Game Theory-Based Network Selection: Solutions and Challenges

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24 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

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Game Theory
-
Based Network
Selection: Solutions
and Challenges

Speaker: Kai
-
Wei Ping

Advisor:
Prof Dr. Ho
-
Ting Wu

2013/05/20


1

Outline


Introduction


Network selection problem


Decision Making Process


Decision Criteria


Decision Making


Game Theory


Challenges in Game Theory and 4G


Conclusions and future research directions

2

Introduction


Smart
mobile computing devices have become
increasingly affordable and powerful.


No single network technology will be equipped to
deal
with this
explosion of data, making the
coexistence of
multiple radio
access technologies
(RATs) a
necessity


The focus of this paper is to
provide
a
comprehensive
survey of
the current research on
game theory approaches in
relation to
network
selection solutions

3

Network selection problem


The
next generation of
wireless networks
is
represented as a heterogeneous environment
with a
number of overlapping
RANs


The user device faces
the problem
of selecting
from a number of RANs that differ
in
technology
, coverage, bandwidth, latency,
pricing scheme, etc
., belonging
to the same or
different service providers

4

How


H
ow can
an ordinary user, without any
background knowledge
in wireless
networks,
know which is the best
deal for
him?

5


Network selection problem

6

Standards which support Network
Selection


IEEE 802.21


The standard enables
the optimization
of handover
between heterogeneous IEEE
802networks
and
facilitates handover between IEEE 802
networks and
cellular networks


Access Network Discovery and
Selection Function
(ANDSF
)


P
rovides
information
about the
neighbouring

access
networks to the mobile device
through Discovery
Information and assists the device in the
handover
process
through rule based network selection policies

7

Decision Making Process


8

Decision Criteria


Network metrics



includes
information about the
technical characteristics
or
performance of the access
networks


Device related



includes
information about the
end
-
users’terminal

device
characteristics


Application Requirements



includes
information
about the
requirements
needed
in order
to provide a certain service to the
end user


User Preferences



includes
information related to
the end
-
users

satisfaction

9

Decision Making


The Simple Additive Weighting Method (SAW
)






The Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to
Ideal Solution (TOPSIS)






The Multiplicative Exponential
Weighting
Method(MEW)




10

Decision Making


The Elimination and Choice Expressing Reality
(ELECTRE)
method




concordance set (
CSet
) and
discordance set (
DSet
) ,
Cthreshold

and
Dthreshold
.


Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Grey
Relational Analysis (GRA)





Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP):

The
idea
behind AHP
is to decompose a complicated problem
into
a hierarchy
of simple and easy to solve
sub
-
problems


Grey Relational Analysis (GRA
):

The
GRA
method is
used to rank candidate networks and select
the one
which has the highest rank


11

Game Theory


Game theory is a mathematical tool used in
understanding and
modelling

competitive
situations which imply the
interaction of
rational decision makers with mutual and
possibly conflicting
interests
.


It was originally adopted in economics,
in
order
to model the competition
between
companies
.

12

Glossary


Player


A player is an agent who makes
decisions in a game.


Strategy

In a game in strategic form, a strategy
is one of the given possible actions of a player


Payoff


A payoff is a number, also called utility,
that reflects the desirability of an outcome to a

player, for whatever reason


Rationality

A player is said to be rational if he
seeks to play in a manner which maximizes his
own

payoff. It is often assumed that the
rationality of all players is common knowledge.

13

Game Component

14

Nash
Equilibrium


The combination of best strategies for each
player is
known as equilibrium.


When
each player cannot
benefit anymore
by
changing his strategy while keeping the
other
players
’ strategies unchanged, then we say

hat
the
solution of
the game represents Nash
Equilibrium.

15

Pareto Optimality


When
the payoffs
cannot be further enhanced
with any other
strategy combination
, the
game is said to have reached a
Pareto Optimal
Nash Equilibrium

16

Game Theoretic Models

1)
Strategic Game: Prisoner’s
Dilemma

2)
Repeated
Game

3)
Bargaining
Game

4)
Trading
Market

5)
Auction
Game

6)
Cournot

Game

7)
Bankruptcy
Game

8)
Stackelberg Game / Leader
-
Follower
Game

9)
Bayesian
Game

10)
Coalition
Game

11)
Evolutionary
Games

12)
Mechanism Design

17

Game Theory to Network Selection
Mapping

18

Summary of surveyed approaches


19

Summary of surveyed approaches


20

Summary of surveyed approaches


21

Case


Source :

“4G
Converged Environment: Modeling
Network Selection as a Game”


Game model :

Strategic Game


Objective :

network
selection
-

select the
best network
to satisfy a service request


Strategy set : the service requests


Payoff : Utility function


Parameter : delay
, jitter


Resource : bandwidth


RAT : 4G system

22

Example


define the network
selection game as
:




N={1,2}, R={1,2,3,4,5,6},
S1={1,2,3,4,5,6}
and
S2
={1,2,3,4,5,6
}.



is
the value assigned
to
network
i

for
choosing service
requestj


23

Example


Therefore, at the end of the game A1 = {6, 5, 4}
and A2 = {
1, 2
, 3}.


The
payoff to both networks is equal to 15
;


6
each from
the first
round, 5 each from the
second and 4 each from the third

24

Challenges in Game Theory and 4G


25

Challenges in Game Theory and 4G


Cooperative or Non
-
cooperative
Approach



The 4G environment aims to provide a combination
of network
and terminal heterogeneity as well as
heterogeneous services


Payoffs/Utility Functions



The choice of payoff or utility function is another
challenge as
it impacts on how the players will
choose
their actions

26

Challenges in Game Theory and 4G


Multi
-
Operator and
Multi
-
Technology



when designing a cooperative or
a non
-
cooperative
game, comes when considering a single
or multiple
operators


Pricing
and
Billing



Multiple service providers , Multiple RATs


27

Challenges in Game Theory and 4G


Users’ Implication



If not the best one to the customer, service providers
should know what each customer really needs and
where the real problem lies


Energy Consumption




When considering the energy consumption of a
multi
-
interface mobile device, an important
aspect is the connectivity


Solution : Cooperative Network protocol (CONET)

28

Challenges in Game Theory and 4G


Complexity and Real World
Scenarios




In a real world scenario,
considering the
competitive
market, operators will not be willing to
provide such
information without having a clear benefit from
doing so
.


Another important aspect when using game theory
and dealing
with such a heterogeneous and complex
environment is
the risk of users misbehaving, acting
selfishly by trying
to obtain
the maximum
performance over other users,
leading to
an overall
system performance degradation

29

Conclusions and future research
directions


This article aims to familiarize the readers with the
network selection concept and with the different game
theoretic approaches used in the literature to model
the network selection problem.


As game theory is often used to study this
interaction
between
rational decision makers, it makes it
applicable
in the
area of network selection strategies
.


An important open issue is the impact of
computational complexity
of the existing solutions

30

References


Ramona
Trestian
, Olga Ormond, and Gabriel
-
Miro

Muntean
, ” Game Theory
-
Based
Network Selection: Solutions and Challenges,”
in
IEEE
Communications Surveys & Tutorials
,
vol. 14, no. 4, pp.
1212
-

1231
, 2012.


J. Antoniou and A.
Pitsillides
, ”4G Converged
Environment:
Modeling Network
Selection as
a Game,” in
the 16th IST Mobile and
Wireless
Communications
Summit
, 2007.


31