# 3DM Launchx - I-Cube

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22 Φεβ 2013 (πριν από 5 χρόνια και 4 μήνες)

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1
st

TUESDAY DEMO: 3DM

Integrated Solutions

Discover the total solutions offered

in
2008

Barry

T
.

FRYER

DUDLEY

I
-
Cube

(MBA

{IT}
;

MSc

{Image

Analysis}
;

BSc

{Brewing}
;

BSc

Hons

{Waste

Technology})

indistinguishable from magic.” Arthur C. Clark

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Slide
2

www.I
-
Cube.co.za

Improved Precision /Accuracy in
Measurements

Reproducibility of Results

Higher Throughput than Manual
Methods

Better Definition of Contrasting
Areas

More Measurements / Faster

Databases

Other…

Object ID
based on:

Size

Colour

Shape

Texture

Grey level

Why do Image Analysis?

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Slide
3

www.I
-
Cube.co.za

Same Size?

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Principals of Photogrammetry

Problem: The light that hits a given pixel in the image could
have come from any point along the ray from the pixel, through
the perspective centre, into the scene.

Possible points of origin

Top
-
down view

Image

Sensor

Focal

Length

Perspective Centre

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Principals of Photogrammetry

Solution: Adding another image taken from a different location
allows us to intersect the rays and determine the 3D location of
the point where the light came from!

Top
-
down view

Image

Sensor

Unique 3D location!

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Principals of Photogrammetry

Photogrammetry is the science of using 2D images to make
accurate measurements in 3D. To do that, the information that
was lost when the image was captured needs to be recovered.

The location of any point in an image can

be described with just two co
-
ordinates:

(x,y)
. Images are only two
-
dimensional.

The location of any point in the real world

can be described by three co
-
ordinates:

(x,y,z), (latitude, longitude, altitude), etc.

The real world is three
-
dimensional.

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Exterior

Orientation

Image Matching

Principals of Photogrammetry

Information needed to determine 3D locations:

1.
The location of each camera’s perspective centre.

2.
The orientation (rotation) of each camera about its
perspective centre.

3.
The location of the point on each image sensor.

This is the essence of photogrammetry!

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How does it work?

The software uses an algorithm called a
Least Squares Bundle

“Least Squares”: the solution found is the one that minimises the
square of the error of each observation in terms of their individual
sigmas.

“Bundle”: the rays connecting each point in 3D with the
associated point on the image sensor, passing through each
camera’s perspective centre, resembles a bundle.

“Block”: A single row of images is called a
strip

of images. A
project with multiple rows of images is called a
block
. 3DM
Analyst only solves for one model (two images) at a time, so
“Block” is omitted.

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Workflow

Geotechnical analysis:

Capture Images

Determine camera orientations

Generate DTMs & (optionally) 3D Images

3DM CalibCam

or 3DM Analyst

3DM Analyst or

DTM Generator

Process
DTMs

in 3DM Analyst or import
into
VULCAN for interpretation

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Who is using it?

42% Geologists & Geotechnical Engineers

30% Surveyors

15% Mapping Organizations

Most of the rest are ROV Operators (Submarine)

1 Dentist!

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Some Existing 3DM Analyst Customers

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What are they using it for?

Pit mapping

Geotechnical analysis (underground, mine pits, dam walls)

Stockpile volumes, truck volumes, cast blast volumes, etc.

Measuring the effects of bombs on dam walls

Measuring subsea structures

Measuring denture wear

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Why are they using it?

The same software can be used for mapping from the air,
from the ground, underground, underwater, for any mapping
and any measuring task where the subject can be seen

Data can be obtained remotely when there is no safe access
(up to 3km away!)

Speed of acquiring data compared to other methods

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Why are they using it?

Accuracy and detail of data compared to other methods

Acquiring the data has little impact on other activities

Images form a permanent record that can be referred back to
in the future

The physical components

the parts that can break down

are relatively cheap, available from many suppliers, and easy
to replace

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Applications

Pit Wall Mapping

BHPB Diamonds Ekati Koala mine
:

Camera: Nikon 1Ds, 135mm lens

Project area:
500m
×

300m

Number of images: 27 from each camera station

Number of camera stations: 2

Distance to pit wall: 700m

Ground coverage: 120m
×

80m per image (3cm pixel size)

Number of control points: 7 (placed around the top of

the pit in safe locations)

Accuracy: S
x

= 0.14m, S
y

= 0.08m, S
z

= 0.04m.

Processing time to generate 3D images from scratch:

4 hours, only

8 minutes of which was actual user time!

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Applications

Aerial Mapping

Thiess Indonesia:

Camera: Canon EOS 300D, 28mm lens

Project area:
140km (captured in one day)

Number of images: ~1,200

Flying height: 600m

8
0
0m

Ground coverage: 600m
×

400m per image (20cm ground

pixel size
)

Accuracy: 0.2m

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Applications

Truck Volumes

Customer needed to measure
carrying capacity of trucks to
resolve a dispute

Mounted a Canon EOS 20D with a
24mm lens on a mast (supplied by

Captured three images of each
truck as it drove past

fully
and

empty so volume
difference could be calculated

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Applications

Stockpile Volumes

Capturing from the air is best

can easily see entire surface

Even a cheap camera can capture
very large stockpiles with just a few
images

Need a cheap method to get the
camera in the air!

