Paone and George Enhancing Energy Production in C

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22 Φεβ 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 1 μήνα)

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Enhancing Energy Production in
C.reinhardtii

Using a Double
Chamber Microbial Fuel Cell

Christina George and Julie
Paone

Need

http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/images/co2_atmosphere.jpg

Need

http://www.tspusa.com/images/TICimages/alternativefuels1.gif

Knowledge Base


Autotrophic
organism that
produces hydrogen
in sulfur deprived
anaerobic
conditions

http://www.sciencedaily.com/images/2009/03
/090324171556
-
large.jpg

C.reinahrdtii

Isoamylase


Important enzyme
for starch
accumulation
which is important
for hydrogen
production
(
Posewitz
, 2005).

http://www.mrc
-
lmb.cam.ac.uk/genomes/date/1bf2.gif

Knowledge Base

Any organic material can create electricity



Two step process


Removal of electrons from
organic matter (oxidation)


Giving the electrons to
something that will accept
them (reduction)(oxygen)


The electrons flow to cathode
and join with protons


Voltage and current





Logan, 2009

http://www.engr.psu.edu/ce/enve/logan/publications/2009
-
Logan
-
NatRevMicrobiol.pdf

Electrogenesis


Process of converting food
into energy


Respiratory enzymes


ATP


Terminal electron acceptor
(TEA)


Exogenously

http://www.nature.com/nrmicro/journal/v4/n7/fig_tab/nrmicro1442_F2.html

Construction


Efficiency


Cost


Materials

Anode
(carbon rod)

PEM

Cathode
(carbon rod)

Solution
(
C
.reinhardtii and
Algae Medium)

Plastic Bottle
(Carolina)

Solution
(Potassium
Ferricyanide)

Purpose


The purpose of this study is to determine whether a MFC
can increase energy production in
C.reinhardtii
.





The null hypothesis states that there will be no significant
energy production in the
C.reinhardtii
while in the MFC .


The alternate hypothesis states that an MFC will
significantly increase the energy production in
C.reinhardtii
.

Hypothesis

Literature Review


Rosenbaum, Miriam (2005)


‘Utilizing the Green Alga C.reinhardtii for
Microbial Electricity Generation”



Direct electricity generation from microbial photosynthetic activity


Oxidative depletion of hydrogen, photosynthetically produced by
C.reinahrdtii under sulfur deprived conditions, by polymer coated electro
catalytic electrodes

Literature Review


Logan, Bruce E. (2006)


“Using Algae and other Biomass for
Hydrogen Production in a Modified
Microbial Fuel Cell”


A small voltage was applied (.25 V) to the algae, which generated pure
hydrogen gas at the cathode

Methodology


Enhancing Energy Production in
C.
reinhardtii

Using a Double
Chamber Microbial Fuel Cell


Purpose:
to determine whether a MFC can increase energy production in
C.reinhardtii
.

Control
Groups:
The
Algae growth
medium,
Temperature,
and light
intensity

Independent Variable:
Growth of C.reinhardtii
and hydrogen produced
(original concentration
700mL)

Dependent
Variable
: Carbon
dioxide levels, pH
levels

All data will statistically analyzed by SPSS, by an ANOVA
followed by a Sheffe Post Hoc Test. Data will then be
put in line graphs.

-
The hydrogen gas produced will be measured
using an H2Scan hydrogen detector.

-
A
fluorometer

will be used to measure the
photosynthetic rate.

.5 hours of
anaerobic
atmospheric
conditions

3 hours of
anaerobic
atmospheric
conditions

6 hours of
anaerobic
atmospheric
conditions

-
Carbon dioxide concentration measured using a Pasco GLX
Xplorer

-
pH levels measured using pH paper

-
growth of C.reinhardtii measured using a Spectrophotometer

Algae will be grown in designated duration of anaerobic
time in an anaerobic container, and will be fertilized with
sulfur deprived growth medium (100 mL).

Control group of
algae will be grown
in the airlift
bioreactor (700 ml)
with no anaerobic
or sulfur deprived
conditions

-
Double chamber MFC will be
constructed



Enhancing Energy Production in
C.
reinhardtii

Using a Double
Chamber Microbial Fuel Cell


Purpose:
to determine whether an MFC can increase energy production in
C.reinhardtii
.

Control:
Algae will
be grown in the
Cyto
-
Airlift
bioreactor.

Procedure: an MFC will be constructed

Variable:
Algae will
be grown in an
MFC at
………concentration
/amount

Variable:
Algae will
be grown in an
MFC at
………concentration
/amount

Budget

Do ability


Experiment was done last year


Most materials are familiar


Background in culturing


Data collection was previously done


Materials are accessible


C.reinhardtii
: Can be grown in the lab as done in
previous years


Anaerobic container can be purchased


A hydrogen sensor will be difficult to find at a low
cost


http://www.engr.psu.edu/ce/enve/logan/bioenergy/mfc_make_cell.htm

Work Cited


Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), Singapore. "Carbon Dioxide Transformed Into Methanol."
ScienceDaily

17 April 2009. 23 April 2009
<http://www.sciencedaily.com

/releases/2009/04/090416102247.htm>.


