MedBiquitous Competency Use Cases

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MedBiquitous
Competency Use Cases



Use case titles

1.

Associate curriculum components with competencies

2.

Search a system to develop a report that details what competencies are addressed in the
curriculum

3.

Use a machine readable set of competencies or outcomes
developed by
a collaboration or
another organization (import it into the system)

4.

Map one set of competencies to another

5.

Search a
n

LMS
to find
curricular components
addressing a particular competency

6.

Record activities related to and evidence of competence w
ithin a portfolio that details the
expected competencies and how the individual has progressed relative to each
competency.

7.

Direct a clinician to learning based on gaps in competence (remediation)

8.

Compare competence data for a clinician against a benchmark

(gap analysis)

9.

Export a portfolio
or portion of a portfolio

10.

Index a competency framework against an ontology

11.

Qualify a link to a competency/ontology


Actors


Clinician

A practicing clinician or student who is engaged in activities to achieve or measure
co
mpetence

Faculty

An individual driving education or assessment within a particular scope, such as an
undergraduate course

or post
-
graduate certification program
.

Administrator

An individual with technical or other administrative responsibilities related

to education
or competence assessment.

Regulator

An organization that
regulatory or advisory control over education or assessment
activities.

Portfolio

A system that records the clinician’s
activities and
evidence of competence using a
competency framew
ork.

Portfolios may provide other functionality as well
, including
reflection and file storage
.

Self assessment system

A system running activities designed to help the clinician evaluate their own
competence. These activities may be mapped to competencies

within a competency
framework.

Quality improvement
system

A system running activities designed to help the clinician measure and improve
performance. These activities may be mapped to competencies within a competency
framework.

Learning Management
Syste
m

(LMS)

A system offering learning activities to clinicians. These activities may be mapped to
competencies within a competency framework.

Outcomes database

A database that allows clinicians to record their clinical outcomes and compare their
outcomes to
those of their peers. There are several such databases in su
r
gery.

Ontology

A controlled polyhierarchical set of terms that describe a domain. In this case, the
domain is likely to be medical information. Examples include MeSH, SNOMED
-
CT
and TIME
-
ITEM.


Items in the ontology are “terms.”



2


Document History


11 July 2007

Valerie Smothers

Document created

12 July 2007

Tim Willett

Added CWG 10

22 Aug 2007

Valerie Smothers

Added CWG 11








3

Associate curriculum components with competencies


ID

CWG 1

Title

Associate curriculum components with competencies

Actors

Faculty, Administrator, Clinician, Learning Management System

Trigger event

An organization has decided to implement a competency framework for it
education or assessment activities.

Succe
ss End
Condition

Clinicians and Faculty are able to access a system that reveals how
competencies are addressed in a curriculum or assessment program.

Assumptions

The organization has an LMS capable of mapping curriculum or program
components to a compete
ncy.

A competency framework (ie specific competencies) has been agreed upon
within the organization.

Administrators have encoded the competency framework in XML and imported
that framework into the LMS.

Description

Administrators identify which types of c
urricular components should be
associated with competencies (ie learning objectives, courses, assessment
instruments, lectures, assessment items, etc).

An administrator selects a curricular component within the LMS.

The administrator to browse
s

or search
e
s

the competency framework
within the
LMS
for the appropriate competency.

The administrator selects one or more appropriate competencies and associates
the curricular component with those competencies using the LMS.

Faculty, clinicians, and administrators

are able to view the association between
curricular components and competencies within the LMS (i.e. curriculum map).

Transactions

Importing the competency framework into the LMS.

Recording the association between curricular components and competencies
w
ithin a framework.

Exceptions


Potential
Standards

Competency framework (individual competencies and the relationships among
those competencies)

Associations between curricular components and competencies



4

Search a system to develop a report that detai
ls what competencies are addressed in
the curriculum


ID

CWG 2

Title

Search a system to develop a report that details what competencies are addressed
in the curriculum

Actors

Faculty, Administrator, Clinician, Learning Management System

Trigger event

An

organization
or individual
wishes to

review the curriculum to see where and
how competencies are being addressed.

Success End
Condition

Clinicians,

Faculty
, and Administrators

receive a report

that reveals how
competencies are addressed in a curriculum o
r assessment program.