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Automatic Stockpile Monitoring

Close
-
Range Photogrammetry is an
accurate, cost effective technique
of
collecting measurements of real world objects and conditions directly from
high resolution IP cameras. Photogrammetry utilizes digital images to obtain
accurate measurements and geometric data of the image, in order to provide
spatial information for 3D measurement.

Benefits of close
-
range photogrammetry :

Increased accuracy;

complete as
-
built information;

reduced costs;

Do not need to stop operations;

Effective for small and large projects.

Suitable photography involves taking a

pair of convergent images
of the same

scene from separate positions.

3DM is a set of specialised software tools

designed to extract accurate 3D spatial measurements

by analysing images taken with digital cameras.

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Applications

Tunnel Mapping

Software works fine

difficulties are in lighting and
capturing images in a way that minimises time & effort

Lighting: ADAM has developed a new lighting system based
on white LEDs

has designed an camera
mount that can be used to
capture a fan of images

Timing: Completely capture
a freshly
-
exposed area of
tunnel in under 15 minutes,
using equipment that a
single person can easily
carry

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Overview

Most important to determine the correct tonnage's by
accurate bulk
densities and reliable volumetric surveys
. I
-
Cube believe that such
monitoring should be done by an
independent and unbiased agency
, and
not be monitored by a party who might have a vested interest.

Automatic 3
-
dimensional Dynamic Measurements:
3DM

Contact
-
free measurement
technique based on photogrammetric
principles:
science of geometry, mathematics and physics that uses the
2
-
dimensional image of a 3 dimensional scene to reconstruct a reliable
and accurate model of the original 3D scene.

Custom
-
designed for
repetitive and fully automatic measurement

The unique benefits of the 3DM Technology include 3D measurements of
moving objects

or objects changing shape
,
fully automatic during operation
and provide permanent, digital, records of the objects.

Key strength of 3DM is
versatility

-

Any size object can be measured, from a
range of a few metres to several kilometres away. with the
results available
in seconds
, almost in real
-
time.

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References

B.T
. Dudley. "Image Analysis and Waste Technology in Africa", Binary
-

Computers in Microbiology, 5, 3
-
4. (1993)

B.T
. Dudley,
A.R
.
Howgrave
-
Graham, A.G.
Bruton

and
F.M
. Wallis. "The application of digital image analysis to
quantifying and measuring
UASB

digester granules", Biotechnology & Bioengineering. 42, 279
-

283. (1993)

Castleman
, K. R. 1998. Concepts in Imaging and Microscopy: Color Image

Processing for Microscopy.
The Biological Bulletin
. 194 (2): 100
-
107.

Gordon, S. J. and
Lichti
, D. D. (2004) Terrestrial Laser Scanners with a Narrow Field of View: The Effect

on 3D Resection Solutions,
Survey Review, in press.

Russ
, J.C. 1995.
The Image Processing Handbook
. 2nd ed.
CRC

Press.
Boca Raton
, FL.

Inoue, S. (1986). Video Microscopy. Plenum
Press

Internet:

Boehler
, W. and
Marbs
, A. Investigating Laser Scanner Accuracy. Available online at http://
scanning.fhmainz
.

de/
scannertest/results300305.pdf
.

Reshetyuk
, Y. Investigation and calibration of pulsed time
-
of
-
flight terrestrial laser scanners. Available

online at
http://www.diva
-
portal.org/kth/abstract.xsql?dbid
=4126.

http://www.riegl.com/terrestrial_scanners/lms
-
z420i_/420i_all.htm

I
-
Site
4400LR

Laser Scanner Specifications. Available online at

Lichti
,
D.D
. and Gordon,
S.J
. (2004) Error Propagation in Directly
Georeferenced

Terrestrial Laser Scanner

Point Clouds for Cultural Heritage Recording. Proc. FIG Working Week, 22
-
27 May, Athens, Greece.

Available online at
http://www.fig.net/pub/athens/papers/wsa2/WSA2_6_Lichti_Gordon.pdf
.

http://www.isite3d.com/pdf/4400LR_spec_sheet_web.pdf

http://www.riegl.com/terrestrial_scanners/zubehoer/lms
-
z_inclination_sensors.htm

http://
www.rotomotion.com
/

http://www.gim
-
international.com/issues/articles/id860
-
Geoinfo_and_Cultural_Heritage.html

www.I
-
Cube.co.za

24

Sub Saharah
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Barry

T
.

DUDLEY

(MBA

{IT}
;

MSc

{Image

Analysis}
;

BSc

{Brewing}
;

BSc

Hons

{Waste

Technology})

I
-
CUBE

http
:
//www
.
i
-
cube
.
co
.
za

Cell
:

+
27

(
0
)

82

562

8225

PH

+
27

(
0
)

31

764
-
3077

82

Kloof

Falls

Rd

Fax

0866539659

Kloof
,

Durban,

Kwa
-
Zulu

Natal,

3610
,

South

Africa

E
-
mail
:

LPR@I
-
Cube
.
co
.
za