Lance Ellerbe - BS EE

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24 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

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Lance Ellerbe
-

BS EE

Jamal
Maduro

-

BS
CpE

Peter Rivera
-

BS ME

Anthony
Sabido

-

BS ME


1

2

Project Overview



Develop a self
-
contained network of tracked surface drifters for
near coastal application.


Housing


Electronics


Power System


GPS receiver


Radio transceiver


Microcontroller


Any of these drifters within range of the base station will then be
able to send all the information from all other drifters, thus
providing a self
-
contained drifter network.



Many such drifters are deployed globally by the National Oceanic
and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) as part of the world
climate observation program.


3

4

*Picture courtesy of FSU Marine Lab


Operational

Description

5


Client will take drifters out to the Ochlocknee Bay and release
drifters into the water a set time intervals

*Picture courtesy of FSU Marine Lab


Operational Description

6

Then the drifters will be recovered based on pin pointed locations using
the GPS and wireless communication from one another.

*Picture courtesy of FSU Marine Lab

Electrical Components


Microcontroller



Radio Transceiver



GPS module



Battery



Data Logger



7

General Layout




8

Engineer: Jamal
Maduro

9




Microcontroller

10




Criterion

Justification

Low operation voltage that does not exceed
3.3V

reduces energy consumption

Analog to digital (ADC) capabilities with a
resolution of at least 8 bits

Allows the use of analog thermistors or other analog
temperature sensors;

Allows for a temperature range of
-
128 to 127 Fahrenheit
or Celsius

Dual Inline Packaging (DIP)

Facilitates development compatibility with standard
breadboards and available low
-
cost development kits

At least 8 Kbytes of non
-
volatile memory, 256
Bytes of RAM, 16
-
bit registers

Accommodates medium sized low power programs;

Accommodates higher accuracy floating point operations
(compared to 8
-
bit)

At least 12 general purpose I/O pins

Extends the number of controllable devices

Extends the number of available interrupt sources

Two universal serial interfaces are desired but
only one is mandatory

Provides easy interface between microcontroller radio
module;

Provides easy interface between microcontroller and GPS
module

Microcontroller

11




MSP430
Part #

Non
-
Volatile
Memory
Capacity

Volatile
SRAM

General
Purpose
I/O pins

ADC

(bits)

Register
size

Price
for Sort

FR5725

8 kB (FRAM)

1 kB

16

10
SAR

16bit

$2.05

G2553

16 kB (Flash)

512 B

16

10

SAR

16bit

$0.90

G2452

8 kB (Flash)

256 B

16

10

SAR

16bit

$0.70

Microcontroller

12




MSP430 Part #

Additional Pros

Cons

FR5725

According to Texas
Instruments
FRAM has the following
advantages over flash:
1
--

Consumes 250 times less power than flash: 9μA @12kB/s


versus 220μA @12kB/s for flash
2
--

Unified memory block can be dynamically configured as


program, data, or info memory
3
--

Can write 100 times faster than flash: 1400kB/s @ 730μA


versus 12kB/s @ 2200μA
4
--

Significantly larger write tolerance than flash: approx. 10


billion times more cycles
5
--

Since it uses crystals instead of charge it's not susceptible to


radiation
6
--

Higher security and robustness due to its virtually


undetectable write cycles
7
--

Two Universal Serial Connection Interfaces as opposed
to



only one

1
--

Does not have a DIP version
2
--

Out of Stock
3
--

Not available within time


frame for this project

G2553

1
--

20 pin DIP version available
2
--

Costs less then FRAM
3
--

5 power saving modes
4
--

twice as much SRAM as the MPS430G2452
5
--

16MHz clock
6
--

16 kB Flash allows for larger programs in necessary

1
--

Only one Universal Serial


Interface (Tx Rx)

G2452

1
--

20 pin DIP version available
2
--

Costs less then FRAM and MSP430G2553
3
--

5 power saving modes
4
--

Relatively less power consumption than the MSP430G2452
5
--

16MHz clock

1
--

Only one Universal Serial


Interface (
Tx

Rx)

13




Radio Transceiver

14




SUMMARRIZED FCC RULES AND REGULATIONS

The transmitter output power will be bounded to 1 watt (30
dBm
)

Effective isotropic radiation power (EIRP) will be bounded to 4 watts (36
dBm
)

