4.4 Genetic Engineering and
Background Information of PCR (4.4.1)
Process was developed in 1983 by
PCR enables researchers to develop
millions of copies of a DNA
sequence in approximately two
Uses enzymes to copy DNA so that
no living organisms are required.
This technique can be used to
identify disease, viruses, a deceased
person, or a criminal suspect.
The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
The sample of DNA is denatured.
The temperature is lowered and
the left and right primers anneal
(attach) to their complementary
The temperature is raised again
allowing the enzyme (taq
polymerase ) to attach to a priming
site and synthesize the DNA.
The cycle repeats itself over and
Gel Electrophoresis (4.4.2)
Electrophoresis is a process used to separate
large molecules (nucleic acids or proteins)
based on their different rates of movement in
an electric field.
A gel is prepared and pieces of DNA are
placed in it. An electrical charge is turned on
and the DNA moves towards the positively
charged electrode since DNA is negatively
The DNA separates because larger pieces will
have a harder time moving than that of smaller
Gel Electrophoresis and Its Uses
Each of us have a unique DNA profile or a fingerprint.
Electrophoresis is used to gather DNA profiles, relying on
sections of our DNA that are non
coding or do not code for a
Electrophoresis will separate the sections by size and charge.
Paternity Profiling (4.4.4
DNA profiling to determine paternity says
that all DNA in a child is derived from its
Used to find if the alleged father is actually
the biological father of the child.
Each band shown on the DNA of the child
must correspond with a band in the profile
of the father or mother.
Forensic Investigators (4.4.4
Started in the 1980’s
Investigators compare evidence and DNA
from the crime scene to that of the suspect.
This technique uses gel electrophoresis to
break down DNA.
If the DNA bands of a suspect are found in
the bands at the crime scene then it is likely
that the suspect is guilty of the crime.
The Human Genome Project (4.4.6)
Was a commitment undertaken by the
scientific community to determine
the location of all genes in the human
3 Possible Outcomes of mapping the
human genome are: A Better
understanding of many genetic
diseases, the discovery of medicine to
cure medical diseases, and more
knowledge and information of
3 Seven Question Rounds
The Class will be divided up in 7 groups of 2.
Each group will be given white boards.
When a question is asked the first three groups to answer
the question correctly will be awarded points depending on
the order of answering (5,3,1)
After each round the 2 teams with the lowest amount of
points will be eliminated.
The Background Round
In what year was PCR developed?
What does PCR allow researchers to do?
Who created the process of PCR?
How many hours does this process take?
What does PCR use to copy the DNA?
Name three things that PCR can be used to develop.
What does PCR stand for?
The Lightning Round
What is the first step of the PCR?
During Gel Electrophoresis, in what direction does DNA
Each of us have a unique DNA ________________
DNA profiling is used to determine _________________
What do investigators compare at a crime scene?
Explain the Human Genome Project.
Paternity profiling is used to find if the alleged father is
actually the _____________________
The Knockout Round
What is the second step of the PCR?
How is the process of Gel Electrophoresis set up?
What is Electrophoresis used to gather?
Each band on the child’s DNA must correspond with
What do Forensic Investigators use to break down DNA?
What are three possible outcomes of the Human genome
What enzyme is attached to the priming site during the PCR?