Literature Review - Computing

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Literature Review

What is the Literature Review?


The ‘finished product’


i.e. chapter(s) in your dissertation


Extensive reference to relevant research in your area


Sets the scene for why you do the things you did in the way
you did them

What is the Literature Review?


The ‘process’


Conducting a review of the literature


Ongoing

activity not just at start of the research process


Helps formulate your research question


Helps identify approaches or experimentation


Later helps with analysis and evaluation


Why do I need a Literature review?

(Process)




Finding out what is happening in your area of research is a
vital step along your journey to discovery,


to find and understand how leading researchers in your
field have tackled similar problems and the results they
obtained, shortcomings they observed and methodologies
they employed


= goals of the literature review process.


Why do I need a literature review?

(Product)


It shares with the reader with other studies closely
related to your work


It relates your work to the larger, ongoing dialogue in the
literature


It introduces terminology and definitions to clarify how
terms are being used in the context of your work


It shows how your study is filling in gaps and extending
prior studies


It provides a framework for establishing the importance
of your study


It provides a benchmark for comparing the results of your
study with other findings


Introduction


...in other
words...

Introduction


...the literature
review...

Introduction


...is really, really
important.


2D Analysis



The objective of this process is to systematically analyse
the existing research and classify it in one of two
dimensions.



The
breadth

of the review is concerned with ‘setting the
scene’, in terms of describing the foundational research in this
particular domain, there will be research mentioned from each
of the areas you have included in your spider diagram.


The
depth

of the research concerns itself with the particular
topic work that your research will be built upon. There should
be approximately the same number of research papers covered
in the depth and breath of the research review.

Examples


Let’s look at three examples


Knowledge Management


Information Technology


Assistive Technology


2D Analysis


Breadth of Research

Depth of Research

The Literature Review


To made things clear, we divide the Literature Review into
three parts:

Literature

Survey

Literature

Comprehension

Literature

Review

Collecting

the literature

Understanding

the literature

Reviewing

the literature

The Literature Survey/Search

‘a systematic and thorough search of all types of published literature in order to identify as many items
as possible that are relevant to a particular topic’

Gash, S. (2000) Effective Literature Searching for Research 2
nd

Ed., Aldershot: Gower Publishing Ltd.

Literature Survey



Identifying and acquiring


the research papers,


textbooks,


web
-
sites,


theses, etc.


to get a comprehensive overview of the research that
has been done in the area that you are investigating.


Literature Survey


A focused survey technique is recommended to ensure
you ‘hit the ground running’


If you know the exact domain of your research it makes
sense to initially focus your search on papers that relate
(almost) exactly to your own research, rather than
spending a great deal of time reading every paper under
the sun that seems remotely relevant.


Recording the sources you have found and read is also of
vital importance


Literature Survey



Recording the sources you have found and read is
also of vital importance, and techniques and
software available for these tasks are also covered
in this section.


If you know the exact domain of your research it
makes sense to initially focus your search on
papers that relate (almost) exactly to your own
research, rather than spending a great deal of time
reading every paper under the sun that seems
remotely relevant.

Sources of information


Books


Textbooks, specialist collection books, reference books


Journal Articles


Peer
-
reviewed academic articles


Each journal has a specific focus


Review articles


Reports


Theses and dissertations


Conference Proceedings


Media

Good Sources ?


Journal Papers


Conference Papers


Textbooks


Other Books


Company Whitepapers


Company Websites


Blogs


Wikis

Literature Survey



A vital step is to identify





KEYWORDS

Literature Survey



Using these keywords, go to the library and go online and
look for journal papers, books, conference papers, etc.
that are relevant.


Just using Google is insufficient, you need to search in the
real world as well.


Literature Survey



e.g. you are doing research on Communities of practice


What other keywords do we need to look out for?


Network of practice


Virtual community


Virtual Ethnography


Virtual team


Community
-
driven knowledge management

Literature Survey



If you are doing research on one of the following


Cloud Computing


Knowledge Sharing


Usability


Data Quality



What other keywords do we need to look out for?

Literature Survey



You need to get a
notebook/create an
electronic
artefact

you can
access constantly and
list all
the keywords in there.


Use that to record ideas
you have about your
research.


Use it to record details of
meetings with your
supervisor.


Insert any useful newspaper
articles, pictures, etc. that
help.



Snowball Technique


As you read you will redefine your focus through
searches


You will become familiar with authors and texts
commonly cited and start to look for specific papers


Snowball technique is when you follow up references
from bibliographies of texts you read


Keep a record


Literature Survey



What does peer
-
reviewed mean?


When you submit a research paper, a number of people will
read the paper and give feedback/corrections on it.


The people who review it will be as expert as you are in the
field of research (and as such are your peers).