The maximum antennae gain cannot exceed 16
dBi

If the transmitter power is 30
dBm

then for every 3
dBi

over 6
dBi

the transmitter power must be
reduce by 1
dBm

The average time of occupancy at any frequency must not be larger than 0.4 seconds within any 10
second period
. ** For

FHSS capable systems

Radio Transceiver

15




Radio Transceiver

16




Criterion

Justification

Low operation voltage that does not exceed 3.3V

reduces energy consumption

FCC compliant for the 915 MHz ISM band

avoid federal infractions and penalties; keep network online

Data rate must high enough to transmit necessary
information in a timely manner (does not violate
FCC rules and regulations)

Reduces energy consumption; avoid federal infractions and
penalties; keep network online

UART communication capability

allows microcontroller to easily interact with radio module

Radio Transceiver

17




Xbee

Model

Operating
Voltage
(V)

Line of
sight Range
(km)

Mesh
Protocol

Transmit
Power
(dBm)

High
Gain
Antenna
Range
(km)

Transmit
Current
(mA)

Receive
Current
(mA)

RF data
rate

Price

Pro 900

3.0
-

3.6

3

Yes

17

10

210

50

154.6
kbps

$39.00

Pro
XSC

(PCB

mounted)

3.0
-

3.6

9.6

Yes

20

15

265

65

9.6 kbps

$39.00

Xtend

2.8
-

5.5

24

Yes

30

64

730

80

9.6 kbps
155 kbps

$179.0
0

18

GPS Module

19

$
GPRMC , 123519 , A , 4807.038 , N , 01131.000 , E , 022.4 , 084.4 , 230394 , 003.1, W , *6A

RMC

Recommended Minimum sentence C

123519

Fix taken at
12:35:19
UTC

A

Status A=active or V=Void.

4807.038,N

Latitude 48 deg 07.038' N

01131.000,E

Longitude 11 deg 31.000' E

22.4

Speed over the ground in knots

84.4

Track angle in degrees True

230394

Date


23rd
of
March 1994

003.1,W

Magnetic Variation

*6A

The checksum data, always begins with *

GPS Criteria

20

Criterion

Justification

Low operation voltage that does not
exceed 3.3V

reduces energy consumption

Use NMEA protocol

easy to work with and interpret; appropriate for
marine use

Customizable firmware

control the output of the GPS data so the
microcontroller's work is reduced

Fast (low) Cold, Warm, and Hot starts

reduces response time; reduces energy consumption

UART communication capability

allows microcontroller to easily interact with GPS
module

Accuracy must be within 5 meters

increases the chance of retrieval; decreases the time
of retrieval; makes data more reliable and usable

GPS Criteria

21

Part Name

Chip Set

Hot/
Warm/
Cold
Start (s)

Acquisitio
n
Sensitivity
(
dbm
)

Operating
Voltage
(V)

Price

Accuracy
(m)

Interface

Configurable
firmware

current
draw
(mA)

Venus634LPx

Venus

1/29/29

-
161

2.8
-

3.6

$39.00

2.5 (CEP)

SPI

yes

28

Jupiter F2

Sirf

Star
IV
GSD4e

0.5/31/3
3

-
143

1.75
-

1.9

$35.00

2.5 (CEP)

UART,
SPI, I2C

yes

30

Engineer: Lance Ellerbe

22

Power Systems

Overview


Low Power Consumption


Each must be able to operate on 3.3V maximum.


The drifter network will be designed to use the least
amount of power when transmitting data


The power supply will be selected in order to supply the
adequate amount of amp
-
hours in order to provide
enough current for each electrical component to be
operational throughout its 15 day deployment.


23

Power Systems

Current Component Selection PROGRESS:


Xbee


Operation Voltage: 3.0
-
3.6VDC


Current Draw:


Transmitting current: 256mA


Receiving Current: 50
mA


Transmission Frequency:


every 2.16 min @ 10000 GPS fixes


GPS module


Will be selected for low power consumption and operate at a maximum of 3.3V.
(Based on chart on previous slide the current drawn from GPS is approximately
29mA)


Microcontroller


Operation Voltage: 1.8V to 3.6V


Active mode: 230uA


Standby Mode: 0.5uA

24

Power Systems

Testing/ Verification


The testing of this task will include a number of power
consumption tests. First, each electrical component will
be attached separately to a
multimeter

or oscilloscope to
validate that the component is operating within its
electrical specifications.


