GENETIC ENGINEERING

sandwichtumtumΒιοτεχνολογία

16 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

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Wiens

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GENETIC ENGINEERING

A NEW TECHNOLOGY WITH
MANY FACES

Wiens

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GENETIC ENGINEERING


Genetic engineering: “The artificial
recombination of nucleic acid molecules in
the test tube, their insertion into a virus,
bacterial plasmid, or other vector system,
and the subsequent incorporation of the
chimeric molecules into a host organism in
which they are capable of continued
propagation”

(McGraw
-
Hill, 1997, p. 762)

Wiens

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Some Things We’ll Discuss:


Research tools


Early genetics


Applications: technology


The development of biological tools


The symbiotic relationship

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EARLY HISTORY


Babylonian beer and old
cheese


Gregor Mendel and the birth
of genetics


Experiments with garden
peas


Mutations identified as
prime mover of evolution

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APPLICATIONS OF
GENETIC ENGINEERING


Insect or disease resistant plants


Strawberries that take lower
temperatures


Pigs with leaner bacon and
faster growth


Animals that produce valuable
human proteins, hemoglobin


Heavier milk producing cows

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MORE GENETIC
ENGINEERING


Genetic
-

1976


Insulin Human growth hormone


Interferon



Genetically manipulated plants,
animals


Ice
-
minus, Corn, cotton, soybeans,
potatoes



Transgenic Animals
---

Human proteins
in animals



Gene therapy
-

3,200 genetic defects; so
far, no successes (1997)

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THE SYMBIOTIC
RELATIONSHIP



A union of science, math, technology



Tools are the same: biological in nature:


Retroviruses, adenoviruses, bacteria plasmids



Biotech ventures do science, extend science


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HUMAN GENE THERAPY


First trial
-

1990
-

Sev.
Com. Imm. Def.


1991
-
93: NIH
approved for testing
:


Cancers
-

16


Tumors
-

5


Cystic fibrosis
-

4


AIDS
-

1


Other diseases
-

4

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Genetic therapy will move increasingly
to
in vivo

manipulation of disease, even
before birth


Genetic enhancement: why not beautiful
and intelligent? Michael Jordan,
Perlman, and Einstein in one??


Personal genetic chip to direct medical
treatment


??Human clones; chimera, human
-
animals

THE FUTURE

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.

FEARS AND CONCERNS


What is “necessary risk?”


Genetically altered bacteria
released in public.


Will plant genes migrate?


Personalized genetic
information: who gets it?
Employers? Insurance
companies? Do WE want to
know all?


Will we discount the role of
nurture?


Respect for animals


Genetic Enhancement


Do we really understand
genetic complexity that
well?



Who will benefit?


Will we stereotype the
un
-
manipulated?


What do we lose when
we manipulate?

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ON TECHNOLOGY ITSELF


Is technology neutral?


Is it totally under our control?


Who should make decisions about
what
should be:

economists?
scientists, technologists? politicians,
clergy? philosophers/ethicists?


Has an adequate risk analysis been
done, i.e., probability and
magnitude? Do we really know the
future effects of our tinkering?