



Efek residual pupuk P p[ada hasil tebu dan
kualitasnya ternyata cukup besar pada tanah
cambisol dan vertisol.

Kandungan P
-
tanah (residual) masih cukup
tinggi, sehingga tebu tidak memerlukan
pupuk P.


The sugarcane varieties performed
differently in terms of yield and quality under
cambisol and vertisol. Performance was
higher under cambisol soils than under
vertisol soils, this was attributed to cambisol
soils faster P release into the soil solution.
Variety N14, KEN83
-

737 and EAK73
-
335
recorded yields higher than 90TCH and were
of good quality under vertisol soils while
varieties N14, KEN82
-
216, KEN82
-
472,
KEN82
-
808, and KEN83
-
737 recorded yields
higher than 100TCH under cambisol soils.
This suggests variety N14, KEN83
-
737 and
EAK73
-
335 may be efficient in P uptake in P
fixing soils. The study concludes that P
dynamics vary with soil types and therefore
may influence P fertilizer management for
sugarcane production.


Sumber:

PENYERAPAN P TEBU


A study was made of the effect of rainfall and of placement of fertilizer on
fertilizer P uptake by sugar cane as measured by radioisotope methods.
Placement tests were conducted with fertilizer applied in 2 bands 10 in, to
the side of the row at depths of 6, 12 and 18 in. In one test fertilizer was
applied in one band 4 in. below the stubble. It was found that rainfall
during the 4
-
week period prior to sampling was closely correlated with
fertilizer P uptake from the 6
-
in. depth but was not associated with uptake
from the 12
-

and 18
-
in. depths. The correlation coefficients were r =
0.463, r =
-
0.003 and r =
-
0.010, respectively. A negative correlation, r =
-
0.527, was observed between soil values for available P and yield
response to fertilizer P. Correlation between means of the proportions of
plant P from the fertilizer for all samplings at each site and yield response
to fertilizer P at each site approached significance. Means of 8.8, 13.5
and 11.8 % of plant P from fertilizer P placed at the 6
-
in. depth were
found at the 11, 15 and 19
-
week samplings, respectively. The mean
uptake in the above
-
ground parts by the 19
-
week sampling was of P
equivalent to 3.61 lb. of fertilizer P
2
O
5
per acre or 9.0% of the P applied.
The rates of uptake of fertilizer P by sugar cane from the different depths
suggest that roots develop vertically in greater number and activity early
in the growing season than they do laterally. By the latter part of July the
amounts of P uptake from the 6
-
, 12
-

and 18
-
in. depths were
approximately equal. Placement of fertilizer in 2 vertical bands 6 in. in
depth in the 6
-

to 12
-
in. zones 10 to 12 in. to the side of the row would
permit feeding early in the growth period to be heavier in the lower
portion of each band, and subsequent feeding in the entire band.
-
La St.
Univ., Baton Rouge.


Sumber
:
Conference proceedings; Book
Proc. 12th
Congr
. int. Soc.
Sugar Cane Technol., Puerto Rico, 1965.

1967 pp. 640
-
6 pp.

.

PEMUPUKAN P


P dalam tanah tidak
-
mobil, therefore placement of
phosphate fertilizers is a major management decision in
crop production systems. No ideal special placement
exists for all crops. Decisions about phosphate fertilizer
placement depend on the intended crop, soil test P level,
and environmental considerations.

Phosphorus movement off agricultural land to surface
waters can accelerate eutrophication. This is the process
in bodies of water of stimulating algal growth which
ultimately die and decay in the water, and deplete available
oxygen. The reduced oxygen levels ultimately result in
reduced higher
-
order aquatic plant and animal
populations. Animal manures and bedding materials
contain significant amounts of phosphorus in organic
forms.

After microbial mineralization from the organic forms, the
phosphorus applied to soils is subject to the same fates
as inorganic fertilizer phosphorus. Rates of land
application of animal wastes such as poultry litter should
be based on soil tests, nutrient content of the material,
and crop needs. Directions on obtaining nutrient analysis
of manures are available at your local Extension office.