This may be
important for regulatory audits.

Assumptions

The organization has
mapped

curriculum or program components to a
competency

framework
.


Description

The administrator, faculty, or clinician requests a report
detailing how
c
ompetencies are addressed within the LMS.

OR

The administrator, faculty, or clinician requests a report detailing how a subset
of competencies are addressed within the LMS.

The LMS conducts a search and retrieves the associations between curricular
compone
nts and the competency framework for the specified set of
competencies.

The LMS returns to the administrator, faculty, or clinician a report that details
the associations to curricular components for each competency.


Transactions

Searching for the associ
ations between curricular components and
competencies.

Exceptions

No associations are found.

Potential
Standards

Competency framework (individual competencies and the relationships among
those competencies)

Associations between curricular components and
competencies



5

Use a machine readable set of competencies or outcomes developed by a collaboration
or another organization (import it into the system)


ID

CWG 3

Title

Use a machine readable set of competencies or outcomes developed by a
collaboration or
another organization (import it into the system)

Actors

Administrator, Learning Management System

Trigger event

An organization wishes to import and use a competency framework developed
by others or by a collaboration.

Success End
Condition

The competen
cy framework is imported into the LMS and is usable by the
organization (i.e. competencies may now be associated with curricular
components).

Assumptions

The competency framework exists as a
specification
-
conformant, machine
readable document.


Descript
ion

The administrator downloads the competency framework or otherwise obtains a
machine readable, specification
-
conformant version.

The administrator imports the machine
-
readable competency framework into the
LMS.

The LMS stores the competency framework a
nd enables administrators to begin
working with it (i.e. associating curricular components, etc).

Transactions

Importing the competency framework into the LMS.


Exceptions

The machine readable competency framework or the LMS is not fully
conformant and t
he import fails.

Potential
Standards

Competency framework (individual competencies and the relationships among
those competencies)




6

Map one set of competencies to another

ID

CWG 4

Title

Map one set of competencies to another

Actors

Administrator, Lea
rning Management System

Trigger event

An organization has one competency framework in place and is required to
implement an additional competency framework for regulatory or collaboration
purposes.

Success End
Condition

The competency framework is mapped

to the existing competency framework.
All items associated with the pre
-
existing
framework are now also associated
with the new framework.


Assumptions

The
new
competency framework
has been imported into the LMS
.


Description

The administrator
associate
s a competency within Framework A with a
competency within Framework B.

The LMS creates an association between curricular components associated with
the competency in Framework A and the associated competency within
Framework B.

The administrator repeats
that process until all competencies that are able to be
mapped have been mapped.


Transactions

Associating competencies within a framework with one another.


Exceptions

The competencies are so different that they cannot be mapped.

Potential
Standards

Fr
amework to framework mapping (association among competencies from
different frameworks)




7

Search a
n

LMS

to find
curricular components

addressing a particular competency

ID

CWG 5

Title

Search a
n

LMS

to find
curricular components

addressing a particular
c
ompetency

Actors

Administrator, Faculty, Clinician, Learning Management System

Trigger event

A faculty is preparing to teach a course or prepare an assessment related to a
particular competency, an administrator is verifying how a competency is
addressed

in the curriculum, a clinician is reviewing past learning or assessment
or preparing for new learning or assessment.

Success End
Condition

The LMS displays a list of all curricular components associated with that
competency.

Assumptions

The curriculum h
as been associated with the appropriate competencies in the
LMS.

Description

An administrator, faculty, or clinician browses or searches a competency
framework in an LMS to identify the appropriate competency.

The administrator, faculty, or clinician sele
cts the competency and searches for
all associated curricular components.

The LMS retrieves and displays a list of all associated curricular components.


Transactions

Searching for curricular components associated with a competency.


Exceptions

There are

not components associated with the competency.

Potential
Standards

Associations between curricular components and competencies.



8

Record activities related to and evidence of competence within a portfolio that details
the expected competencies and how
the individual has progressed relative to each
competency

ID

CWG 6

Title

Record activities related to and evidence of competence within a portfolio that
details the expected competencies and how the individual has progressed
relative to each competency.

