1. Principles, Practice and Policies.

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25 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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Roger Harris Associates

Roger W. Harris PhD

Roger Harris Associates

Hong Kong

China Agricultural University

2010

1. Principles, Practice and Policies.

The Lecturer

Malaysia

Nepal

Vietnam

Philippines

China

Sri
-
Lanka

Lao PDR

Cambodia

India

Thailand

Taiwan

Indonesia

Papua New Guinea

Mongolia

Bangladesh

Hong Kong

Singapore




PhD in Information Systems


Began researching rural ICTs
for poverty reduction in 1997


Working as a consultant since
2001:


Policy advice


Programme design and
implementation


Evaluations


Research


Work for an NGO using ICTs
for rural development


Rural telecentre


Community radio


roger.harris@rogharris.org
http://www.rogharris.org


Agenda


Principles


Practice


Policies



Principles


Global poverty


Information and poverty


Some Concepts


The digital divide


ICTs in China


Practice


Internet


Mobile telephones


Community radio


Others


Policies


Global initiatives


National responses


Design approach


Lessons learned


Principles


Principles


Global poverty


Information and poverty


Some Concepts


The digital divide


ICTs in China


Practice


Internet


Mobile telephones


Community radio


Others


Policies


Global initiatives


National responses


Design approach


Lessons learned


China and India host more
poor people than the entire
population of Africa.


Around three quarters of the
world's 1.3 billion poor
people live in
middle
-
income
countries
.


China’s poverty rate fell from
85% to 15.9%, or by over
600 million people


Much of the poverty
reduction in the last couple
of decades almost
exclusively comes from
China


China accounts for nearly all
the world’s reduction in
poverty.

http://www
-
958.ibm.com/software/data/cognos/manyeyes/visualizations/poverty
-
indicators

Numbers are in millions


Education


Employment


Enterprise development


Credit


Public services


Health care


Better agriculture


Information

….about all the above,

…….and the
Technology

to deliver it.


Some
Concepts


Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs)


To handle information and aid communication, including
computer and network hardware and software and the merging
(convergence) of telephone networks with computer networks.


The Information Society


In which information is significant for economic, political, and
cultural activity.


New Media


The interactivity of computers and communications technology.


The Internet


“Arguably mankind's greatest invention.”



The Digital Divide


The gap between those with access to digital technology, and
those without.


E
-
Inclusion


Bringing the benefit of ICTs to all segments of the population;
irrespective of education, poverty, age, gender, disability ,
ethnicity, and remoteness.


Universal Service


The provision of telecommunication services to every resident of
a country including those in low income, rural, and high cost
areas.


http://www
-
958.ibm.com/software/data/cognos/manyeyes/visualizations/mobile
-
and
-
fixed
-
line
-
telephone
-
su

Mobile and Fixed Line Telephone Subscribers

Internet Users

The Digital Divide:
Telephones and
the Internet


In 2009, an estimated
26% of the world’s
population (or 1.7 billion
people) were using the
Internet.


In developed countries
the percentage remains
much higher than in the
developing world where
four out of five people are
still excluded from the
benefits of being online.

0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
2000
2008
2000
2008
Countries with Very
High Human
Development Index
Countries with Low
Human Development
Index
32

70

0.1

5

107

152

1

28

Number of phone subscriptions per 100
people

Number of internet users per 100 people

Mobiles


In developed countries, the mobile market
is reaching saturation with 116
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants .


The developing world is increasing its
share of mobile subscriptions from 53% of
total subscriptions at the end of 2005 to
73% at the end of 2010.


In the developing world, mobile cellular
penetration rates will reach 68% at the end
of 2010
-

mainly driven by the Asia and
Pacific region.


India and China alone are expected to add
over 300 million mobile subscriptions in
2010.


In Africa, penetration rates will reach an
estimated 41% at the end of 2010
(compared to 76% globally) leaving a
significant potential for growth.


Mobile cellular subscriptions per
100 inhabitants, 2010.

CIS

Europe

The

Americas

Arab

States

Asia &

Pacific

Africa

2009/2010

Growth Rate %

%

The Digital Divide:
Households with TV,
Computers & Internet


While Internet
penetration in developed
countries reached 64 per
cent at the end of 2009, in
developing countries it
reached only 18 per cent
(and only 14 per cent if
China is excluded).


