SIOP Component #2

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24 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

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SIOP Component #2


Before we begin….Let’s do a

quick review from last time




In regards to
SIOP, what
does the clock
symbolize?

That’s right!

The SIOP model is comprised of

8 components and 30 features.

Quick Review

Which component did we talk about
last time?

Lesson Preparation

Review


Lesson Preparation

Content Objectives
Clearly Defined, Displayed and Reviewed with Students


Language Objectives
Clearly Defined, Displayed and Reviewed with Students


Content Concepts
Appropriate for Age and Educational Background



Supplementary Materials
Used to a High Degree


Adaptation of Content
to All Levels of Student Proficiency


Meaningful Activities
That Integrate Lesson Concepts with Language Practice
Opportunities



Stephen Krashen’s 5
-
pronged
theory of Language Acquisition

1.
Language
acquisition

is a subconscious and intuitive
process much like how children pick up their first language.

2.
The
monitor
: If students learn language through rules
rather than naturally fluency will be delayed.

3.
The
natural order
of acquisition: ELs will first acquire
that which has the most meaning, form comes later.

4.
Providing
comprehensible input



to acquire language.

5.
The
affective filter:
a cognitive shut
-
down if anxious.




Our Objectives for today:


Content Objectives:

I can identify the second component of SIOP and the three features of
this component.

I can discover ways to build students background knowledge on a topic.

I can describe characteristics of effective vocabulary instruction.

Language Objectives:

I can name and describe the three features of this component.

I can list 3 ways to build students’ background knowledge on a topic.

I can write 2


3 sentences reflecting on my current vocabulary
instruction and elaborating on how today’s presentation has affirmed
or changed my thinking.










All learning needs a solid foundation from which to
build upon
.

S
heltered
I
nstructional
O
bservation
P
rotocol

S.I.O.P.


8 Components, 30 Features


Lesson Preparation

Building Background

Comprehensible Input

Strategies

Interaction

Practice/Application

Lesson Delivery

Review/Assessment



Building Background Knowledge

• ELs, whether from a consistent or inconsistent
educational background, have a world of
experiences different from students growing up in
American culture and American schools. It is
important to bridge those gaps in their background
knowledge.



“Effective teaching takes students from where they
are and leads them to a higher level of
understanding.” (Krashen, 1985) p.53



Three Features of Building
Background Knowledge

Feature 7: Concepts Explicitly Linked to
Students’ Background Experiences


Feature 8: Links Explicitly Made between Past
Learning and New Concepts


Feature 9: Key Vocabulary Emphasized
(e.g.
introduced, written, repeated, and highlighted for
students to see)




#7
-

Concepts Explicitly Linked to
Students’ Background Experiences

“Individuals with knowledge of a topic have better
recall and are better able to elaborate on aspects
of a topic than those who have limited knowledge
of the topic.” (Vogt, 2005). P. 54


“Schemata are the reader’s concepts, beliefs,
expectations, processes


virtually everything from
past experiences


that are used in making sense
of things and actions. In reading, schemata are
used in making sense of text…” p. 54


Chapter 3: #1


Activating

Prior Knowledge
vs.

Building

Background Knowledge

On your handout, fill in the sentence frames. Then turn
and talk with your neighbor about your answers.



Activating a student’s prior knowledge is helpful
because....




Activating a student’s prior knowledge isn’t helpful
when…




Building background knowledge is necessary when….




What to do when students lack
background knowledge?

3 Interventions to use when students
lack background knowledge


1. TEACH VOCABULARY!!!

2. Provide meaningful EXPERIENCES.

3. Introduce students to a CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK.


Christen & Murphy (1991)

1. Pre
-
teach Vocabulary


Select words that are CRITICAL for
understanding a lesson or text.



Come up with a linguistic (student friendly
description) and non
-
linguistic (gesture or
image) representation of the word.

2. Provide Meaningful Experiences


Virtual experiences can be as effective as
direct experiences in developing
background knowledge
.


The more authentic and relevant an
experience is, the greater the likelihood of
the information being stored in the
permanent memory.





Meaningful Experiences

Bring in realia or use supplemental
materials.

Watch video clips PRIOR to starting a unit.

»
Why would it be important to watch the video before
the unit instead of after?


Go on a field trip

Use picture books

Bring in a speaker

3. Conceptual Framework

Graphic organizers
(It could be
partially filled in according to student
needs)


Preview the text
with students and go
over key ideas


Provide students with
chapter outlines


Read picture books to build
background





Pretest with a partner.

»
This allows
ELs

the opportunity to preview concepts
and vocabulary that they will be assessed on at the
conclusion of the lesson or unit.

Activities to Build Background

Activities to Build Background

Use the Insert Method on a lifted
-
text to
introduce a topic
(p. 59 Elem SIOP)

Each student reads the handout. While reading, they insert the
following codes directly into the text:


A check mark (
P
) indicates a concept or fact that is already known


A question mark (?) indicates a concept or fact that is confusing or not
understood.


An exclamation mark (!) indicates something that is unusual or surprising


A plus sign (+) indicates an idea or concept that is new to the reader.

