Learning Unity3D using C#

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31 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

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Learning Unity3D using C#
Outstanding Scholars Work
Philip Keefner
103629078
Fall 2012
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Table of Contents
Summaries
C# Tutorials 3
Unity Basic Video Tutorials 3
2D Gameplay Tutorial 3
Unity C# Tutorials 4
Mario Personal Project 5
Conclusion 5
Created Reference Sections
1) Unity Basics 6
2) C# in Unity 11

Outside References 15
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C# Tutorials

I began by taking a look at various C# tutorials. I read through a couple and found out
that C# is very similar to Java and that the syntax and expressions are very similar, if not the
same, as those in Java. I began to realize that starting so far down was not going to help me
and that I should turn my attention to the Unity game engine and then return to C# when I
found out more about how it is used in Unity and what specifically I would need to know about
it.
Unity Basic Video Tutorials

I figured that the best place to start with Unity would be to watch the video tutorials
suggested by the welcome window with the first start-up after downloading the engine itself.
There were six videos that I went through which teaches the basics of navigating through the
engine and some very simple but useful actions a user can do when working with the engine.
What I Learned
Through these tutorials I learned how to navigate the Unity interface effectively and
how to use the game engine as demonstrated by the Reference Section 1) Unity Basics.

2D Gameplay Tutorial

After learning about the basics of unity, I was interested in starting right into a game.
From the Unity3D website I found a tutorial for a 2D platformer game. Personally, I like
platformer games and I thought that constraining unity to two dimensions would be a natural
place to start and help me ease into learning to create 3D games. I downloaded the PDF and
project components for the tutorial then read and followed through the whole thing.
What I Learned
Through the tutorial I reinforced a lot of what I had learned through the videos by
examples as well as getting into some not so simple scripts. The scripts included were in
JavaScript but I easily found C# translations of them on the internet. This tutorial also taught
me more about how much is involved in creating games and different small sections which
game some understanding of controllers and colliders and those kinds of parts of the game.
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Continued
At the end of the tutorial it suggested making changes to the game in order to test yourself.
One such change I had already thought of while following along. I decided to change the GUI
button interface for switching between controlling the character and the spaceship within the
level to switching by simply pressing a button. Then I went on to restrict switching control to
only when the character is close to the ship, and finally, making the character disappear when
controlling the ship and reappear when switching control back to the character, wherever the
ship is. I have included the executable of these changes in an attachment entitled MyFirstLevel.
The Controls are in a text document also attached entitled MyFirstLevelControls. I have also
attached a copy of the CameraFocus.cs script where I added all of the code for switching
characters.
Unity C# Tutorials

After completing the 2D Gameplay Tutorial, I still felt that I did not have a full
understanding of basic scripting elements in C# for Unity, so I sought out another tutorial to
help me with this. This was my favourite set of tutorials because it managed to stay simple
enough to learn everything line by line from scratch, as well as delve into some more
complicated scripts all the while teaching you about the different specific basic elements in a C#
script used in unity.
What I Learned
I learned a lot about different elements in C# that are used in Unity scripts. These
tutorials were exactly what I wanted to learn about in order to get a basic understanding of C#
scripts in Unity. After completing the tutorials, I thought of the idea of making a reference
sheet for all that I had learned so that I could have easy access to look up of functions and other
elements without having to search them out separately online. This was the inspiration for
Reference Sheet 2) C# in Unity.
Continued
I also have attached an executable for the Cube Run Game in the last tutorial that I did
which is pretty much the same as what was directed by the tutorial except for the colours. One
thing I did add to it though was a button to fall faster down to a platform which made the game
easier to land on the platforms and more fun in my opinion.
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Mario Personal Project

After completing the other tutorials I wanted to test out how much I had learned. So I
came up with the idea of trying to recreate the first level from the original Mario game for the
NES. Not worrying about graphics, I altered the skin for the character in the 2D platformer
tutorial and left the shape alone, as well as collected sprites from the Mario game in order to
use for blocks and other things. Borrowing objects and the character with its controls from the
2D platformer tutorial, I created a new scene and built it to mimic the level in mind then started
to mimic the different components from the game. Currently, I only have the first mushroom
block with the mushroom and Mario’s growth upon picking up the power-up, but I am
continuing to work on it still. I have attached a build of the level so far entitled MarioLevel.