Phosphorus movement in landscapes is intmately
associated with soil erosion because P is closely attached
to solid soil materials. Phosphorus addition to soils must
be managed to lessen movement to surface waters.

Phosphorus needs of plants are most critical in the
earliest growth stages. If the pH is between 6 and 7, and
the soil has a low risk of erosion, P can be applied in the
fall for cotton or grain production.


SERAPAN P TANAMAN


Crop response to phosphorus depends on the availability
of phosphorus in the soil solution and the ability of the
crop to take up phosphorus. The availability of
phosphorus in the soil solution has already been
discussed. The ability of a plant to take up phosphorus is
largely due to its root distribution relative to phosphorus
location in soil. Because phosphorus is very immobile in
the soil, it does not move very far in the soil to get to the
roots. Diffusion to the root is only about 1/8 of an inch per
year, and relatively little phosphorus in soil is within that
distance of a root. Thus, the roots must grow through the
soil and basically go get the phosphorus the plant needs.
Therefore root growth is very important to phosphorus
nutrition. Any factor that affects root growth will affect the
ability of plant to explore more soil and get adequate
phosphorus. Soil compaction, herbicide root injury, and
insects feeding on roots can all dramatically reduce the
ability of the plant to get adequate phosphorus. Young
seedlings can suffer from phosphorus deficiency even in
soils with high available phosphorus levels because they
have very limited root systems that are growing very
slowly in cold, wet, early
early
-
season soil conditions.
This is why some crops respond to phosphorus applied at
planting in starter fertilizers even in relatively high
phosphorus soils.



PERILAKU P DALAM TANAH


The
soil solution is the key to plant nutrition because all
phosphorus that is taken up by plants comes from
phosphorus dissolved in the soil solution. Because the
amount of soluble phosphorus in the soil solution is very
low, it must be replenished by as many as 500 times
during a growing season to meet the nutritional needs of
a typical crop.

The
bulk of the soil phosphorus is either in the soil
organic matter or in the soil minerals. A large proportion
of the phosphorus in both of these fractions is in very
stable, unavailable forms, while a much smaller
proportion is in available forms that can dissolve in the
soil solution and be taken up by plants.

The
dynamic and available phosphorus
phosphorus

in these
fractions, such as phosphorus added in fertilizer or manure, can
be quickly fixed into stable, unavailable forms in the soil. This is
why, even with optimum management, the efficiency of plant
uptake of phosphorus is very low

usually less than 20 percent.
At the same time as the soil solution phosphorus is depleted by
crop uptake, unavailable phosphorus can slowly be released to
more available forms to replenish the soil solution.

This
slow release can sustain plant growth in many
natural systems, but is usually not rapid enough to
maintain adequate phosphorus availability in intensively
managed cropping systems without some supplemental
phosphorus in the form of fertilizer, manure, or crop
residues.


.

Organic phosphorus availability depends on microbial activity
to breakdown the organic matter and release this phosphorus
into available forms. Thus, availability of organic phosphorus is
very dependent on conditions in the soil and on the weather,
which influence microbial activity. The mineralization of organic
phosphorus to inorganic forms is favored by optimum soil pH
and nutrient levels, good soil physical properties, and warm
moist conditions. The inorganic phosphorus is bound with
varying adhesiveness to iron and aluminum compounds in the
soil. Replenishment of the soil solution with phosphate from
inorganic forms comes from slow dissolution of these minerals.
The solubilities of the compounds holding phosphorus are
directly related to the soil pH. The pH range of greatest
phosphorus availability is 6.0 to 7.0. At a lower pH, when the
soil is very acidic, more iron and aluminum are available to
form insoluble phosphate compounds and, therefore, less
phosphate is available. At very high pH, phosphorus can react
with excess calcium to also form unavailable compounds in the
soil.

Phosphate is largely immobile in soil and must be placed close
to the roots to be beneficial to a plant. Since phosphate often
binds to the soil and does not get to the roots for uptake, many
applications of granular phosphate are wasted.