When the partners finish reading and marking the text, they share
their markings with another pair of students. If misconceptions or
misunderstandings are cleared up, then the question mark is
replaced with an asterisk (*).



Activities to Build Background

Plot charts
provide ELs with an opportunity to learn about
popular fairy tales and other short stories in a concise way.


(p. 59 Elem. SIOP)

Here is an example:



Somebody:

Anne Frank



Wanted:
To hide from the Nazis



So:
She hid in an attic and never went outside.



But:
Someone turned her in



So:
The Nazis arrested her and took her to a concentration camp.



In the end:
She died in the concentration camp.




Your Turn


On your handout, try writing one of your own plot charts




“Chunk and Chew”

Think about the chunk of information we just
discussed (different interventions used to remedy a
student’s lack of background knowledge) chew on
it with your brain and then turn and tell the person
next to you:


One intervention you already use


One new intervention that you want to try

# 8
-

Links Explicitly Made Between
Past Learning and New Concepts



The teacher must build a bridge from
previous lessons and concepts to today’s
lesson. Many students do not automatically
make such connections, and all students
benefit from having the teacher
explicitly
point out how past learning is related to the
information at hand.








(Tierney & Pearson, 1994)




Building the Bridge










Questioning:

“Who remembers what we learned about….?”

“How does that relate to this chapter?”


Review graphic organizers, notes,
powerpoints, or smartboard notebooks


Preserve and refer to anchor charts, maps,
illustrations, photos, and vocabulary words

Teaching vocabulary is essentially
synonymous with teaching background
knowledge.


Vocabulary words are labels for packets of information
we store in our permanent memory as background
knowledge.


There is a correlation between vocabulary knowledge
and academic achievement, and vocabulary
knowledge and overall intelligence.







Marzano (2004)

# 9
-

Key Vocabulary Emphasized



Three Categories of Academic
Vocabulary Words

1.
Content Words
: terms related to specific content areas

2.
Process/Function Words
:


Functional Language:
share with a partner, discuss, line up,
graph, list, classify.


Language Processing:
skim, scan, debate, argue, summarize


Transition Words:
therefore, in conclusion, furthermore


Sequence Words:
first, then, next, finally, at last

3.
Words and Word Parts That Teach English Structure
:


Teaching students that words are formed with roots and vase
words joined with prefixes and suffixes will help them figure out
the meanings of words they come across in a text. (
p.61 SIOP)

Marzano’s Characteristics of Effective
Vocabulary Instruction

Use student friendly descriptions, not definitions

Use linguistic and nonlinguistic representations (gestures, draw
pictures)

Gradually develop word meanings (discuss what they mean in
different contexts)

Teach students how to use word parts

Use different types of instruction for different types of words (ex: verbs
always show a relationship between two nouns so explicitly tell the
students this)

Students need to discuss the terms they are learning

Use games

Focus on academic vocabulary relevant to the curriculum being taught




Turn and talk




Tell the person next to you something that you just learned about vocabulary instruction

Marzano’s Steps to Guide

Vocabulary Instruction

Step 1


Teacher describes the vocabulary term.

Step 2


Student writes their own description of the term.

Step 3


Student creates nonlinguistic representation of


the term.

Step 4


Students periodically do activities that help them


add to their knowledge of vocabulary terms


(word sorts, concept definition maps)

Step 5
-

Students discuss terms with peers.

Step 6


Students play games using the terms.


Four Square Vocab Model

Flyswatter Game


1.
Post words from a unit on cards and put them on
the wall or write them randomly on the board.

2.
Give 2 students a flyswatter.

3.
Describe the word and see who can swat the
word first.

4.
Pass the flyswatters on to two more students.



You can make it competitive with teams.


Situation Generation



Pose a question using the target vocabulary
and have students create a situation that
applies.


For example:



-
Name the
setting
of a story you recently read.



-
What would be an example of a
proper noun
?



-
Give me an example of when you would want to


estimate
an amount instead of finding the exact


amount
.



*
This is a good 5 min filler or a morning gathering sharing activity!


Password

Invertebrate


Ecosystem

Vertebrate

Factor


Product

Biome


Author’s Purpose

Prediction



Student A List

Student B List

Concept Definition Map


I Have….Who has



Word Sorts


Personal Dictionaries


Jeopardy



Term

What is it?

What are some examples?

What is it like?

Other Games/Ways to Work with Words


I Have….Who has


Word Sorts


Personal Dictionaries


Jeopardy



Take 2 minutes to reflect on your
current vocabulary instruction and





write 2


3 sentences



explaining how today’s



presentation has affirmed


or changed your thinking.





I’ll do the gestures and then you turn and tell
your neighbor which feature I am representing
and give a brief description of that feature. I will
then randomly select someone to share out
their answer.


Our Objectives for today:


Content Objectives:

I can identify the second component of SIOP and the three features of
this component.

I can discover ways to build students background knowledge on a topic.

I can describe characteristics of effective vocabulary instruction.

Language Objectives:

I can name and describe the three features of this component.

I can list 3 ways to build students’ background knowledge on a topic.

I can write 2


3 sentences reflecting on my current vocabulary
instruction and elaborating on how today’s presentation has affirmed
or changed my thinking.