In Estonia, France,
Finland, and Greece,
Internet access has been
made a human right


0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
TV
Computer
Internet
Percent of Households with Access
72%

23%

16%

98%

71%

66%

Developed Countries

Developing Countries

ICTs in China:
Exports


Manufacturing of ICT
goods has created
around
25.5 million jobs for
migrant workers.


They have contributed to
reducing poverty in rural
areas through an
estimated $18 billion of
remittances.


30,000 companies in
Shenzhen shipped 145
million mobile phone units
in 2009 (13% of all phones
sold in the world)



$0.00
$50.00
$100.00
$150.00
$200.00
$250.00
$300.00
$350.00
$400.00
$450.00
1. China
2. USA
3. Hong
Kong
4.
Singapore
5. Rep of
Korea
$430.73

$174.86

$158.67

$122.99

$115.62

US$ Billion
-

2008

ICTs in China:
Usage


China accounts for one
-
third
of Internet users in the
developing world.


With more than 420 million
Internet users, China is the
largest Internet market in the
world.


More Chinese (87 %) see the
Internet as a fundamental
human right than do
Americans (76 %).


More than half of fixed
broadband subscribers in the
developing world are in China.





China
USA
0.0
10.0
20.0
30.0
40.0
50.0
60.0
70.0
80.0
Internet users
per 100
inhabitants
Fixed
broadband
internet users
per 100
inhabitants
PCs per 100
people
22.3

6.2

5.6

74.0

23.5

78.7

Compared to USA
-

2008

Practice


Principles


Global poverty


Information and poverty


Some Concepts


The digital divide


ICTs in China


Practice


Internet


Mobile telephones


Community radio


Others


Policies


Global initiatives


National responses


Design approach


Lessons learned

Telecentres


Telecentres provide shared
access to ICTs for the purpose
of community development
and poverty reduction


11,160 telecentres in 16
countries

in Asia (UNESCAP)


2,000 new telecentres
established in India every year
since 2001


Multiple models of ownership
and operation


Patchy impact


Sustainability problems


National programmes

Telecentre Diffusion in Asia

Category

Examples


Source


Delivery


Generic
Information


E
-
government, agricultural
extension, distance education, e
-
commerce, e
-
health, news,
weather, etc.


Government and
national/regional
institutions.


Institutional
partnerships.


ICT
-
focused
Services


E
-
mail, voice over IP, chat,
internet searches, word
processing, spreadsheets,
presentations, ICT training,
printing, photocopying, scanning,
newsletters etc.


Local telecentre
owners, operators
and staff.


Creative and
client
-
centric
entrepreneurial
activity at the
telecentre.


Developmen
t Programs


HIV/AIDS awareness campaigns,
micro
-
and small enterprise
development support, skills
training, micro
-
credit support,
etc.


National/regional
development
initiatives.


Pro
-
active
marketing of
telecentres
among NGOs, and
INGOs.


Locally
-
based
Information


Local laws, poverty reduction
schemes, local NGO activities,
yellow pages, job placement
services, classified
advertisements, market prices,
etc.


Local activists,
NGOs, community
-
based
organizations,
government
offices, social
entrepreneurs,
volunteers,
schools, etc.


Community
outreach,
community
mobilisation,
Infomobilisation.


Mobile
Telephones


SMS services


Voice applications


Web applications


Social exchanges


Emergencies


Informal networks


Business transactions


Weather updates


Market prices


SMS Triples in 3 Years










More than half the world's population now pay
to use a mobile phone


Developing countries account for about two
-
thirds of the total mobile phones in use.



mHealth


Medical and public health practice supported by mobile devices


Tamil Nadu Health Watch allows health workers, even in remote areas, to immediately report
disease incidence data to health officials


mLearning


Learning with portable technologies


Graduate students at King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology, North Bangkok, used mobile phones
to participate in tests, and more than 90 per cent of the participants owned the mobile phones
themselves


mFinance


Mobile phones to facilitate banking activities; deposits, withdrawals, payments, transfers.


GCASH

Philippines, turns a cellphone into an electronic wallet, for money transfers, shopping and
transferring money between cellphones


mAgriculture


Fishing boats in Kerala using offshore mobile phones to coordinate sales with traders


mGovernment



Delivery of government services and applications on mobile phones and other portable devices
using a wireless infrastructure.


