A Framework for Understanding Poverty-An Overview

saucecopywriterInternet και Εφαρμογές Web

2 Φεβ 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

124 εμφανίσεις







A Framework for Understanding
Poverty
-
An Overview

By Ruby K. Payne, Ph.D.


A
Model

to address the
Achievement Gap

by dealing with issues related to
poverty/not racial or cultural diversity

3/15/06

A Framework for Understanding Poverty



Professional Development Agenda

3/15/06


Understanding the Model’s Application
to Closing the Achievement Gap


Understanding the Key Points


Discussing school’s ability to provide
resources


Identifying the components of the
framework and strategies for
ensuring success

Closing the Gap Goals


To ensure that ALL children are able
to achieve the standards as set forth
by the State of Florida (Rigor)


To ensure that our data shows no
gaps in learning between
socioeconomic groups or races


To ensure that all children move to
the next level ready to learn and
graduate ready to live well



How Can Ruby Payne’s Model
Assist?

Bill Daggett suggests that:


Rigor + Relevance + Relationships=




Higher Achievement

Ruby Payne suggests that:


Rigor + Relevance + Relationships=




Higher Achievement



And….that educators can better ensure all
students achieve at high levels by applying
her framework.



Ruby’s Key Points


Poverty is relative.


Poverty occurs in
all races/all
countries.


Economic class is a
continuous line/not
a clear
-
cut
distinction.


Generation &
situational poverty
are different.


This work is based
on patterns; all
patterns have
exceptions.


Individuals bring
with them hidden
rules of their class.


Schools operate
from the middle
-
class norms and
values.

Examples of Rules:

Poverty

Middle Class

Wealth

Possessions

People

Things

One of a kind
objects or
pedigrees

Money

Use or
spend

Manage

Invest

View of the
World

Local

National

International

Key Points (continued):


We must understand the hidden rules but
teach students the rules that will make
them successful. We must teach them that
there are two sets of rules.


We cannot excuse or scold students for
NOT KNOWING; we must teach them and
provide support, insistence, and
expectations.


To move from poverty to middle class or
middle class to wealth, an individual must
give up relationships for achievement (at
least for some period of time).

Key Points:


Two things which help one move out
of poverty are: education &
relationships


Four reasons one leaves poverty are:
too painful to stay; vision or goal;
key relationships; special talent/skill

Some Facts about Poverty

Poor children are more likely than non
-
poor children to:



be in single
-
parent families


be victims of child abuse/neglect


have parents with low educational
attainment


Some Facts about Poverty
continued:


Poor children are more likely than
non
-
poor children to:



-


suffer developmental delays and

damage



-

drop out of high school



-

give birth during the teen years




-

score poorly on standardized tests

We must, then, attend to the
needs of children living in
poverty, and……………

they are present in every one of
our schools!

Poverty and Resources


Poverty is the
extent to which an
individual does
without resources.


The ability to leave
poverty depends
on many
resources
-
not just
financial.

What are the Necessary Resources?


Financial


Emotional


Mental


Spiritual


Physical


Support Systems


Relationships/Role Models


Knowledge of Hidden Rules

Which of these resources can
a school impact/provide?

Talk at your table and be prepared to
report to the group.

Why is the idea of resources
important?


To dispense advice or seek solutions
to situations, we must know what
resources are available (not only from
a middle class point of view)


By understanding resources, we can
influence non
-
financial resources (for
example: being a role model)

Language, Story Structure,
Cognition (Remember Rita!)


Registers: frozen, formal,
consultative, casual, intimate


In poverty, majority of students have
no access to formal register at home.


Thus, cannot use formal register.


How Does This Impact
Learning/Overall Success in School/in
Life?

Registers of Language: Discourse Patterns
(Organizational Pattern of Information)


Primary discourse: language 1
st

acquired
(casual
-
around the issue)


Secondary discourse: language of larger
society (formal
-
to the point)


Discourse is how one thinks


Do better in school if instruction is provided
through primary, BUT:


Students living in poverty must be taught
to think in secondary discourse
-
direct
instruction/relationships

Story Structure


Formal
-
Starts at the beginning and goes to
the end in an accepted narrative pattern.
The plot is the most important part.


Casual
-
Begins with the end or the part that
is most emotional with a focus on
characters.


Which structure contributes to effective
learning? How can schools address this
area?