Conclusion

In conclusion I think that I have learned a lot about the Unity 3D game engine and its
scripts using C# over the past semester. After school work, studying, and working on the
weekends, most of my time has gone in to working with Unity. I feel confident about what I
have learned and hope that it is what was expected from me. If it is not then I am truly sorry,
and will most certainly learn from my mistakes if given the chance to continue in the
outstanding scholars program. I requested to work with Dr. Goodwin because I have a passion
for creating videogames and am hoping to make this field of work my career. I will continue to
work with and learn more about Unity as it is a great game engine to work with which I have
found out through this semester. If nothing else I am extremely grateful for the opportunity to
have been directed towards this for learning. If I appeared unambitious or ungrateful I
apologize but this is not what I was trying to do. I will make sure that nothing like this happens
again. Thank you for taking the time to read my report.
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Unity Basics
Unity Layout

The unity layout for the different windows can be configured by the drop down menu in the top
right corner which has the current layout name in it.
The layouts are:
• 2 by 3
• 4 Split
• Tall
• Wide
You can make your own custom layouts as well if you wish and save them in the same drop
down menu.
Scene Window

The scene window shows you how your scene is physically set up with any of the objects and
gizmos placed inside of it. Navigation inside of the scene window can be achieved in various
ways.
• Arrow Keys- move through the scene in the direction pressed
• Right Mouse Button - rotates the view in the window
• Right Mouse Button while holding Alt- zooms the view in the window
• Middle Mouse Button- pans the view in the window
• Mouse Wheel- zooms the view in the window
You can also click the Hand symbol in the toolbar at the top left of the program to add some
more controls for navigating the scene.
• Left Mouse Button- pans the view in the window
• Left Mouse Button while holding Alt- rotates the view in the window
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You can snap the view to one of the axis by clicking one in the image in the top right corner of
the scene window. Also, you can press the cube in the center of the axes for an indirect view of
all of the axes.
You can manipulate the game objects in your scene in this window as well. When a game
object is highlighted you can move it freely by left clicking and dragging in the direction you
want to move it, or to be more precise, you can choose one of the color coordinated axes
arrows to move it along that axes only. Using the three options in the top left on the toolbar
you can Move an object this way, Rotate an object this way, or Scale an object this way.

Game Window

The game window shows you what is currently being seen by the main camera in your game.
The main camera is an object which can be seen and moved within the scene window, it is not
the view in the scene window itself.
The game window is in a tab with the scene window in most layouts so you only see one or the
other depending on which tab you click. The tabs are located at the top of the scene window or
game window.
You can test your game by clicking the Play button in the top middle of the toolbar. This will
automatically switch the game window to the front. While testing your game in this way, you
can also use the Pause button to pause and un-pause the game, as well as the Step button to
make the game step forward one frame at a time. All three of these buttons are located next to
one another.
NOTE: if you switch back to the scene window and make any changes while the game is playing,
or make any changes in any of the other windows, they will revert back to how it was before
playing the game when the game stops.
Hierarchy Window