Second, based on the results in the previous step the
results can be then used to tweak network parameters
such as transmission time or microprocessor algorithms
in an attempt to lower power consumption and increase
theoretical operation time.





25

Power Systems

Time of Operation


15 days of operation = 360 hours of operation


Required GPS fixes: 10,000


Number of Fixes in 15 days: GPS fix every 2.16 min or 129.9
sec


FCC rule: The average time of occupancy at any frequency
must not be larger than 0.4 seconds when using the frequency
hopping spread spectrum.


Maximum current drawn per transmission/reception of all
electrical components:



Approximately 336mA






26

Power Systems

Worst Case Scenario: 0.4 sec for each
transmission/reception


336
mA

for 1.11 hours of
ACTIVE

operation


sleep mode considered negligible (
uA

range).


336
mA

×

1.11 hours =
372.96
mAh


Battery needed would be something with 3.3 V and greater
than 372.96
mAh






27

Power Systems

Criteria for Making Battery Selection:


Run Time


Volts (Power)


Amp
-
Hour Rating


Rechargeable


Life Cycle


Temperature of Operation



28

Power Systems

Power supply considerations:


(1)Lithium Ion


Lithium Manganese Nickel


Lithium Polymer


Nickel Cadmium (NiCad)


Nickel Metal Hydride (
NiMH
)


Photovoltaics







29

Power Systems

Lithium Ion Battery:


These batteries are able to handle excessive current applications.


Lithium batteries are great for long
-
term use.


Lithium batteries also perform well in extreme temperatures.


Increased life cycles over Nickel cadmium (NiCad) and Nickel Metal
Hydride (
NiMH
) batteries.


Lithium ion batteries are also cheaper to manufacture than lithium
polymer batteries, so when cost is a factor, lithium ion is the choice.


Much lower self
-
discharge rate than Nickel Metal Hydride (
NiMH
)
batteries.


Wide variety of shapes and sizes efficiently fitting the devices they
power.




30

Power Systems


Ideal Battery Configuration


Parallel configuration would be ideal to increase the amount of Amp
-
Hours to supply the adequate amount of current to Microcontroller,
GPS module and Radio Transceiver for a 15 day period.

31

V2
3.3 VDC
V3
3.3 VDC
Voltage = 3.3 V
V1
3.3 VDC
Current = 12000mAh
Using 4000 mAh
Batteries
EXAMPLE

Power Systems

Voltage regulation

If battery chosen has a nominal voltage of more than 3.3 V, a
voltage regulator will need to be implemented to maximize
battery life and supply the correct operating voltage to the
components.





32

Power Systems

PCB protection


Lithium Ion batteries must connect to a protection circuit
module to protect Li
-
Ion Battery from overcharge, over
discharge


and to prevent

accidental battery explosion
due to its extra high energy density
.

33

Power Systems

LiMnNi

Rechargeable 26650 Cell

Nominal Voltage

3.7

V

Capacity



4000mAh (4.20V
cut
-
off)

Operation
Temperature


Discharging:


-

20
o
C

(
-
4F)
-

60
o
C

(140F) Cell


Max.
Discharging
current


10 A

Energy density


163.17
wh
/kg

34

Xeno

AA Size 3.6V Lithium Battery XL
-
060F

Nominal Voltage

3.7

V

Capacity



2400mAh (2.0V cut
-
off)

Operation
Temperature


Discharging:


-
55
o
C

-

85
o
C

(140F)


Max. Discharging
current


100mA

Once all component selection has been
finalized, the battery will be chosen based the
voltage needed and the highest
mAh

that can
be found.

Engineers: Anthony
Sabido

and Peter Rivera

35

Hull Design


Increase water drag while decreasing wind
drag


Watertight


Resist corrosion in saltwater


Survive light to medium impacts on potentially
sharp objects


Easily duplicated

36

Legacy Casing

37

*Picture courtesy of FSU Marine Lab

Hull Design


Semi
-
spherical shape.


The electric components will be stored in the center


Top will be as flat as possible.

38

Hull Design

39


Low weight


High stability


Easy to Seal


Easily
Fabricated


Low Cost

Hull Components


Base


Lack of edges reduces snagging.


3 Piece design reduces materials and simplifies
fabrication.


Allows for foam filling.


Top


Flat panel top decrease vertical profile.