Addressing Language Issues


Permit students to
write in casual &
translate to formal


Require students to
speak in formal when
they are facing
discipline


Use graphic organizers
to show patterns


Tell stories both ways
and compare/contrast


Use stories across the
content


Teach formal register,
discourse patterns, &
story structure directly


Relate need to learn to
success in work.

Hidden Rules


Take the quiz while discussing it at
your table.



Discuss the hidden rules as identified
by the chart. How do these manifest
themselves in schools? Be prepared
to share.

Hidden Rules/Mental Models


The assumption is that everyone
knows what you know.


We see the world and react to
situations through our own mental
models but we really do not realize
this fact.


Hidden rules govern how we assess
another individual and his/her
capabilities.

Why do schools need to understand
the concept of hidden rules?


To ensure that expectations do not
differ from student to student


To teach students the hidden rules of
middle class to mastery


To be able to work within a family’s
rules when exploring solutions to
problems/not imposing MC rules


To lessen frustration levels

Characteristics of Generational
Poverty


Generational vs. Situational/Middle Class:
(background noise; personality; entertainment;
relationships; matriarchal; oral language; survival;
lover/fighter role; rescuer/martyr role; non
-
verbal/
kinesthetic; owning people; negative orientation;
discipline; belief in fate; polarized thinking; mating
dance; time; sense of humor; lack of order; lives in
the moment; different family patterns)



How does this impact the school environment and
learning?



What does this mean for schools?


Education is the key to getting out:
goal or vision; painful situation;
mentor; talent or skill: relationships


Rarely related to lack of intelligence
or ability: rigor


Stay because don’t know choice
exists; have nobody to teach rules or
help with resources: schools virtually
only place to provide help


Role Models/Emotional Resources


System: group in which individuals
have rules, roles, and relationships


Dysfunctional: extent to which an
individual cannot get needs met
within the system


To move from poverty, one must
move from the “system” & give up
relationships/need emotional
resources

Developing Emotional Resources


Provide support systems


Use appropriate discipline strategies


Establish long
-
term relationships


Teach hidden rules


ID options


Increase achievement level through
good instruction


Teach goal setting

Discipline: about penance and
forgiveness/not change


Policy should provide structure (clear
expectations/consequences) and teach
about choices/and should be for the
purpose of promoting good behavior.


Interventions should be based on
understanding of poverty and should teach.


Teach students to use the language of
negotiation/use of adult voice.


Explain the possible need for 2 sets of
behaviors.

Instruction and Improving
Achievement


Low achievement is closely correlated
with lack of resources, and numerous
studies have documented the
correlation between low SES and low
achievement.


Focus on research on learning (what
does on inside the head) and not
teaching (occurs outside the head) to
change this fact.

Learning Structures

Cognitive Strategies

Concepts/Store

& Retrieve Info

Skills/processing

Of content

Content/the what

or information used

to make sense

of life

Cognitive Strategies


Fundamental ways
of processing
information


Infrastructures of
the mind


Work by R.
Feuerstein


Must directly teach
ability to plan and
systematically go
through data



Must use mediation
to ensure effective
learning occurs


Not just “don’t
cross street, or you
could get hit by a
car,” but……..


Also the teaching
of a strategy: If
you must go, look
both ways twice.

Three Stages in the Learning Process
for Teaching Cognitive Strategies


Input like using planning behaviors


Elaboration like defining a problem


Output like using precise language


Regardless of the content, students
are taught the strategies and then
are required to use.


PK, Reading Programs, CSR,
Prevention/Support Programs, Parent
Training

Strategies


Teach effective eye movements


Use graphic organizers


Teach systematic approaches to the
data/text (highlighting)


Establish goal setting/self
-
talk


Teach conceptual frameworks


Use kinesthetic approach


Use rubrics

Strategies


Teach structure of language


Teach to make questions


Teach mental models


Make learning/not teaching the focus


Teach teachers to diagnose and then
design


Teach to the process/not just content

Creating Relationships


Key to achievement: creating relationships
with students


Relationships are most significant motivator


Resilient kids are the result of caring
adults.


Use Covey’s emotional bank account model


Create a caring school, promote
achievement, be role models, insist upon
successful behaviors

“No significant learning occurs
without a significant relationship.”

-
Dr. James Comer

Why A Focus on this Framework?


As Covey tells us, “Seek first to
understand.”


We need to understand the
motivation and perspectives of our
children who come from poverty if we
are to successfully teach them.

Where to Go from Here?


Faculty Overview


Faculty Study Groups


Designing Your School’s Changes


Making a Difference for Those We
Serve Who Are Living in Poverty