Actors

Administrator, Clinician,
Portfolio,
Learning Management System
, Self
-
Assessment System, Outcomes Database, Quality Improvement System

Trigger event

A clinician has completed a course, quality improvement program, assessment,
or other activity that

is related to or provides evidence of competence (or lack of
competence).

Success End
Condition

The
clinician’s portfolio records the clinician’s completion of the activity and
any evidence of competence or lack of competence.

Assumptions

The course, q
uality improvement program, assessment, or other activity has
been associated with a competency within a competency framework.

The system offering the activity (Learning Management System, Self
-
Assessment System, Outcomes Database, Quality Improvement Syst
em) is
capable of sending specification
-
conformant messages to the clinician’s
portfolio.

The clinician’s portfolio is able to receive the messages and import the data.

Description

The Learning Management System, Self
-
Assessment System, Outcomes
Database,

or Quality Improvement System sends a message containing data on
the clinician’s activity (including score or performance data if applicable) to the
clinician’s portfolio.

The portfolio system records the data in the clinician portfolio.

Administrators m
ay be able to view data within the portfolio, across multiple
clinicians or a single clinician (aggregate or individual data).

Clinicians may view their progress towards competence.


Transactions

Reporting activity related to or evidence of competence to
a portfolio system.

Exceptions

The portfolio system cannot import the data. (improper format, person unknown,
etc).

Potential
Standards

Activity report (see
http://www.medbiq
.org/working_groups/activity_report/index.html
)

NOTE:
We will need to research how reporting of evidence of competence
matches up with the existing activity report.



9

Direct a clinician to learning based on gaps in competence (remediation)

ID

CWG 7

Tit
le

Direct a clinician to learning based on gaps in competence (remediation)

Actors

Clinician, Portfolio, Learning Management System, Self
-
Assessment System,
Outcomes Database, Quality Improvement System

Trigger event

A clinician has
entered her portfolio

to review her progress to competence.

Success End
Condition

The clinician’s portfolio reco
mmends new activities based on portfolio contents.


Assumptions

The portfolio has access to activity descriptions in other systems.

The activity descriptions in ot
her systems are associated with competencies in
the competency framework used by the portfolio.

Policies may be in place that enable the portfolio to offer activities available
through other organizations or systems.

Description

The portfolio system analy
zes the clinician’s activities and scores, looking for
competencies with no activities or scores below an acceptable threshold for a
particular instrument or activity. The portfolio system may implement other
search logic as well based on current trends in

healthcare.

The portfolio queries the appropriate LMS, Self
-
Assessment System, Outcomes
Database, or Quality Improvement System for activities associated with the
competencies in which there is a deficiency
.

The LMS, Self
-
Assessment System, Outcomes Datab
ase, or Quality
Improvement System returns metadata describing appropriate activities.

The portfolio system shows the clinician learning opportunities within the
context of the competency framework.


Transactions

Portfolio system queries other system for
activities related to a specific
competency within a framework.


Exceptions

No activities are found.

Potential
Standards

Description of acceptable score thresholds (may exist)

Query for activities associated with a competency within a framework

Metadata
(see Healthcare LOM
http://www.medbiq.org/working_groups/learning_objects/index.html
)



10

Compare competence data for a clinician against a benchmark (gap analysis)

ID

CWG 8

Title

Compare competence data for a clinician against a benchmark (gap analysis)

Actors

Clinician, Portfolio

Trigger event

A clinician has entered his portfolio to review his progress to competence.

Success End
Condition

The clinician is able to deter
mine how his evidence of competence compares to
benchmark measures.

Assumptions

Benchmarks have been indicated in the portfolio system.

Description

The portfolio system displays the clinician’s
evidence of competence data
alongside benchmark data for th
e given instruments or datapoints.

When there are marked differenced between benchmark data and the clinician’s
performance, the portfolio system calls attention to that.


Transactions

Portfolio system
compares performance to benchmarks.


Exceptions

No
b
enchmarks exist.

Potential
Standards

Benchmarks for performance measures.




11

Export a portfolio or portion of a portfolio

ID

CWG 9

Title

Export a portfolio or portion of a portfolio

Actors

Clinician, Portfolio

Trigger event

A clinician has entered hi
s portfolio.

