ADAPTIVE EMBEDDED SYSTEMS

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25 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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ADAPTIVE EMBEDDED SYSTEMS


ABSTRACT


In present Arena every thing is
going compact and adaptable. More over
continuing trends in Microelectronic
Technology and its integration begins to alter
the ground rules in the design of high
performance system
s, such as Embedded
Systems. Those Embedded Systems and Real
Time Operating Systems (RTOS) are part
-
achieving, ubiquity, blurring the lines between
science fiction and hard reality.



Now consider a VCR with automatic
timer programmable for a month, TV wit
h
password protection and individual tuning for
each channel. Did you ever think how all these
equipment have become so smart and
intelligent? These equipment are humble
looking, not majesting like our computer, but
they are intelligent and smart enough to

do
their specific jobs. Embedded Microprocessors
or Micro controllers are the brain behind these
systems.



The main idea behind these
Embedded Systems is “why to use a hammer
when a gentle touch would do”.



Embedded Systems exists in wide
variety of fie
lds from automated vending
machine to complex Embedded systems that
controls aircraft functions. This paper mainly
contains the recent trends, applications and the
explanation about the importance of the Real
Time Operating systems (RTOS) that are used
for

developing this embedded system
technology.


This Embedded System technology
may one day result in such a comfort for
human, so that he could live in an intelligent
home and make his health undisturbed.

INTRODUCTION



Embedded technology is the
technol
ogy, which is widely in use now days.
Systems using this technology range from
automobiles to microwave ovens without an
embedded System, you wouldn’t even able to
go online. Many of them electronic gadgets
and appliances that we use every day have
embedde
d Systems in them.


An embedded system is any devices
controlled by instructions stored in a chip.
These devices are usually controlled by a
microprocessor that excites the

Instructions stored on a read only memory
(ROM) chip. They are pre programmed to
p
erform a dedicated or narrow range functions
as a part of a largesystem, usually with
minimal user interaction. The modern Global
Positioning Systems (GPS) use the Embedded
technology, not only these many other devices
like automed teller machines, network
ing
equipment such as routers and switches, digital
videos and cameras, mobile phones, aerospace
applications etc.make use of Embedded
Systems, even toys make use of this
technology.



These Embedded Systems have
received a major shot in the arm over the p
ast
two or three years due to three factors.





The development of standard run
time platform likes Java, which
enables their use in myriad ways
that were unimaginable in the past.




The emergence of several
integrated software environments,
which simplify the

development of
these applications.



The coming together of Embedded
Systems and the Internet, which is
made possible the networking of
several Embedded Systems to
operate a part of large systems
across networks be its LAN,
WAN, are the internet.


This con
vergence of embedded systems with
the Internet keys going to transform the way of
life. More these systems are usually low in
cost.









REAL TIME OPERATING SYSTEM



An Operating system is necessary to
control an Embedded System because a
microprocessor

involved in building the
Embedded System. Entire operating systems
(OS) like windows is not required but it
requires the basic functionalities of an
Operating System in a real time environment
which is a scaled down version of a Real Time
Operating System
. Real Time Operating
Systems are those, which respond to the inputs
immediately. For an Embedded Systems to
accomplish its job the OS must be free from
crashes and it should occupy less memory
space because they are used in places where a
malfunction or d
elayed operation may lead to
an Operating System that guaranties a certain
capability with in a specified time constant.


In an automated assembly line that
makes use of robots for assembling a ceiling
fan, a robot arm will be required to fix the
Barings o
f the fan. In normal system if the
calculation could not be performed for making
the Barings available at the right time, the
assembly line will continue to assemble the fan
even if ball bearings are missing; this type of
operation is not preferred. A Real

Time
Operating System takes care of this by halting
all the systems with the help of an instruction
sent from the damaged arm to other parts of
the assembly line by means of the network
through which they are connected. So a Real
Time Operating System is
very important in
making a good Embedded.






MAJOR APPLICATIONS OF
EMBEDDED SYSTEMS


IN AUTOMOBILES:



A common application of
embedded systems in the real world is in
automobiles because these systems are cheap,
efficient, and problem free. Almost every

car
that rolls off the production line these days
make use of Embedded technology in one form
or the other. Real Time Operating System are
also preferred in this area due to their fast
response time minimal system requirements.





Most of the Embedded
syst
ems used in automobiles are rugged in
nature, as most of these systems are made of a
single chip. Another advantage is these
systems are networked to act as sub modules in
a large system. No system delay or clash
conditions happen in these systems. Their
c
ompact profiles enable them to fit easily
under the cramped hood of a car. Embedded
systems can be used to implement features
ranging from adjustment of the octane content
in the fuel to Anti
-
lock Breaking Systems
(ABS). The most important place in a car
w
here an embedded System comes into picture
is in the computer chip that controls fuel
injection resulting in less fuel consumption.
Fiat Siena weekend is nothing but an
Embedded System. Right from breaks to
automatic traction control and fuel/air mixture
c
ontrols, there may be up to 30 to 50
embedded Systems with in a present day car.