ASAM HUMAT & EFISIENSI PUPUK P


Percobaan inkubasi dilakukan untuk memantau perubahan
kandungan P
-
ekstraks bikarbonat , sebagai akibat dari
perlakuan pupuk SSP yang dikombinasikan dengan FYM dan
asam humat.


Tanah berkapur diinkubasi dengan SSP (60 kg ha
-
1) yang
dikombinasikan dengan FYM dan asam humat (200, 400, 800,
1600 dan 2000 gms ha
-
1).


Aplikasi pupuk kompos FYM tidak berpengatruh terhadap
mineralisasi P

pupuk, diduga hal ini karena dosisnya kurang
banyak.


Asam humat (batubara lignitik) dengan dosis 200 g ha
-
1
menunjukkan imobilisasi
-
P paling sedikit, baik P
-
alami maupun
P
-
pupuk selama inkubasi 16 minggu.


Persen recovery P dan P
-
mineralisasi lebih besar pada
perlakuan asam humat dengan dosis 200 g ha
-
1.







Sumber: Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science.

VOL.1,
NO.1, JULY 2006


. INFLUENCE OF RESDIUAL PHOSPHORUS ON
YIELD AND QALITY OF SUGARCANE

P.
Ochola

and J.O.
Omollo

KESREF

The effect of residual phosphorus (P) on yield and quality of six
sugarcane varieties, N14, KEN82
-
216, KEN82
-

472, KEN82
-
808,
KEN83
-
737 and EAK73
-
335 was evaluated in
cambisol

and
vertisol

soils, located at the experimental fields of KESREF
-
Kibos
.

This followed soil test in these fields which revealed high P
levels and therefore P fertilizer may not be required for
sugarcane growth. Sugarcane was planted without P fertilizer
unlike the recommendation where P fertilizer is applied.


The sugarcane varieties performed differently in terms of yield
and quality under
cambisol

and
vertisol
. Performance was
higher under
cambisol

soils than under
vertisol

soils, this was
attributed to
cambisol

soils faster P release into the soil
solution.

Variety N14, KEN83
-
737 and EAK73
-
335 recorded yields higher
than 90TCH and were of good quality under
vertisol

soils while
varieties N14, KEN82
-
216, KEN82
-
472, KEN82
-
808, and KEN83
-
737 recorded yields higher than 100TCH under
cambisol

soils.

This suggests variety N14, KEN83
-
737 and EAK73
-
335 may be
efficient in P uptake in P fixing soils.


The study concludes that P dynamics vary with soil types and
therefore may influence P fertilizer management for sugarcane
production.

Diunduh

dari
:
https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:NxOonlHymvcJ:www.kari.org/confer
ence/conference12/docs/

. INFLUENCE OF RESDIUAL PHOSPHORUS ON
YIELD AND QALITY OF SUGARCANE

P.
Ochola

and J.O.
Omollo

KESREF

. Sugarcane performance depends on availability of major
nutrients in the soil among other factors. One such major
nutrient is phosphorus (P) which is the third most commonly
limiting nutrient after water and nitrogen (
Malavolta
, 1994).
Phosphorus plays an important role in sugarcane germination
and early stages of growth generally referred to as sugarcane
establishment. P role in sugarcane is for root and primary
shoots development,
tillering

and stalks elongation (Blackburn,
1984). It also promotes sucrose synthesis and accumulation
(Blackburn, 1984). Phosphorus deficiency results in reduced
metabolic rate and photosynthesis leading to reduced yield and
quality. This is undesirable as it could lead to a fall in sugarcane
productivity.

Phosphorus occurs in soil in both inorganic and organic forms.
The concentration of the inorganic forms in the soil solution is
the most important factor governing the availability of this
element to plants. Phosphate equilibrium in the soil system is;

-
non labile P
-----

labile P
------

solution P
------

plant root uptake
(Black, 1993; Tisdale et al, 1993;.


