INTEGRATION OF DIGITAL LIBRARIES AND OPEN EDUCATION SYSTEMS

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7 Δεκ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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INTEGRATION OF
DIGITAL LIBRARIES AND
OPEN EDUCATION SYSTEMS
K.R. Srivathsan
& Sukant Kole
IGNOU
srivathsan@ignou.ac.in
ICDL-2010-Lecture
Feb. 23-26, 2010
Role of Digital Libraries in e-Education

S.R. Ranganathan captured the essence of Libraries
and their role in his 'Five Laws of Library Science'.

In short, Libraries should function as the 'Supermarket'
of Human Knowledge for the communities they serve.

Supermarkets are more than 'vending' stuff. It is highly
organized and networked.

They have systems to monitor customer behaviour,
inform and interact with supply chains to direct the
incoming supplies, organization to manage and
promote sales of goods.

Digital Libraries must integrate with the Education
System of the community they serve.

Five principles of Supermarket
and Five Laws of Library Science
1.
Goods are for sale.
2.
To every customer, the
goods he/she seeks.
3.
Every item/goods to reach
the (potential) customer who
finds value in it.
4.
Save the time of the user:
User’s attention span is
limited – must be attracted
to the supermarket.
5.
The supply chain, the
management, the staff and
customers form one
growing organism.

Books are for use

Every reader his book

Every book its reader

Save the time of the user.
User’s attention span is
limited - has to be attracted
to the supermarket.

Library is a growing
organism.


SRR was untiringly working
to establish Libraries as the
‘Supermarket’ of Society’s
Knowledge.



Above five principles fundamental to any services business.

Rephrase the 5 Laws for Digital Libraries
1.
Contents are for use.
2.
Every ‘user’, the content he/she/the system seeks.
-
Organizational
3.
Every Content its ‘user’ -
Promotional
4.
Save the time of the user
Managerial
5.
Sources that generate content, those who manage
it and the users form an integral growing
organism.

To the above
5 Laws, we also add the four
principles of Knowledge Management and the
Five ‘Rights’
to be respected by the services.
Metadata promotes content reuse

Deal with how we organize content in ways that
make them ‘usable’ by people and systems.
Digital
Repository
of diverse
content
types
Metadata
framework –
Dublin Core
and
Extensions
+RDF, OWL,
etc.
Middleware
and system
of Web-2.0
Framework
of SOAP,
RSS Feeds,
Secure
Access
U
S
E
R
S
Different Databases Associations
1. Systems, GUI &
Navigation
Database:

Example:
Wikipedia –
Backend served by
Mediawiki with its
system and views
descriptors in a
MySQL database

Deals with
structures &
formats
2. Objects
Database:

Ex.: Objects like
eBooks, Learning
Objects:
associated &
linked structures,
schemas & Permits
Ex.: XML Schemas
3. The Metadata
Frameworks for
published
Databases.

Ex.: Dublin Core
& Extensions;
Documents
Management
Associated
Semantic
extensions ?

Semantic Overlays: RDF, OWL ....
Universities
Colleges
People
Research
Communities
National/
International
Collaborations
INTERNET
Web Server

Institution/
University
Archives
Scientific
Databases
Scientific
Databases
Linked
Software &
Computational
Resources
Linked Open
Education and
Web Resources
Digital Library,
Open Access
Publications,
E-Learning
Open Learning
& Continuing
Education
Industries
Community Network Scenario for
Digital Content and Archives
Web Services
Brokering &
Authenticatio
n Services
Web-s
er
vices 2
.0
Architecting the Open Archive Grid
Content
Archives
Open, Open!
And Open up Education!
A major trend today is the march towards 'Openness'.
Open Source Software, Open Architecture (Services Oriented
Architecture, or, SOA), Open Standards, Open Systems, Open
Knowledge Initiative …
Then we have Open Access Publishing, Open Content, Open
Courseware, Open Education Resources, …
Then why not Open Education?
If so how do we build and manage the same? How do we assure
quality in such education?
(i) What is the best way to (i) link Digital Library and content
collections contextualized to each lesson in a course?
(ii) What best approach to absorb new content generated in the
learning activities of a course?
Emerging Roles for Digital Libraries

While education and research in Libraries teach wide subject
areas ranging from Digital Archives to Digital Preservations and
Datamining, our Libraries are yet to accept the reality of serving
their roles in supporting web communities of learners,
Organizational Learning and Knowledge Management needs of
their institutions.

There are different categories of content management:
1.

Formal Scholarly and Literary works – Books, Journals, etc.
2.
Formal content generation for education – Video lectures,
documents, Rich Content, Multimedia, … for education.
3.
Content generated during the run of courses – Assignments,
Case Studies, Term Papers, → the 'Open Courseware' type.
4.
Community postings → Over Wiki, discussion forums. Etc.

2 & 3 are important and should be served by the DL.
J
+
_
1.Instruction
Delivery
3. Online/
Self Tests
2. IGNOU
Open Course
Guide: Learning
Activities,
Exercises
4. Feedback
to learners
Set Instructional objectives

Evaluate against

Instructional Objectives
Teacher – Learner Involvement in all stages
5. Exams &
Evaluation
6. Assessment
+
Final Marks,
Grade
IGNOU’s Open Distributed TEL Framework


Key Integrator of content, instruction, learning activities, the course
schedule and the resources is the IGNOU Open Course Guide
(IOCG) System.