Some conferences only get one person to review a paper,
others get two, others more


the more people that review
conference papers, the more prestigious the conference is,
since the papers in it are bound to be of very quality.


Journal papers are normally reviewed by several people, and
are considered very credible.

Literature Survey



What are some good journals?

Who are ACM ?


The Association for Computing Machinery, or ACM, is a
learned society for computing.



It was founded in 1947 as the world's first scientific and
educational computing society. Its membership is more than
92,000 as of 2009.


ACM is organized into over 170 local chapters and 35 Special
Interest Groups (SIGs), through which it conducts most of its
activities.


Many of the SIGs, like SIGGRAPH, SIGPLAN, SIGCSE and
SIGCOMM, sponsor regular conferences which have become
famous as the dominant venue for presenting new innovations
in certain fields.


The groups also publish a large number of specialized journals,
magazines, and newsletters.

ACM SIGs


SIGACCESS
-

Accessible Computing


SIGACT
-

Algorithms and Computation Theory


SIGAda
-

Ada Programming Language


SIGAPP
-

Applied Computing


SIGARCH
-

Computer Architecture


SIGART
-

Artificial Intelligence


SIGBED
-

Embedded Systems


SIGCAS
-

Computers and Society


SIGCHI
-

Computer
-
Human Interaction


SIGCOMM
-

Data Communication


SIGCSE
-

Computer Science Education


SIGDA
-

Design Automation


SIGDOC
-

Design of Communication


SIGecom
-

Electronic Commerce


SIGEVO
-

Genetic and Evolutionary Computation


SIGGRAPH
-

Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques


SIGIR
-

Information Retrieval



SIGITE
-

Information Technology Education


SIGKDD
-

Knowledge Discovery in Data


SIGMETRICS
-

Measurement and Evaluation


SIGMICRO
-

Microarchitecture


SIGMIS
-

Management Information Systems


SIGMM
-

Multimedia


SIGMOBILE
-

Mobility of Systems, Users, Data and
Computing


SIGMOD
-

Management of Data


SIGOPS
-

Operating Systems


SIGPLAN
-

Programming Languages


SIGSAC
-

Security, Audit and Control


SIGSAM
-

Symbolic and Algebraic Manipulation


SIGSIM
-

Simulation and Modeling


SIGSOFT
-

Software Engineering


SIGSPATIAL
-

SIGSPATIAL


SIGUCCS
-

University and College Computing
Services


SIGWEB
-

Hypertext, Hypermedia and Web


Who else ?




Another significant group are IEEE (
Institute of
Electrical and Electronics Engineers) called “eye
-
triple
-
e”
is a professional organization for the advancement of
technology, it also publishes a number journals,


including IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data
Engineering

IEEE Transactions


IEEE Computational intelligence and AI


IEEE Transactions on Computers


IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing


IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering


IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems


IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence


IEEE Transactions on Services Computing


IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering


IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics


IEEE Transactions on Affective Computing


IEEE Transactions on
Haptics


IEEE Transactions on Information Technology in Biomedicine


IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies


IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing


IEEE Transactions on Multimedia


IEEE Transactions on
Nanobioscience


IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems


IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics


IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking

Emerald Journals

Journal Credibility ?


As you start to find out more about an area you will start
to see that there are certain journals that people
researching in the area target


When you come across a journal for the first time, a way
of measuring its ‘quality’ is the ranking it has journal
citation reports


Literature Survey



And any good research sites ?

Research Sites


Library Catalogue

http://library.dit.ie

Research Sites


Search Engines


Google


http://www.google.com


Google Scholar


http://scholar.google.com


Google Correlate
-

http://www.google.com/trends/correlate/


Wolfram Alpha


http://www.wolframalpha.com/tour/examples.html


Metasearch

engines


Dogpile



http://www.dogpile.com


Mamma


http://www.mamma.com


Top 15 search engines 2012


http://
www.ebizmba.com/articles/search
-
engines


100 search engines you may never have heard of


http://edudemic.com/2012/07/best
-
search
-
engines/

Research Sites


Bibliographic Databases


Help you search for articles and papers


Collection of references to work


WebofKnowledge



http://webofknowledge.com


The collection of computer science bibliographies
-

http://liinwww.ira.uka.de/bibliography
/


DBLP Bibliography
-

http://www.informatik.uni
-
trier.de/~ley/db/


Research Sites


Digital Libraries

Citeseerx

http://
citeseerx.ist.psu.edu

Citeseerx

http://
citeseerx.ist.psu.edu

http://arxiv.org/archive/cs

WebLens

http://www.weblens.org/scholar.html

INFOMINE (
http://infomine.ucr.edu/
)