1.
Black, C.A. (1993). Soil Fertility Evaluation and Control. Lewis Publishers,
Boca Raton, Florida.

2.
Blackburn, F. (1984). Sugarcane. Longman, Harlow

3.
Malavolta
, E. (1994). Fertilizing for High Yield Sugarcane. International
Potash Institute. Basel.

4.
Tisdale, S.L., Nelson, W.L., Beaton, J.D. and
Halvin
, J.L. (1993). Soil Fertility
and Fertilizers. 5th Edition. MacMillan, New York.

Diunduh

dari
:
https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:NxOonlHymvcJ:www.kari.org/confer
ence/conference12/docs/

. INFLUENCE OF RESDIUAL PHOSPHORUS ON
YIELD AND QALITY OF SUGARCANE

P.
Ochola

and J.O.
Omollo

KESREF

Soil condition with regard to soil pH affects the dynamics of P.
Acid soils below pH of 6.0 and alkaline soils above pH of 8.0
increase P fixation and hence unavailability to the soil solution
for plant uptake (Landon, 1991; Tisdale et al. 1993; Brady, 2000).
Soil types rich in 1:1 clay minerals are rich in
sesquioxides

and
high Al oxides which increases P fixation unlike clay rich in 2:1
clay minerals (Landon, 1991).


It is therefore imperative to understand the soil types and
possible dynamics of P for judicious P fertilizer use in
sugarcane cropping. However, this has not been the case and
therefore application P in cane fields during planting has been
the normal practice. The recommended application rate has
been 40


60 kgP2O5/ha recommended for the zone (KESREF,
2002). In reviewing the rate, soil tests were carried out to
determine the available P levels among other soil chemical
properties. The tests revealed high P levels of more than 25
ppm

in the major soil types,
vertisol

and
cambisol
. These soil types
have different characteristics which influence the retention and
release of P for plant uptake.


1.
Kenya Sugar Research Foundation (2002). Sugarcane Grower’s Guide.
Kisumu
.

2.
Landon, J.R. (1991). Booker Tropical Soil Manual. A Handbook for soil
survey and agricultural land evaluation in the tropics and subtropics.
Longman, New York.

Diunduh

dari
:
https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:NxOonlHymvcJ:www.kari.org/confer
ence/conference12/docs/

. INFLUENCE OF RESDIUAL PHOSPHORUS ON
YIELD AND QALITY OF SUGARCANE

P.
Ochola

and J.O.
Omollo

KESREF

Conclusion


Sugarcane varieties varied in performance under the
cambisol

and
vertisol

soils. This was attributed to the soil chemical
characteristics of the soil types. The
vertisol

and
cambisol

fix
phosphorus but the P release intensity may vary.
Cambisol

soil
releases P much faster than the
vertisol

soils. The P released
into the soil solution is taken up by sugarcane, hence better
performance in
cambisols

than in
vertisols

when no P fertilizer
is applied.


Despite high P levels in
vertisol

soils, P fertilizer use may be
required subject to fertilizer use evaluation.


Methods of evaluating fertilizer use for sugarcane such as foliar
testing, field trials should complement the soil testing method
so as to appropriately determine fertilizer use.


KEN83
-
737 and EAK73
-
335 performed well under
vertisol

soils
and are therefore tolerant to unavailable P.

Varieties KEN82
-
216, KEN82
-
472 and KEN82
-
808 yielded below
90TCH under
vertisols

but above 100TCH under
cambisols
.
This suggests they may be sensitive to low P and will therefore
require P application for increased yields.

Diunduh

dari
:
https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:NxOonlHymvcJ:www.kari.org/confer
ence/conference12/docs/


ALVAREZ, .

et al.

Sources of phosphorus for sugar cane (1961
-
63)
.


Bragantia

[online]. 1965, vol.24,
n.unico
, pp. 97
-
107. ISSN 0006
-
8705.


Five experiments were conducted in the State of São
Paulo to study the efficiency of different sources of
phosphorus for the production of sugar cane on three
types of soil, using 50, 100 and 150 kilograms of total
P
2
O
5

per hectare in the presence of NK.


The soil pH varied from 4.8 to 5.6. Phosphorus
significantly increased the yields in all of the experiments.