Embedded systems were
being used in collision avoidance systems
since 1994; American companies have
equipped their trucks with collision warning
systems that alert the drive
r when the vehicle
ahead is dangerously close. Trucks take
considerably longer than cars to stop, and
when they crash, they can wreak far great
damage. Some big trucks use radar to detect
objects up to 107 meters ahead, while other
radars on both sides of
the trucks cab pickup
objects in the blind spots alongside the vehicle.
A beeper and light emitting diodes issue
different warning levels based on the
proximity of the object in the truck’s path.


MOBILE PHONE:



Embedded Systems consume
very little power,

which makes them ideal for
mobile phones. The minimal system
requirement of the devices ensures that the
hardware is almost microscopic. IBM using
Embedded Systems is developing a mobile
phone that can be worn as jewelry. The
components of the phone will
be distributed
among different pieces of jewelry like earrings,
necklace, ring and bracelet. The ear rings will
have Embedded speakers and will act as
receiver, the necklace will have embedded
microphone that will act as mouthpiece, the
ring will have a de
coder. Light Emitting
Diodes (LED) which are embedded in the ring,
will flash to indicate an incoming ring. A
Video Graphic Array (VGA) will be built in to
the bracelet, which will display the name and
the phone number of the caller. The bracelet
will also

integrate the keypad and dialing
functions in it. So by using Embedded
technology we can design mobile phones of
very tiny sizes, which thought was impossible!







RECENT TRENDS IN EMBEDDED
TECHNOLOGY




Embedded Systems can also make
driver less vehicl
e control a reality major
automobile manufactures a beady engaged in
works on these concepts one such technology
is Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) from
FORD.



ACC allows car’s to keep
safe distance from other vehicles on bus
highways. The driver can set th
e speed of the
car and the distance between his car and the


other when traffic slows down, ACC alerts
vehicle speed using moderate breaking this
ensures that a coat and distances maintains
between cars as soon as traffic becomes less.
ACC move up to the de
sired cruise speed that
has been set by the driver. This driver can over
ride the system any time he wants to by
breaking activation of airbags in the recently
launched Fiat Siena fuel injection in a
HUNDAISANTRO these are nothing but an
Embedded systems.



THE DOCTOR WILL SEE YOU KNOW:



Imagine a time when body
transplants like cardiac pace makers will be
able to monitor and manage them remotely.
These systems will be so compact that the
patient wouldn’t even be aware that they are
embedded in his body.
Another point in favors
of RTOS is their stability, instantaneous
response and efficiency. No OS crashes or
delays in responding, as is the case with most
desktop OS’s. After all, which patient can rest
easy with the thought of his literally hanging
by a t
hread due to the time taken by the OS to
load!




Embedded technology
advances are pointing towards the use of
pacemakers that can be transplanted in near the
heart itself. The pacemaker will be able to
monitor parameters like blood pressure, blood
flow
, pulse rate temperature…etc, using micro
sensors planted in various parts of the body.
This capability will enable the pacemaker to
automatically vary its operation to suit of the
changing body conditions. It will also transmit
data using wireless transmi
ssion, this enabling
a doctor to constantly monitor its operation. In
most cases wireless transmission is likely to be
done by a transmitter implanted near the
surface of the skin. In case any abnormality is
detected, the doctor will be able to take
remedi
al action even from a remote location.


FUTURE TRENDS IN EMBEDDED
SYSTEMS




The development of virtuoso reads
the multiprocessor system as a Virtual Single
Processor (VSP), that allows designers to
ignore the number of processor on their
systems and the m
ode of their inter
connections the designer can write code for a
single processor system with perfect portability
and scalability the development of this QNX
virtuoso RTO QNX, virtuoso RTOS, in the
java technology these fields develop the
Embedded system t
echnology in
revolutionizing the life of the human making
so comfortable in an “
intelligent home
”.

CONCLUSION



All these applications are
just tiny drops in big ocean of Embedded
Systems technology. This Embedded
technology can be used in many things that

we
use every day. Many appliances we use in our
day to day life already. Make use of Embedded
Systems. Due to the high reliability, ease of
connectivity, easy availability, cheapness and
fastness, Embedded Systems have become
very popular and they are goi
ng to be more
popular. The numbers of applications of
systems using Embedded Technology are
endless. Houses can be automated using
Embedded technology. One cannot imagine
what new advancements can be achieved by
Embedded systems. The possibilities are
many
….





REFERNCES:




EFY Magazine July, Aug 2000.Issues



DIGIT MAGAZINE



Embedded systems programming
,miller freeman ,san Francisco ,ISSN
1040
-
3272.