DBLP (
http://www.informatik.uni
-
trier.de/~ley/db/
)

Gartner (http://www.gartner.com)

Literature Survey



Searching the Web

Google


Operators and search help


http://support.google.com/websearch/bin/answer.py?hl=en&ans
wer=136861


Advanced Search


http
://
www.google.com/advanced_search


Google Guide


http://www.googleguide.com
/


Spiders Apprentice


http://www.monash.com/spidap.html

Google Scholar

Literature Survey



But remember:


If you just search for “Community of practice” you will miss
out on:


Network of practice


Virtual community


Virtual Ethnography


Virtual team


Community
-
driven knowledge management

Exercise


Look at the following slide and find out the meaning of
each of the terms presented!

synonyms

acronyms

polysemy

single
-
concept

principle

neologisms

monosemy

abbreviations

quasi
-
synonyms,

or near
-
synonyms

pseudo
-
synonyms,

or false synonyms

antonyms


phraseologism

hyponyms

hypernyms

collocation


Cross
-

references

PROBLEMS WITH USING

A SEARCH ENGINE AS

THE
SOLE SOURCE OF

INFORMATION

tautonyms

Finding Research online


Effective Searching


Let us consider searching for information relating to
'Project
-
Based Learning'



The Hyphen


The first thing to note is the hyphen between the
words 'Project' and 'Based‘


Will every web
-
page relating to this subject have the
hyphen in it, or will some just leave it out?


If you just leave it out the search engines will find the
phrase with or without the hyphen.

Finding Research online


So the first search to try is


"Project Based Learning"


if this returns 10,000 links then try


"Project Based Learning" "PhD Thesis"


"Project Based Learning" "Masters Thesis“


“Project Based Learning” “Masters Thesis” Declaration


this may return PhD or Masters thesis on the
subject you require information on.

Finding Research online


To find other 'good' pages relating to your subject
matter, try


"Project Based Learning Link*"


for "PBL Links" or "PBL Link Page"


"Project Based Learning Portal*"


for "PBL Portal" or "PBL Portal Page"


"Project Based Learning
Webring
*"


for "PBL
Webring
" or "PBL
Webrings
"


"Project Based Learning FAQ*"


for "PBL
FAQ"or

"PBL FAQs" or "PBL
FAQL"or

"PBL FAQLs"

Finding Research online


If you are looking for papers relating to "Project Based
Learning", try


"Project Based Learning" Bibliography


"Project Based Learning" Literature Review


"Project Based Learning" Literature Survey


"Project Based Learning" Overview


"Project Based Learning" “A Roadmap”



Unlike the previous section where we were looking for 'good' pages
and put the entire phrase in double quotes, in this section we are only
putting the subject matter we are investigating in quotes and the rest
of the terms are free text, in this way we can find pages which may not
be titled, for example, "Project Based Learning Bibliography", but may
be a bibliography which contain references to Project Based Learning.

Finding Research online


If you are looking for a more specific topic, for example,
"The Impact of the Web on Project Based Learning", try


"Impact of the Web on Project Based Learning" (unlikely)


"Project Based Learning" overview web


"Project Based Learning" survey web


"Project Based Learning" review web


"Project Based Learning" assessment web

Finding Research online


Also consider web
-
sites which will be using the acronym
for "Project Based Learning"


so try


"PBL"


"P.B.L."


Consider the acronym for "Virtual Learning Environments",
it could be "VLE"or "VLEs"or "V.L.E."or "V.L.E.s"or "V.L.Es",
so try


"VLE*"


"V.L.E*"

Literature Survey



Here is a good tip:

Literature Survey



Find an up
-
to
-
date thesis that is closely related to
your research question

(your supervisor should be
able to help you with this, if not, search the web) and
use this as a launch pad to your research


This is a very useful starting point since it will give you
an immediate overview of your research field.


Some Considerations When Using A Thesis As A
Starting Point


Regional Variations

: Different countries, different regions and even different
universities have differing standards for their dissertations, so, whilst the
dissertation is a useful starting point, it can only be considered as such, and is
not a template for your own work.


Correspondence of Research

: The dissertation that you are using should have
a significant overlap with your own research, but there are bound to be
differences, therefore, your own literature review will be very different to the
one you have found, since yours is aimed at highlighting the ‘gap’ that you wish
to address.


Quality of Research

: The quality of the dissertation is something you will need
to consider, how comprehensive is this person’s work ? Have they missed any
important papers or major blocks of research ?


Exercise


Getting Started


Your task is to spend 30
mins

searching for material
about a trend related to your programme area


Use any or all of the resources mentioned in the lecture
and available to you in the library


Tweet at least once to the
group @DITRWSL2012


Remember to include
@
DITRWSL2012 in your tweet