As an average of the five experiments and the three rates
of application, the per
-
cent yield increases caused by the
studied phosphorus carriers were the following:


thermophosphate
, 49;
dicalcium

phosphate, 39; bone
meal, 38; ordinary superphosphate, 35;
Alvorada
-
phosphate, 28;
Olinda
-
phosphate, 26;
Araxá
-
phosphate,
20; phosphorous bauxite, 10.


The four latter sources are natural phosphates from
different regions of Brazil.

Diunduh

dari
: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?pid=S0006
-
87051965000100009&script=sci_abstract ……….

Sugarcane Response to Phosphorus Fertilizer on
Everglades
Histosols

McCray
JMabry
,
Rice
RonaldW
,
Luo

Yigang
,
Ji

Shangning


Agronomy Journal [2010, 102(5):1468
-
1477]

Determining
sugarcane

(
Saccharum

spp.) yield response to P
fertilizer supports the
development

of agricultural best
management practices consistent with Everglades restoration
efforts.

Field studies were conducted on organic soils to determine
sugarcane

yield responses to P fertilizer. Four test sites were
established on Florida
Histosols

(water
-
extractable P = 1.3, 1.7,
2.1, and 9.0 g P m−3) with annual banded rates of 0, 9, 18, 36,
72, and 144 kg P ha−1 There were a total of 13 crop years with
duration of each test ranging from 2 to 4 yr. Linear and quadratic
regression and single degree of freedom contrasts were used to
determine P fertilizer requirements. There were responses in t
cane ha−1 (TCH) and t
sucrose

ha−1 (TSH) to P fertilizer
application at four and three sites, respectively. Annual fertilizer P
requirement at the four sites ranged from 18 to 33 kg P ha−1, with
no consistent change in P requirement across crop years. Based
on measured response (95% of maximum yield) in TCH and TSH
up to 33 kg P ha−1, the maximum P recommendation for
sugarcane

grown on Florida
Histosols

should be maintained at 36
kg P ha−1 Minimal reductions in
sucrose

concentration (kg
sucrose

t−1 cane) were measured at P rates ≤36 kg P ha−1
Water
-
extractable P did not predict the measured yield response
at all sites, demonstrating the need for an updated soil test
calibration that should be applicable over a wide pH range and
include both quickly available and reserve soil P.

Diunduh

dari
: http://europepmc.org/abstract/AGR/IND44471689 ……….

Daroub
, S.,
Glaz
, B.S., Morris, D.R. 2001.

Phosphorus availability to sugarcane in
histosols

under periodic flooding.


American Society of Agronomy Abstracts. CDR. S02
-
daroub154631
-
Oral.

Subsidence of organic soils and phosphorus (P) release into
surface water are two major issues facing agriculture in the
Everglades Agricultural Area in south Florida.


Raising the water table depth and periodic flooding may reduce
the rate of oxidation of these soils.


This study was conducted to quantify changes of P in both soil
and water during periodic flooding and draining cycles in an
organic soil under sugarcane production.


The effect of five cycles of periodic flooding (for 1 week) and
draining (for 14 days) while maintaining the water table depth at
16, 33, and 50 cm was compared to a continuous water table
depth of 50 cm. Periodic flooding cycles did not have a major
effect on P availability. Microbial P significantly increased in all
treatments with time. Acetic acid extractable P was higher in only
6 out of the 25 extraction dates in the flood and 16 cm treatment
compared to the continuous 50 cm water table depth.

There were no significant increases in P in canal water as a result
of periodic flooding. This study does not support previous column
studies that show increased release of P from organic soils under
flood
-
drain cycles.

Diunduh

dari
:
http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publications.htm?seq_no_11
5=136934 ……….

Phosphorus Fertilizer Calibration for Sugarcane on
Everglades
Histosols


McCray, J. Mabry;

Rice, Ronald W.;

Luo
,
Yigang
;

Ji
,
Shangning

Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, Volume
43,

Number 20, 1 November 2012 , pp. 2691
-
2707(17)


A calibrated soil test for phosphorus (P) fertilizer
application to sugarcane (
Saccharum

spp.) grown on
organic soils in southern Florida is an important best
-
management practice for minimizing P loads in water
draining to the Everglades.