Income Tax Department of India
-

SMA to verify banks have uploaded tax deposits


Crisis Management


RapidSMS enables mass
-
scale mobile data collection, messaging, and workflow management via
SMS


deployed by UNICEF to track the distribution of Plumpynut during a hunger crisis in Ethiopia


Conservation


Wild
-
life tracking, remote environmental sensing



Advocacy/citizen mobilisation/social coordination



FrontlineSMS for text messaging to large groups

Community

Radio


Popular device, especially for local information


56% of farmer households in Vietnam have a
radio


Combined with telecentres = radio browsing


Rapid diffusion of development information to
remote areas


Channel for interactive communication,
dialogue and debate on rural development
issues.


A tool for cultural expression, local language
use, entertainment.


A platform for democratic expression of
opinions, needs and aspirations of rural
communities


200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

Low

income

Middle

income

High

income

East

Asia &

Pacific

Latin

America

Middle

East &

N
.
Africa


South

Asia

Sub
-
Saharan

Africa

Europe

Radios per 1,000 people

Others


Television


Almost ubiquitous in Asia


Main form of information and entertainment


Not used much for development, but notable
exceptions are farmer information services in
China and Vietnam


Loudspeakers


Important in some contexts; China, Vietnam,
India


Especially combined with other technologies;
radio, internet.



0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

Africa

Asia

Latin

America

Global

TV Sets (% of households)

China Ministry of Agriculture TV channel.

Policies


Principles


Global poverty


Information and poverty


Some Concepts


The digital divide


ICTs in China


Practice


Internet


Mobile telephones


Community radio


Others


Policies


Global initiatives


National responses


Design approach


Lessons learned


World Summit on the Information Society and the MDGs


Two WSIS UN conferences on the information society; Geneva
2003 and Tunis 2005.




Plan of Action for using ICTs to achieve
the Millennium Development Goals;


Promote ICTs for development


Build infrastructure


Provide access
to information and
knowledge


Build capacity


Foster an enabling
environment


Implement ICT
Applications
:


Calls upon
countries to establish
national targets as part of national
ICT
strategies:

1.
Connect villages , education institutions,
scientific and research centres public
libraries, cultural centres, museums, post
offices archives health centres, hospitals,
local and central government departments
and establish websites and e
-
mail
addresses

2.
To adapt all school curricula to meet the
challenges of the information society

3.
To ensure that all of the world’s population
have access to television and radio services

4.
To encourage the development of content

5.
To ensure that more than half the world’s
inhabitants have access to ICTs within their
reach.


E
-
government


E
-
business


E
-
learning


E
-
health


E
-
employment


E
-
environment


E
-
agriculture


E
-
science

National
Responses

e
-
Sri Lanka












To promote:

(i)
The use of ICTs to enhance growth,
employment, and equity through
affordable access to means of
information and communication;

(ii)
Access to and use o f public
information and services on
-
line by
citizens and businesses; and

(iii)
Competitiveness of the private
sector, particularly of knowledge
industries and SMEs.


ICT policies linked to
poverty
reduction


e
-
Government


Enabling laws


Telecommunications
deregulation


Universal services


Education


Infrastructure


Internet backbones


Telecentre programmes


India, Malaysia, Vietnam,
Philippines, Thailand, Nepal,
Sri Lanka…

Define the development
strategy

Define the information
strategy

Define the technology
strategy

Define the sustainability
strategy

Define the evaluation
strategy

Begin with an awareness of the
potential and limitations of ICTs
for development and poverty
reduction

Against that

background

Where development is
going and why

What information is
needed

How the information
can be delivered

How the service can
be sustained,
extended

How the outcomes
can be identified

Design
Approach


ICTs will not turn bad development into
good development, but they can make
good development better.


Lessons
Learned


Empowerment is not an automatic
consequence of access, p
rogrammes need to
go beyond access


ICTs alone are insufficient, requires e
ffective
pro
-
poor policies for public service provision


Institutional reforms are required for making
effective use of ICTs


Technical skills are necessary to complement
poverty reduction efforts


Capacity building is necessary at all levels


Honest evaluations are necessary for evidence
-
based policy making and programme design


In rural settings the technological
infrastructure is always a challenge, but that
task is relatively simple compared to
establishing the information infrastructure.


Whilst ICTs provide opportunities for
development, desirable outcomes always arise
from the actions of people.

Roger Harris Associates

Roger W. Harris PhD

Roger Harris Associates

Hong Kong