Mwangi Laban Kamau
BQS 214 ASSIGNMENT
Why is computer known as data processor?
Computer is called a data processor since when raw data fed as input is converted (processed
information that is meaningful.
Explain in brief
the various generations in computer technology?
There are five generations of computers; first generation, second generation, third generation, fourth
generation and fifth generation.
was IBM pioneered and used vacuum
tube technology. It
was very large in size. It consumed a lot of
(about) and emitted a lot of heat due to overheating. It had a small memory capacity and
therefore was very slow.
Examples are UNIVAC and ENIAC computers
technology which is
smaller in size and uses less power
. It was slightly small in size as
compared to the first generation. Had a larger memory capacity making it a bit faster with comparison to
the first generation and emitte
d less heat and was smaller in size.
An example was
It used integrated circuit technology. It was small in size and consumed less power.It had a larger memory
capacity and was therefore
faster and more effective.
mple was IBM 360/91.
FOURTH GENERATION (1971)
It used large scale integrated circuit mounted onto a
While the first generation filled
room, there were
some computers in the fourth generation that could fit on the palm of hand. All the
components of the computer were located from the central processing unit and memory for input and
This generation is also known as generation of micro
essor and it saw the
IBM PC, Apple
Present and beyond)
Fifth generation computing devices are based on artificial intelligence such as voice recognition. They are
still being developed and more advanced technology is being invented. The use of
allel and super
conductors is helping to make artificial intelligence a reality. The objective of fifth generation computers
is to develop devices that respond to natural language input and are capable of learning and self
Write a short
note on the fifth generation of computer.
makes the difference from the
fourth generation computer?
5th generation computers use ULSI (Ultra
Large Scale Integration) chips with millions of transistors
placed in a single integrated circuit in UL
Their computing devices are based on artificial intelligence such as voice recognition. They are still being
developed and more advanced technology is being invented. The use of parallel and super
helping to make artificial intellig
ence a reality. The objective of fifth generation computers is to develop
devices that respond to natural language input and are capable of learning and self
The fifth generation computer is different from the fourth generation in terms of te
chnology used, its
devices are based on artificial intelligence while the fourth generation depend on normal data input
from that process that data.
Why did the size of computer get reduced in third generation computer?
The third generation
reduced in size since it made use of integrated circuits which were very small as
compared to vacuum tubes and transistor used in the first and second generations respectively.
Give short notes on the following
A computer's versatility is determined by its ability to handle multiple processes and programs
simultaneously. For a computer to be versatile, it must have a current operating system, contemporary
hardware and a suitable amount of peripherals.
Computer data storage
is determined by
used to retain digital
A computer has two
types of memori
Random access memory) which is a contemporary memory and ROM(Read only memory)
used in the normal running o
f the computer and it determine
the speed of the computer.
Also a computer has another storage that helps it to store files in a comp
uter. This is called a hard disk.
There is also storage devices that are not part of the computer and are used for backing up work incase the
computer get infected by viruses.
Floppy disks, compact disks and USB disks such as flash
This is a mechanical
which is used primarily for
, and also for
functions such as
. It is however not normally used for
Slide rules come in a diverse range of styles and generally appear in a linear or circular form with a
standardized set of markings (scales) essential to performing math
ematical computations. Slide rules
manufactured for specialized fields such as
typically feature addit
ional scales that aid
in calculations common to that field.
It was developed in the 17th century by
and others based on the emerging work on
. Before the advent of the
, it was the most commonly used
calculation tool in
. The use of slide rules
continued to grow through the 1950s
and 1960s even as
digital computing devices
were being gradually introduced until around 1974 when the
made it largely obsolete and most suppliers left the business.
Charles Babbage (1791
1871) designed t
cal Engine which was a special
designed to tabulate
by evaluating finite differences to create
It had many essential features found in the modern digital computer. It was programmable using p
cards, an idea borrowed from the Jacquard loom used for weaving complex patterns in textiles. The
Engine had a 'Store' where numbers and intermediate results could be held, and a separate 'Mill' where the
arithmetic processing was performed. It had
an internal repertoire of the four arithmetical functions and
could perform direct multiplication and division. It was also capable of functions for which we have
modern names: conditional branching, looping (iteration), microprogramming, parallel processi
iteration, latching, polling, and pulse
shaping, amongst others, though Babbage nowhere used these
terms. It had a variety of outputs including hardcopy printout, punched cards, graph plotting and the
automatic production of stereotypes
trays of soft
material into which results were impressed that could
be used as molds for making printing plates.
computers and mainframe computers
is a class of multi
that lies in the middle range of the computing
spectrum, in between mainframe and micro
ters while the mainframe. It can
10 to 12
terminals working well in what is know
n as distributed data processing. On the other hand the mainframe
computer is a large
system that has the capability to support more powerful peripheral devices
and terminal and due to this it is used by very large organizations such as banks and
computers are majorly used by small businesses, colleges and schools since they are relatively
cheaper as compared to mainframe computers.
Besides the mini
computers have a large processing speed but not as high as that of
computers. Due to this high speed, main
frame computers are used for complex scientific calculations,
large data processing application and for complex graphics applications.
frame as opposed to mini
computers can support m
a single processing unit while the main
implemented using two or
more central processing units
enabling it tom have a larger data storage capacity.