The current calibration uses water as the soil
extractant
,
which has the limitations of being very sensitive to pH
and being most applicable to short
-
season crops.


Phosphorus fertilizer rate studies at six locations (20 total
crop years) were analyzed to develop an updated soil
-
test P calibration for sugarcane on organic soils.
Phosphorus extracted with water, acetic acid, and Bray 2
did not consistently relate well to crop response.


A new P soil
-
test calibration for sugarcane is proposed
based on
Mehlich

3 soil extraction, with a maximum rate
of 36 kg P ha
−1

with ≤ 10 g P m
−3

in
preplant

soil samples
and no P recommended with >30 g P m
−3
.

Diunduh

dari
:
http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/tandf/csspa/2012/00000043/0000002
0/art00009 ……….

Availability of Phosphorus to Sugar Cane in Hawaii
as Influenced by Various Phosphorus Fertilizers and
Methods of Application

S. K. de
Datta

and J. C.
Moomaw

Experimental Agriculture

/ Volume

1 / Issue

04 / October 1965, pp
261
-
270

An experiment was carried out in the glasshouse to determine the
availability of P, and utilization of added phosphate fertilizers from
three fertilizer materials, applied by two different methods to sugar
cane grown in four diverse soil systems.

Phosphorus was applied at the equivalent rate of 175 pounds P
(400 pounds P
2
O
5
) per acre. A larger response from added P in
terms of plant yields was obtained from an aluminous ferruginous
latosol

and least from dark magnesium clay.

Differences in yields of sugar cane were evidently associated with
differences in P content in the cane plants and, in certain cases,
with a reduction in Al content in plant tops, and the less soluble
superphosphate increased yields more than the highly soluble
NH
4
H
2
PO
4
.

Phosphate fertilizers applied as foliar spray greatly increased the
P content in the plants, and plants contained twenty times more P
when sprayed with NH
4
H
2
PO
4

than when the same fertilizer was
applied to the soil. However, increased P content in the plants did
not necessarily indicate that the P was
translocated

within the
plants or that the added P participated in metabolic processes.


The evidence indicated that in soils where the ‘A’ value was high
the P status of the sugar cane tops was not correspondingly high.

Diunduh

dari
:
http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=160880
0 ……….

Fertilizer research. 1994, Volume 39,
Issue 2
, pp 83
-
88

Phosphorus efficiency of sugarcane varieties
in a tropical
alfisol

B.
Sundara


Varietal differences in P absorption and utilization by
sugarcane were studied with the objective of selecting
phosphorus efficient varieties which can perform well
under conditions of low soil phosphorus availability and at
low P application rates.

Sugarcane varieties differed significantly in dry matter,
cane and sugar yields, P
-
concentration and P
-
uptake.


Based on the cane and sugar yield phosphorus efficiency
indices, varieties were classified as ‘P efficient’ and ‘P
-
non
-
efficient’.


Phosphorus efficient varieties had low P
-
concentrations
and produced higher dry matter per unit P absorbed.


Diunduh

dari
: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF00750906……….

Effect of
phosphobacterin

and phosphorus levels
on yield and quality of sugarcane.

Ismail, A. M. A.
;
Hagrus
, A. M.
;
El
-
Sonbaty
, M. M.
;
Farrag
, S. H.


Journal
Egyptian Journal of Agricultural Research

2000 Vol. 78
No. 4 pp. 1603
-
1613

Two field trials were carried out at
Mattana

Agricultural Research
Station (
Qena

Governorate), Egypt, in two growing seasons
(1993
-
94 and 1994
-
95) to study the effect of phosphorus fertilizer
and
phosphobacterin

(
biofertilizer
) on growth, juice quality and
yield of sugarcane.