ODTEL integrates multiple modes of reaching out through ICT:
Internet, TV, IP-TV, Community Radio, Mobile Alerts, Education Kiosks in
Railway Stations, Rural Areas, …
2. IGNOU
Course
Management
Group (CMG)
4. Colleges
& Study
Centres
3. CMG to develop
&
Deploy IGNOU
Online Study Guide
(IOCG)
IOCG Provides the Web-Community
Dashboard for ODTEL
Students &
Teachers
24 X7 access
1.SLMs,RVLs,
Open Web
Content
Content
Management
Cycles
Instruction
Management
Cycles
Course IOCG set over Mediawiki
About the Course, Prerequisites, Syllabus

Instructions to SCs, Tutors

Course Objectives

Course Evaluation approach

Course Support and Counseling details.


Sequence of Learning Modules

Course Concept Map
with links to Learning
Modules

Recommended Text Books,


References, Web References

Course Calendar
Instruction Team and Contact details
Tier-4: IGNOU Online Study Guide
IOCG is
implemented
in IGNOU using
Mediawiki

Module Topic
Motivational/anecdotal content

Instructional Objectives

Learning Activities Sequencing:
RVL to be played,
textbook sections, recommended problem set,
practice, experiments, etc.


LMS used for all asynchronous Interactions
and directives to students.

Guidance for Tutorial
Monitored Self test as help for students.
Module test (part of continuous evaluation).

Mid-term and end term tests conducted.

Computer Assisted Evaluation methods may be used.
SAMPLE IOCG MODULE
IOCG: The 4-Way Bridge
IOCG Over
Open Wiki
Learners
Distributed
Over
Geography
Course and
Instruction
Management
Team


IOCG guides course related learning activities management
SLM, LMS (Moodle), VoD, e-Books Open Web
Content, Discussion Forums, QMS, etc.
Calendar, Alerts &
M Gateway Systems
Where IOCG Links Content to
Lessons & Learning Activities
IOCG
For
Course-1
IOCG
For
Course-2
IOCG
For
Course-n
* * *
Mediawiki Content Aggregator
DRUPAL Content Management System
Digital Library Framework
Model View
Controller
(MVC)
Role of MVC: To provide for screening by
Library/Information Manager to filter and link to Metadata
Extensions Framework.
MANAGING THE COURSES – LIBRARY LINKAGES
Two-Way MVC Management Interface
Putting the Five Laws in to Action
Results
Understanding
Knowledge
Information
Data
Processing
What do we see?
Cognition
What does it
show?
Judgement
What should we
do?
Action
What will happen?
Collective wisdom of the Stakeholders (
Group
)
and strategy to prevail at every stage.
Ack.: Anurag Srivastava,
Wipro
ICT Systems
here
ICT Facilitation here
People here
Situational K-
Empowerment
Information Systems Personalized to Virtual
Enterprises or Services Focused Groups
Target Groups,
Users, Learners
Experts
Mentors
Consultants
Education and
Capacity Building
Programs
Information
Inputs, Group
Publishing
Knowledge Intensive
Products and Services
Web-Community
Wiki for Knowledge
& Collaboration


Practice the 5 Rights: Right Information, Right Time,
Right Place, Right Person and Right Context
ODTEL supports for the 5 Laws!
1.
Contents are for use: IOCG organizes approved and recommended
content to learners and teachers in the appropriate context.
2.
Every user his/her content: Structured IOCG Wiki provides course-
specific access to content in association with concerned activities.
3.
Every Content its 'reader': Library linked view allows for navigation to
appropriate open education resource and allows links to activity areas.
4.
Save the Time of the User!
5.
IOCG driven Community Education Portal is a growing organism: wITH
Open Community Publishing,and discussions that may further be
screened and filtered and integrated into the course over time.

And More! We use multpile modes of reaching the learners.
The Multimodal Reach through ODTEL
IGNOU
Course
Portals
Internet
Agriculture,
Health, …
State’s
Programs,
Training
F
E
D
C
B
A
3
4
1
2
5
7
6
8
9
TV
Learners Anywhere
Internet Accessed
Services
Access
CSCs for
(((
Phone
Call
Centre
IGNOU
Institutions
Partner
Low Cost
Access
Devices
Community Radio
New System links Library, E-Learning, and
Community Collaboration Spaces

A major challenge that Libraries should bridge is to
shape and manage the semi-formal content space.

Much of e-Learning uses semi-formal content – Open
Content, Open Courseware, Open Education Resources
– where content is driven by communities.

While this area has been much talked about in library
circles, solutions to structure and service is largely
been driven by ad hoc web portals, metadata
frameworks and database architecture.

Our approach of Wiki-Drupal content management
through MVC based upon library principles provides an
Open Platform for structured approach to community
libraries.

A large Open Area and open to future developments.

For me life itself is energy. And anything
which isn’t charged with emotion is just
plain information. It is emotion and
energy that gives you a new awareness or
new experience of life.”

RAGHU RAI – Photographer & Journalist
T
T


OGETHER
OGETHER
E
E


VERYONE
VERYONE


A
A


CHIEVES
CHIEVES


M
M


ORE
ORE
Thank You All