The hierarchy window is used to keep track of all of the objects currently in the scene. It
appears as a list of objects and if one is selected, it is also selected within the scene. If you
double click an object, the scene view changes so it is focused on that object.
You can rename objects in the hierarchy to keep track of them as well as parent objects with
other objects. Parenting an object with another object means that if you move the parent
object within the scene, the children of that object move with respect to the parent as well.
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This is very useful to keep several objects that make up one larger object always together.
Parenting an object with another object is achieved by simply clicking the child object in the
hierarchy window and dragging it onto the parent object, still in the hierarchy window.
When an object is a parent with children, it has an arrow head beside it that is either open
(pointing down) or closed (pointing to the right). When open, it shows all of the parent’s
children below it in the list but indented. When closed, the children do not appear in the
hierarchy window’s list of objects.
NOTE: when you have a parent object and any number of child objects, you cannot move the
parent object without its children.
A useful trick that I learned in order to keep objects organized is to create an empty object to
use as a parent for child objects if there is no “base” object that always moves with all of its
children.
Project Window

The project window shows all of the assets that are in the folder associated with the specific
project you are working on. Assets can include textures, materials, physic materials, scripts,
prefab objects, and more, just to name some common ones I have worked with so far, as well
as folders to organize them. Brief descriptions of these assets are:
• Texture- a flat image that is included in materials in order to render an object visually in
a scene in more than just a colour.
• Material- has a texture or sometimes multiple textures associated with it which it wraps
around an object’s mesh in order to render it visually in a scene in more than just a
colour.
NOTE: if you change the texture in a material for one object, it changes for all objects
with the same material. If you wish to change a texture for one instance of an object
but not all, change the material for the object.
• Physic Material- used in Rigidbodies, the physical aspects of objects with properties
affected by the physics system built in to unity. An example of a property of physic
materials is friction.
• Scripts- programs that are attached to objects and execute within the game. In unity,
they are written in JavaScript, C#, or Boo.
• Prefab- an object with certain properties that are saved in order to be used more than
once. Any object can be made a prefab by simply clicking and dragging it from the
hierarchy window into the project window. If a parent is made a prefab, all of its
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children are included in the prefab as well. A prefab can be added into the scene by
clicking and dragging from the project window to either the hierarchy window or the
scene window.
Inspector Window

The inspector window is used to manipulate all properties of any selected object. The inspector
can be used to manipulate prefabs or specific game objects within a scene. If an object in a
scene is changed which has a prefab, the prefab can be updated by clicking the Apply button
near the top right of the inspector.
A component can be added to an object either via the dropdown menu at the top of the
program or by clicking and dragging from the project window to the inspector window with the
target object already selected.
The inspector can be used to manipulate the properties of pretty much everything about the
object. The most common properties which are always included and always located at the top
of the inspector are the objects transform properties.
The transform properties are the physical location of the object within the scene. They include
the position of the object, the rotation of the object, and the scale of the object, all with x, y,
and z axis numerical components. All three of those properties can be manipulated in the
inspector in order to precisely manipulate the object within the scene.

Toolbar

The toolbar at the top has already been discussed but to recap, the important buttons for now,
from left to right, are:
• Hand- to add more maneuverability to the scene view
• Move- to move an object’s position within the scene
• Rotate- to rotate an object within the scene
• Scale- to scale an object within the scene
• Play- to run the game for testing
• Pause- to pause and un-pause the game when it is running
• Step Forward- to move one frame forward within the game while it is paused
• Layout Drop Down Menu- to select the layout

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Creating Game Objects

Objects can be created from either the drop down Game Object menu at the top of the
program or, to a lesser extent, from the drop down create menu in the hierarchy window.
You can create a variety of different types of objects, the basics with very brief descriptions
being:
• Empty Objects- with no properties other than its transform properties.
• Particle Systems- special effects that are generated within systems
• Cameras- to view the game through
• GUI Text- to show text in the game
• Lights- to light the game in a variety of ways including from a source, or in one direction
• Shapes- generic game objects such as cubes, spheres, cylinders, etc.