The trial consisted of twenty
-
four treatments which were the
combinations between six levels of phosphorus fertilization (0, 15,
30, 45, 60 and 75 kg P
2
O
5
/fed) which were allocated at random in
the main plots and four levels of
phosphobacterin

(0, 250, 500
and 750 g
Pb
/fed) which were randomly distributed in the sub
plots. A split plot design with four replications was used.

The plot size was 35 m
2
. Variety G. 85/37 was planted. The
obtained results indicated that phosphorus levels had a significant
influence on purity percentage while their effect on the length and
diameter of stalks, sucrose percentage, cane and sugar yields
were insignificant.

The best level of phosphorus fertilization was 60 kg P
2
O
5
/fed.
Phosphobacterin

levels significantly affected stalk length, sucrose
percentage, cane and sugar yields. Mostly, applying 500 g
Pb
/fed
gave the highest value for the previous characters.


The interaction between phosphorus and
phosphobacterin

levels
did not significantly affect all the studied attributes.

Diunduh

dari
:
http://www.cabdirect.org/abstracts/20013073845.html;jsessionid=85CCDA82CC23C
977CE0AFD2FFD0F518D?gitCommit=4.13.20
-
5
-
ga6ad01a……….

Phosphorus use efficiency of sugarcane varieties

Fernando Cesar
Bachiega

Zambrosi

Instituto Agronômico (IAC). Agência Paulista de Tecnologia dos
Agronegócios (APTA). Secretaria de Agricultura e Abastecimento
(São Paulo
-

Estado). Campinas, SP, Brazil

January 01, 2012
-

December 31, 2013

The research with regard to phosphorus (P) management in the
sugarcane is a very important issue due to widespread
occurrence of low
-
P soils. We are proposing a study with the
objectives of:
i
) characterize the variability in the efficiency of P
uptake and utilization of sugarcane varieties; ii) determine
features related to distinct P use efficiency among sugarcane
varieties; iii) evaluate the responses of different varieties to low
-
P
availability in the soil and iv) effect of P supply and variety on the
shoot
regrowth
. The varieties IAC87
-
3396, IACSP94
-
2094,
IAC91
-
1099, RB867515, IACSP94
-
2101 and IACSP95
-
5000 will
be subjected to P deficient (P rate = 40 mg kg
-
1 of soil) and P
sufficient (P rate = 400 mg kg
-
1 of soil) treatments.

Plant growth, total P uptake, P fractioning and acid
phosphatase

activity in the leaves will be determined. Before harvesting the
experiment, leaf gas exchange and photochemical activity will be
evaluated in mature leaves.

Total dry weight and P accumulated by the plants will be used to
obtain P uptake, utilization and use efficiency. We expect that our
results can contribute to define sugarcane varieties more efficient
in P use and to characterize the responses of sugarcane related
to the adaptation to low
-
P availability. Therefore, our research
purpose might lead to improved understanding of sugarcane P
nutrition and P management in low
-
P soils.

Diunduh

dari
: http://www.bv.fapesp.br/en/auxilios/46003/phosphorus
-
use
-
efficiency
-
sugarcane
-
varieties/……….

Phosphorus nutrition of sugarcane: growth, yield and
quality of
ratoon

cane as affected by residual soil
phosphorus.

Matin
, M. A.
;
Oya
, K.
;
Shinjo
, T.
;
Horiguchi
, T.

Japanese Journal of Tropical Agriculture 1997 Vol. 41 No. 3 pp. 177
-
186

The residual effects of soil P on the growth, yield and quality of
ratoon

sugarcane were investigated in a Dark Red soil of
Okinawa, Japan, with cv. F
-
177. The residual soil P levels after
harvest of canes were 5.6, 9.1, 11.6 and 15.9 mg available
P
2
O
5
/100 g soil denoted as A, B, C and D levels, respectively.
Leaf area index, dry matter production and root biomass
increased for the B, C and D levels of soil P compared with the A
level. About 62
-
67% of the total dry matter was produced between
120 and 240 DAR which corresponds to the period of most rapid
growth of
ratoon

cane under all soil P levels. Higher residual soil
P (B, C and D levels) significantly increased the
millable

cane
number compared with the lower residual soil P (A level).