Success End
Condition

The clinician is able to export her portfolio so that it may be sent to another
organization for purposes of continuing professional development, employment,
assessment, etc.

Assumptions

Other organizations’ systems wil
l be able to read the portfolio.

Description

The clinician selects the portion of her portfolio to export.

The portfolio system creates a machine readable document with the portfolio
data and provides it to the clinician for download.

The clinician downlo
ads the portfolio.

The clinician stores or sends the portfolio to other organizations or systems.


Transactions

Portfolio system exports portfolio data.


Exceptions

There is no data to export.

Potential
Standards

Competency
-
based portfolio



12

Index a co
mpetency framework against an ontology

ID

CWG 10

Title

Index a competency framework against an ontology

Actors

Administrator, ontology, LMS.

Trigger event

A curriculum administrator wishes to index electronic curricular elements
(including the competenc
ies) against a published vocabulary, taxonomy or
ontology.

Success End
Condition

The competency framework will be mapped to the ontology.

Assumptions



The competency framework exists in a

standard electronic format



The ontology to be used exists in a

stan
dard electronic format



Both the competency framework and the ontology are hierarchical

Description

The administrator either:



logs in to her LMS and imports the ontology

(see CWG 3)
; or



logs in to a web service that hosts the ontology and imports her compe
tency
framework

(see CWG 3).

The administrator links the competencies in the framework to the relevant terms
in the ontology.

Broad competencies (educational outcomes) will likely fall ‘above’ many
ontology terms in the hierarchy (i.e. many terms will cont
ribute to the outcome).
Granular competencies (objectives) will likely fall ‘below’ ontology terms (i.e.
many objectives will address each term).

If the mapping between the ontology and the competencies was performed in a
web service, the combined hierarc
hy of competencies and terms is exported to
the administrator’s LMS where it can be used to index curricular elements (see
CWG 1)
.

Curricular elements (or portfolio elements) mapped to an ontology term will
automatically be mapped to any competencies ‘abov
e’ the term. Any curricular
elements mapped to a competency will automatically be mapped to any
ontology terms ‘above’ the competency.

The system can then produce reports on the competency framework based on the
ontology
(see CWG 2)
or the

framework can b
e searched base
d

on ontology
terms

(see CWG 5)
.

Transactions



Ontology is imported into a LMS



Competency framework is imported into a web service that hosts the
ontology

Exceptions

The competency framework is not mapped against the ontology.


13

Potential
Standards



Web Ontology Language (OWL)

(
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_Ontology_Language
)



IMS VDEX (
http://www.imsglobal.org/vdex
/index.html
)



RDF (
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Resource_Description_Framework
)



Simple Reusable Competency Map

proposal
(
htt
p://www.ostyn.com/rescompetency.htm
)



Metadata (see Healthcare LOM
http://www.medbiq.org/working_groups/learning_objects/index.html
)



14

Qualifying a Link to a Competency/Ont
ology


ID

CWG 11

Title

Qualifying a Link to a Competency
/Ontology

Actors

Administrator/Faculty; LMS

Trigger event

The Administrator/Faculty wishes to qualify the link between a competency (or
ontology) and some other element (learning object, event, as
sessment, etc.)

Success End
Condition

A qualified link is created between the competency and the element.

Assumptions



The organization of the Administrator/Faculty has a chosen competency
framework(s) that is available within the LMS



The organization of
the Administrator/Faculty has a chosen
vocabulary/system for qualifying links to competencies, that is also available
within the LMS

Description

The Administrator/Faculty logs in to the LMS and proceeds to the space where
curricular elements can be linked

to competencies.

The curricular element(s) of interest are selected.

The relevant competency(ies) are selected.

The user is prompted to qualify the link that is about to be created between the
curricular element(s) and the competency(ies). This would lik
ely take the form
of a short list from which the user will have to select one option. Examples of
such lists might be:



custom “weight” scales (e.g. 3 = the element strongly/entirely addresses the
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=


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a competency framework or ontology is available in the LMS (see CWG 3)



a scale by which links to competencies can

be qualified is available in the
LMS



the system includes information about the qualities of links to competencies
in reports/exports

Exceptions

Links between curricular elements and competencies will not be qualified.

Potential
Standards

Unknown.


15