Creating Components
Components are created in a similar way to game Objects. Either through the drop down
Components menu or, to a lesser extent, through the drop down create menu in the project
window.
There are also a variety of different components, again some basic ones with very brief
descriptions are:
• Meshes- for wrapping textures to your objects
• Effects- such as particle systems and trails
• Physics- components involved in unity’s physics engine such as:
o Rigidbodies- the physical properties of an object
o Colliders- the area where objects collide with other physical objects
o Controllers- physical controllers for character in the game
• Audio- listeners and sources for producing audio in a game
• Skybox- the background of the game as seen by the game camera
• Scripts- different programs to add to objects within the game to perform specific tasks
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C# in Unity
All Scripts include at the top:
using UnityEngine;
using System.Collections;
(in some cases, just “using System;”)
and after that, usually start with:
public class ScriptName
: MonoBehaviour {

Access Modifiers

private- variables are only accessible in the script
public- variables can be assigned and changed in the inspector window, as well as accessed by
other scripts with the proper referencing.
static- used to create global variables

Variable Types

int- a non-decimal number
float- a decimal number, assign by adding an ‘f’ after the number
Example: float num = 12f;
char- a character
string- a string of characters
bool- a true or false Boolean variable
Vector3- a float with 3 components, an x, y, and z component usually, commonly used for
position, rotation, and scaling of an object
Transform- a transform component to a game object
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GameObject- an instance of a game object
GUIText- a GUI text object
Material- a material component
PhysicMaterial- a physic material component
Queue<VariableType>- a generic queue included in System.Collections.Generic

Specific Examples

• TimeSpan timespan = DateTime.Now.TimeOfDay; - used for analog time
Later uses: timespan.TotalHours
timespan.TotalMinutes
timespan.TotalSeconds
• DateTime time = DateTime.Now; - used for discrete time
Later uses: time.Hour
time.Minute
time.Second
• Quaternion.Euler(float,float,float) - used for rotations
• Randome.Range(float,float) - used to generate a random float between two floats
• Randome.Range(int,int) - used to generate a random int between two ints
• Input.GetButtonDown(“ButtonName”) - detects if a certain button is pressed
• Input.GetButtonUp(“ButtonName”) - detects if a certain button is released

Methods

void Start() - used when object is first instantiated
void Update() - used when you want the object to update each frame
void FixedUpdate() - used when dealing with the physics engine, updates via time instead of
frames
void OnTriggerEnter() - used when you want something to happen when another object
triggers the one with this function
void OnTriggerExit() – used when you want something to happen when another object exits
the trigger zone of this object
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void OnCollisionEnter() – used when you want something to happen when another object
collides with this object
void OnCollisionExit() – used when you want something to happen when another object stops
colliding with this object
Accessors

.active – gets if the game object is active or not
.enabled – gets if the game object is enabled
.emit – whether a particle system is emitting particles or not
.gameObject – gets the game object
.transform – gets the game object’s transform
.localPosition – from a transform, gets the position of that transform
.localRotate – from a transform, gets the rotation of that transform
.localScale – from a transform, gets the scale of that transform
.Length – length of an array
.x – first component of a Vector3
.y – second component of a Vector3
.z – third component of a Vector3
.rigidbody – gets the rigidbody of an object
.VelocityChange – used after ForceMode, changes the velocity
.Acceleration – used after ForceMode, accelerates the velocity
.isKinematic – gets if a rigidbody is kinematic (doesn’t use physics) or not

Built In Functions

.ToString() – gets the string of the object
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.ToString(“f0”) – gets the string of a float formatted a certain way
.ClearParticles() – clears the particles in a particle system
.Enqueue(VariableTypeOfQueue) – used in generic queue to add an object
.Dequeue() – used in generic queue to remove an object
.Peek() – used in generic queue to look at but not remove the next object
.AddForce(Vector3,ForceMode) – adds a force to a rigidbody
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References

Unity Basics Video Tutorials
http://unity3d.com/support/documentation/video/


2D Gameplay Tutorial
http://unity3d.com/gallery/demos/demo-projects


Unity C# Tutorials
http://catlikecoding.com/unity/tutorials/