The highest
ratoon

cane yield was obtained in the D plot (125
tons/ha) followed by the C plot (122 tons) and the sugar yield
increased by 48% in the D plot and 46% in the C plot compared
with the A plot (12 tons). Leaf nutrient contents were influenced by
the level of soil P. Lower leaf N content accompanied with higher
P at the mature stage showed a positive relationship with the
sugar yield. Furthermore, the Zn and Cu contents in leaf were
adversely affected by the higher P soil compared with the lower P
soil. Although the highest cane and sugar yield was obtained in
the D plot followed by the C plot compared with the other plots,
the differences in cane and sugar yield between the C and D plots
were not statistically significant.

Diunduh

dari
: http://www.cabdirect.org/abstracts/19980700385.html……….

Sucrose Accumulation in the Sugarcane Stem Is Regulated
by the Difference between the Activities of Soluble Acid
Invertase

and Sucrose Phosphate
Synthase


Y. J. Zhu, E.
Komor

and P. H. Moore

Plant Physiology October 1997 vol. 115 no. 2 609
-
616

To assess the relative importance of morphological and
biochemical factors in the regulation of sucrose (
Suc
)
accumulation in the sugarcane (
Saccharum

spp. hybrids) stem,
we investigated morphological and biochemical correlates of
Suc

accumulation among parents and progeny of a family segregating
for differences.

In contrast to the parents, no relationship was observed between
morphology and the level of
Suc

accumulation among the
progeny. The level and timing of
Suc

accumulation in the whole
stalk and within individual internodes was correlated with the
down
-
regulation of soluble acid
invertase

(SAI) activity. High SAI
activity prevented most, but not all,
Suc

accumulation.


There was a critical threshold of SAI activity above which high
concentrations of
Suc

did not accumulate. This low level of SAI
activity was always exceeded in the internodes of the lower
-
Suc
-
storing genotypes. However, low activity of SAI was not sufficient
by itself to account for the
Suc

accumulation in the higher
-
Suc
-
storing genotypes. Major differences in
Suc

accumulation among
the population were attributed to the difference between activities
of SAI and
Suc

phosphate
synthase
, provided SAI is below the
critical threshold concentration.


This result is not unexpected, since the pathway of
Suc

transport
for storage involves
Suc

hydrolysis and
resynthesis
.

Diunduh

dari
: http://www.plantphysiol.org/content/115/2/609.abstract……….

Improved sugar cane juice clarification by understanding
calcium oxide
-
phosphate
-
sucrose systems.

Doherty WO

Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry [2011, 59(5):1829
-
1836]

It is accepted that the efficiency of sugar cane clarification is
closely linked with sugar juice composition (including suspended
or insoluble impurities), the inorganic phosphate content, the
liming condition and type, and the interactions between the juice
components. These interactions are not well understood,
particularly those between calcium, phosphate, and
sucrose

in
sugar cane juice. Studies have been conducted on
calcium oxide

(
CaO
)/phosphate/
sucrose

systems in both synthetic and factory
juices to provide further information on the
defecation

process
(i.e., simple liming to effect impurity removal) and to identify an
effective clarification process that would result in reduced scaling
of sugar factory evaporators, pans, and centrifugals. Results have
shown that a two
-
stage process involving the addition of lime
saccharate

to a set juice pH followed by the addition of
sodium
hydroxide

to a final juice pH or a similar two
-
stage process where
the order of addition of the alkalis is reversed prior to clarification
reduces the impurity loading of the clarified juice compared to that
of the clarified juice obtained by the conventional
defecation

process.

The treatment process showed reductions in
CaO

(27% to 50%)
and
MgO

(up to 20%) in clarified juices with no apparent loss in
juice clarity or increase in residence time of the mud particles
compared to those in the conventional process. There was also a
reduction in the
SiO2

content. However, the disadvantage of this
process is the significant increase in the Na2O content.

Diunduh

dari
: http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/21322558……….