Simple sealing process.


Quick component access.

40

Base

41

Exploded View

42


Six screws fasten the top to the
base.


Sealing achieved by 1 main
rubber seal and 6 rubber
coated washers.


Hull Assembly

43

Issues Encountered


Fastening



Need aluminum ring to
secure the top.


44

Veck

Female Bonding Fastener

Issues Encountered


Fastening


Excessive torque



Solutions


Bonding Fasteners


Torque Key

45

Ritchey Carbon Torque Key


-

Cycle Club Sports

Specifications


Waterproof to 5m (CAP
-
04 & REQF
-
06).



Low profile to reduce wind drag (CAP
-
06).



Painted to camouflage with the water (CAP
-
07).



Maximum weight of 0.5 kg (REQF
-
04).



Overall height less than 10 cm (REQF
-
05).

46

Hull Testing


Water tightness


Floatation


47

Hull Testing


Vibration testing will be done on a vibration table, where the drifter will be
shaken at a variety of frequencies for endurance.

48

49

Project Overview
-

Timeline

50

TASK

START
DATE

DURATION
(DAYS)

END DATE

Assigned Team Members

Electronic Components: Product Research

9/18/2011

14

10/1/2011

Lance, Jamal

Simulation Programming in MATLAB

9/18/2011

14

10/1/2011

Jamal

Review Wireless Networking Theory

9/18/2011

14

10/1/2011

Lance, Jamal

Meet with Brian Wells

9/30/2011

1

9/30/2011

Anthony, Peter

Meet with High Performance Materials Institute

9/30/2011

1

9/30/2011

Anthony, Peter

Meet With Peter Lazarevich

9/30/2011

1

9/30/2011

All

Reverse Engineer Previous Drifter

9/30/2011

1

9/30/2011

All

Preliminary Housing Design

10/3/2011

8

10/10/2011

Anthony, Peter

Finalize Electronic Component selection

10/3/2011

1

10/3/2011

Lance, Jamal

Order Electronic componenets

10/4/2011

1

10/4/2011

Peter

Finalize Housing Design

10/10/2011

45

11/23/2011

Anthony, Peter

Measure & weigh components

10/10/2011

1

10/10/2011

All

GPS signal testing

10/21/2011

1

10/21/2011

All

Transmission Range Testing

10/21/2011

1

10/21/2011

All

Housing impact testing

2/3/2012

1

2/3/2012

All

Prototype Housing Fabrication

2/4/2012

1

2/4/2012

Anthony, Peter

Prototype Housing Waterproof Testing

2/5/2012

1

2/5/2012

Anthony, Peter

Project Overview
-

Timeline

51

14

14

14

1

1

1

1

8

1

1

45

1

1

1

Electronic Components: Product Research
Simulation Programming in MATLAB
Review Wireless Networking Theory
Meet with Brian Wells
Meet with High Performance Materials Institute
Meet With Peter Lazarevich
Reverse Engineer Previous Drifter
Preliminary Housing Design
Finalize Electronic Component selection
Order Electronic componenets
Finalize Housing Design
Measure & weigh components
GPS signal testing
Transmission Range Testing
Budget

Expenses

Quantity

Unit Price

Total

Microcontroller

8


$ 2.17


$ 17.36

Development Board

1


$ 4.35


$ 4.35

Radio Transceiver

5


$ 39.00


$ 195.00

Radio Antenna

5


$ 8.00


$ 40.00

Printed Board

5


$ 15.10


$ 75.50

GPS Module

5


$ 22.95


$ 114.75

GPS Antenna

5


$ 39.95


$ 199.75

Thermistor

5


$ 10.00


$ 50.00

Battery

15


$ 3.00


$ 45.00

Fiberglass

50 sq ft


$ 4.74/sq ft


$ 237.00

Fiberglass Resin

1 gal


$ 96.99


$ 96.99

Fiberglass Hardener

0.86 qt


$ 42.99


$ 42.99

Expenses Total




$ 1,118.69

52

53

54

Technical Report:

“Surface Circulation Study of Waters Near
Ochlockonee

Bay, Florida”

-

Peter
Lazarevich

and

Dr. Kevin Speer


Project Description :

“Tracking the coastal waters: a wireless network of shallow water drifters”

-

FAMU
-
FSU College of Engineering

55

Network


(Legacy Network)

56

Network


(Revised Network)

57