**“Algae Could One Day Be Major Hydrogen Fuel Source.”
Science Daily.
April 2, 2008.


American Chemical Society. "'Ice That Burns' May Yield Clean, Sustainable Bridge To Global Energy Future."
ScienceDaily

24 March 2009. 23 April 2009
<http://www.sciencedaily.com

/releases/2009/03/090323143858.htm>.


Basque Research. "Obtaining Bio
-
gas From Food Industry Waste."
ScienceDaily

31 March 2009. 7 May 2009 <http://www.sciencedaily.com

/releases/2009/03/090331101105.htm>.


**
Chisti
, Yusuf. “Biodiesel from Microalgae.”
Biotechnology Advances.
Vol. 25, Pgs. 294
-
306. February 13, 2007.


CNRS. "Renewable Energies: The Promise Of Organic Solar Cells."
ScienceDaily

10 April 2009. 7 May 2009 <http://www.sciencedaily.com

/releases/2009/04/090409151444.htm>.


DOE/Los Alamos National Laboratory. "New Hope For Biomass Fuels: Breaking The Ties That Bind."
ScienceDaily

29 April 2009. 3 May 2009 <http://www.sciencedaily.com

/releases/2009/04/090422121904.htm>.


**
Fouchard
,
Swanny
. "Autotrophic and
Mixotrophic

Hydrogen
Photoproduction

in Sulfur Deprived
C.Reinhardtii
."
Applied and
Enviornmental

Microbiology

71 (2005):
6199
-
6205. 16 May 2008 <
http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/picrender.fcgi?artid=1265920&blobtype=pdf
>


**Kim Pyo, Jun; et al.
“Enhancing hydrogen production by controlling light intensity in sulfur
-
deprived
Chlamydomonas

reinhardtii

culture.”
International Journal of
Hydrogen Energy.
Vol.31, Pgs. 1585
-
1590., September 2006.


**
Najafpour
, G. "Continuous Hydrogen Production via Fermentation of Synthesis Gas."
Petroleum and Coal

45 (2003): 154
-
158. 12 May 2008
<http://www.vurup.sk/pc/vol45_2003/issue3
-
4/pdf/14.pdf>.


National Institute of Standards and Technology. "Discovery Of An Unexpected Boost For Solar Water
-
splitting Cells."
ScienceDaily

26 April 2009. 3 May 2009
<http://www.sciencedaily.com

/releases/2009/04/090423105853.htm>.


Natural Environment Research Council. "Plants Absorb More Carbon Dioxide Under Polluted Hazy Skies."
ScienceDaily

23 April 2009. 23 April 2009
<http://www.sciencedaily.com

/releases/2009/04/090422132829.htm>.


Weizmann Institute of Science. "New Way To Split Water Into Hydrogen And Oxygen Developed."
ScienceDaily

8 April 2009. 23 April 2009 <http://www.sciencedaily.com

/releases/2009/04/090406102555.htm>.


Choi
,
Youngjin
,
Eunkyoung

Jung,
Hyunjoo

Park,
Seunho

Jung,
Sunghyun

Kim, Effect of Initial Carbon Sources on the Performance of a Microbial Fuel Cell Containing
Environmental Microorganism Micrococcus
luteus
. Bull. Korean Chem. Soc, Vol. 28, No. 9, 2007 Pp. 1591
-
1594


Bennetto
, H. P., Electricity generation by microorganisms, National Centre for Biotechnology Education. Vol. 1, No.4, 1990 Pp. 163
-
168


Liu, Hong, Grot, Stephen, Logan, Bruce E., Electrochemically Assisted Microbial Production of Hydrogen from Acetate, Environm
ent
al Science and Technology, Vol. 39,
2005 Pp. 4317
-
4320


Logan, Bruce E.
Exoelectrogenic

bacteria that power microbial fuel cells. Nature Reviews, Microbiology, Vol. 7, May 2009 Pp. 375
-
381


Logan, Bruce E.,
Cassandro

Murano
, Keith Scott, Neil D. Gray, Ian M. Head, Electricity Generation from
Cystenine

in a Microbial Fuel Cell, Water Research, 2005 Pp. 942
-
952


Logan, B.E.,
Microbial Fuel Cells
, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.,
Hobeken
, New Jersey, 2008.


Macdonald,
Averil

and Berry,
Martyn
,
Science through Hydrogen: Clean Energy for the Future
,

Heliocentris

energiesysteme
, 2004. Pp. 74, 80


Melis
,
Anastasios
, Green Alga Hydrogen production: progress, challenges and prospects. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy.


Xing,
Defeng
,
Zuo
, Yi, Cheng,
Shaoan
, Regan, John M., Logan, Bruce E. Electricity Generation by
Rhodopseudomonas

palustris

DX
-
1, Environmental Science and Technology
Vol. 42, No. 11, 2008 Pp. 4146
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4145