Reference Model presentation - Jisc

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7 Δεκ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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PLE

Reference Model

Colin Milligan

(Scott Wilson)

PLE

PLE

Elements


domain scope


domain ontology


analysis and theory


software


-

used to derive patterns,


topics keywords


agents (actors or roles
-

learner, tutor, administrator)
-


patterns
-

the patterns are structured according to
Alexander (problem, motivation, solution, services, use
cases, user category, known uses, category)
-



scenarios
-

high level use cases showing typical uses of a
PLE


service descriptions
-

defining the services referenced by
the collected patterns

PLE

Domain Ontology


process pattern x involves agent y and is
known to have been used in software z.
The pattern uses service a and service b
to solve a problem in the scope of topic c,
and satisfies use case 1 and 2


reference model artifact

use case

agent

organisation

person

process pattern

software

topic

service

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Scenario Issues

PLE is disruptive


existing systems


security


IPR


student skills

PLE

Scenario Practicalities


Fallback position


Transition between current and future


Provisioning



PLE

Scenarios

1.
Formal Study

2.
Future (Lifelong) Learner

3.
Independent or Informal Learning

PLE

1. Formal Learning


The scenario reflects the current norm, where a student
studies for a formal qualification at a single institution.


Variations or extensions to this scenario could include


special requirements of some subjects (law, medicine etc.)
where specific ways of demonstrating competencies might exist,


different educational levels (Masters, Doctorate)


The student may or may not possess their own computer
and so may need their data and preferences stored
centrally, or at least need to sync.


Simple relationship between student and institution


requires negotiation.

PLE

Scenario Constraints (1)


Learning Episode (course, degree etc.) is a
contract between individual and institution


Student has


attributes (Educational Level, competency, prior
knowledge)


preferences (learning mode and learning style)


constraints (disability, technology, time commitments,
preferred tools)


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Scenario Constraints (2)

Institution has


attributes (courses offered, staff, pedagogical
approach)


constraints (qa, rules and regulations)


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Scenario Constraints (3)


Together, they negotiate an instance of learning


The student is then provided with an environment in
which to work. Or they may supply the environment
themselves, but


both the student and the institution places constraints
on this environment.


The environment needs to be:


Capable: It needs to have (at least an awareness of) all the
tools a learner is likely to use


Usable: It needs to self
-
assemble, but allow customisation and
evolution.

PLE

Scenario Constraints (4)

Initiation: where the environment is (dependent on constraints and attributes):


furnished with tools (communication, calendar, content discovery and
creation),


loaded with settings (groups, email addresses, schedules, search tools, prior
evidence etc.)


populated with content (from the institution), including workflows.


Customisation (ongoing) where the student


adds in his or her own custom tools, augmenting and possibly replacing existing ones.


Modulates environment as they develop as a learner.


Progression: where the student undertakes a series of negotiated tasks


using (progressing through) and creating resources,


notifying and being notified of events.


communicating with individuals and groups (peers and tutors, experts)


Undertaking assessments


Reflection

where the student


augments their portfolio


this may occur throughout the learning event.


Termination: Where an endpoint is achieved (for instance through accreditation)

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2. Future Learner


This alternative to the first case acknowledges the
specific needs of a learner who may study with a number
of different institutions, either sequentially, or at the
same time as anticipated in lifelong learning.


The learner may also have other commitments (e.g. may
also work) and there will be greater emphasis on
generating evidence through ePortfolio.


The learner would expect to own their own computer
(laptop) and use this (almost) exclusively.


Much more complex relationship between student and
multiple institutions (and work and groups …)


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3. Informal or Independent Learner


This scenario encompasses the typical informal learner,
who might have less formal goals and no institution.


They are not registered for a qualification, and therefore
have no formal learning relationships (with tutors etc.)
They do belong to informal groups but their goals may
differ from those of their peers.


Typified by a need for more fluidity, as individual moves
between different communities. Environment may be
entirely self
-
assembled.



Researchers and knowledge workers would also utilise
this type of environment.

PLE

PLE

Patterns


Recurrent Problems


After Alexander


Problem


Motivation


Solution


User Category


Services


Known uses


Related Patterns


Look at Software


PLE

Pattern Categories


Conversation Patterns (managing communication)


Team Patterns (managing groups)


Temporal Patterns (manage calendaring)


Network Patterns (managing syncing)


Resource Patterns Context Patterns (managing instances)


Social Patterns (aka People Patterns


managing relationships)


Workflow Patterns



Activity Patterns (managing learning: LADIE)


Assessment Patterns (FREMA)


Other Patterns (at different level cf ped. patterns LMS Patterns)


PLE

eyeOS

SynchroEdit

Writely

Writeboard

BaseCamp

TaDaList

AOLInstantMessenger

iChat

MSNMessenger

Groove

WiredReach

ELGG

Outlook

Chandler

Colloquia

AppleMail

Eudora

Thunderbird

iCal

Sunbird

Shrook

NetNewsWire

Blogger

Drupal

Wordpress

XJournal

Google

Amazon

Software

Flock

Mozilla/XUL)

NetVibes

SuprGlu

43Things

Flickr

Furl

Technorati

del.icio.us

PLE

Sample Pattern

Graphical Avatar (aka Buddy Icon)

This is one of the Patterns of the PLE Reference Model


Problem

How can a learner easily recognise another learner, even when they appear in multiple contexts?


Motivation

When a learner communicates using various media, such as email and instant messaging, it often is unclear to
the recipient that they are in fact the same person, as very often the handles associated with different media
are not the same for the same person.


Solution

Use a single
Graphical Avatar

to visually represent the learner to enable their rapid recognition. The "gravatar"
should be the same even if the person it represents is using different account details (for example, an email
account or an IM account).


User Category

Learner


Services


Known Uses

The most well known use is the "Buddy Icon" found in AOLInstantMessenger, but many other systems make use
of graphical avatars, such as Colloquia.


Related Patterns

PLE

Some Patterns

PLE

Services: eLearning Framework

PLE

Activity Management Service

Service


allows a PLE user to


publish activities,


join activities others have
created,


contribute resources for
activities


access resources for
activities.


Broker for Workflow
service



PLE

Workflow Pattern:

Conversation for Action

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