2. NMDOT Statewide Communications Implementation Plan Overview

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Deliverable For
:

New Mexico ITS On Call Project


Task 3

Communications Implementation Plan

Statewide Planning Area


Statewide ITS Communications Plan

T
ech
nical

Memo 1: Requirements

Technical Memo 2: Technology Assessment

Technical Memo 3: Short Term Im
plementation

Technical Memo 4: Mid
-
Long Term Implementation Plan


Draft

Submitted To:


New Mexico Department of Transportation





Submitted By:


ICx Transportation Group

500 N. State College Blvd., Suite 1100

Orange, California 92868




Submi
ttal Date:


04/09/2010


Communications Implementation Plan

NMDOT ITS


04/09/2010


Table of Contents

1.

Overview

................................
................................
................................
................................
................

1

2.

NMDOT Statewide Communications Implementation Plan Overview

................................
..................

1

3.

Existing Statewide Communications Network Ov
erview

................................
................................
......

2

3.1.

Current Statewide Deployment of ITS and Communications Devices

................................
...........

4

3.1.1.

ITS Field Devices

................................
................................
................................
......................

4

3.1.2.

Field Communications Infrastructure

................................
................................
......................

5

3.1.3.

Central Infrastructure Category

................................
................................
..............................

5

4.

Requirements

................................
................................
................................
................................
........

5

4.1.

Network Bandwidth, Redundancy and Reliability Requirements

................................
..................

5

4.1.1.

Bandwidth

................................
................................
................................
...............................

6

4.1.2.

Redundancy

................................
................................
................................
.............................

7

4.1.3.

Reliability

................................
................................
................................
................................
.

8

4.1.4.

Individual Site/Project Requirements
................................
................................
......................

9

5.

Technology and Opportunities Assessment

................................
................................
........................

11

5.1.

Leased lines

................................
................................
................................
................................
..

11

5.2.

Cellular Wireless

................................
................................
................................
...........................

13

5.3.

Fixed Wireless Internet Service Provider
................................
................................
......................

14

5.4.

Satellite Based Internet Communications

................................
................................
....................

16

5.5.

NMDOT Wire Based Communications

................................
................................
.........................

18

5.6.

NMDOT Wireless Based Communications

................................
................................
...................

20

6.

Short Term Implementation

................................
................................
................................
................

22

6.1.

Recommended techn
ologies

................................
................................
................................
........

22

6.1.1.

CCTV

................................
................................
................................
................................
.......

23

6.1.2.

Road Weather Information Systems & Vehicle Speed Sensors

................................
.............

24

Communications Implementation Plan

NMDOT ITS


04/09/2010


6.1.3.

Dynamic Message Signs

................................
................................
................................
.........

25

6.1.4.

High
way Advisory Radio

................................
................................
................................
........

26

6.2.

Research and Test Projects

................................
................................
................................
...........

27

6.2.1.

General Projects

................................
................................
................................
....................

28

6.2.2.

District Projects

................................
................................
................................
.....................

31

6.3.

District Connectivi
ty

................................
................................
................................
.....................

10

6.3.1.

Center to Primary Center Communication Project

................................
...............................

14

6.4.

Future Devices

................................
................................
................................
..............................

16

7.

Mid to Long Range Implementation

................................
................................
................................
....

19

8.

Next Ste
ps

................................
................................
................................
................................
............

19

List of Figures

Figure 1. NMDOT Highway Districts

................................
................................
................................
..............

2

Figure 2. NMDOT District 3
-

Albuquerque Area

................................
................................
...........................

3

Figure 3. Camera Communication Deci
sion Tree

................................
................................
........................

24

Figure 4. RTMS/RWIS Communication Decision Tree

................................
................................
.................

25

Figure 5. DMS Communication Decision Tree

................................
................................
............................

26

Figure 6. HAR Communication Decision Tree

................................
................................
.............................

27

Figure 7. Globalstar Voice and Data Burst Pricing

................................
................................
......................

30

Figure 8. District 1 Map

................................
................................
................................
................................
.

4

Figure 9. District 2 Map

................................
................................
................................
................................
.

7

Figure 10. District 4 Map

................................
................................
................................
.............................

10

Figure 11. Center to Center Bandwidth Requirement Decision Tree

................................
.........................

14

Figure 12. Center to Center Redundancy Requirement Decision Tree

................................
.......................

15

Figure 13. Center to Center Network

................................
................................
................................
.........

16

Figure 14. Future Devices Proposed by Districts

................................
................................
........................

18

Communications Implementation Plan

NMDOT ITS


04/09/2010


List of Tables

Table 1. Existing Statewide Cameras

................................
................................
................................
............

5

Table 2. ITS Device Bandwidth Category

................................
................................
................................
......

6

Table 3. Individual Project Requirements Matrix

................................
................................
.......................

10

Table 4. Lease Line Communications Requirements Matrix

................................
................................
.......

13

Table 5. Cellular Data Provider Pricing
................................
................................
................................
........

14

Table 6. Fixed Wireless Provider General Availability

................................
................................
................

15

Table 7. Lobo Wireless Sample Pricing

................................
................................
................................
.......

16

Table 8. CNSP Wireless Sample Pricing

................................
................................
................................
.......

16

Table 9. H
ughesNet Business Sample Pricing

................................
................................
.............................

17

Table 10. Wild Blue Skylink Sample Pricing

................................
................................
................................

17

Table 11. Broad Sky Networks Enterprise Sample Pricing

................................
................................
..........

17

Table 12. Wireless Communi
cations Requirements Matrix

................................
................................
.......

18

Table 13. Wire Based Communications Requirements Matrix

................................
................................
...

20

Table 14. Wireless Communications Requirements Matrix

................................
................................
.......

22

Table 15. Recommend
ed Communications for CCTV

................................
................................
.................

23

Table 16. Recommended Communications for RTMS & RWIS

................................
................................
...

24

Table 17. Recommended Communications for DMS

................................
................................
..................

26

Table 18. Recommended Communicat
ions for HAR
................................
................................
...................

27

Table 19. Devices Proposed at District 1
................................
................................
................................
.......

2

Table 20. Devices Proposed at District 2
................................
................................
................................
.......

6

Table 21. Devices Proposed at District 4
................................
................................
................................
.......

9


Communications Implementation Plan

NMDOT ITS


04/09/2010


Terminology


AMPA

Albuquerque Municipal Planning Area

Autoscope

Brand Name of a Vehicle Detection System

CCTV

Closed Circuit Television

DMS

Dynamic Message Signs

DSL

Digital Subscriber Line

HAR

Highway Advisory Radio

IP

Internet Protoc
ol

ITS

Intelligent Transportation Systems

Kbps

Kilobits per second

MVDS

Microwave Vehicle Detection Sensor

NMDOT

New Mexico Department Of Transportation

O & M

Operations and Maintenance

RTMS

Remote Traffic Microwave Sensor

RWIS

Road Weather Informa
tion System

Telco

Telephone Provider

TMC

Traffic Management Center

VPN

Virtual Private Network

WISP

Wireless Internet Service Provider


Communications Implementation Plan

NMDOT ITS

1


04/09/2010


1.

Overview

The New Mexico Department of Transportation (NMDOT) has implemented and plans to expand
implementation of

Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) and an associated communications
infrastructure to support improved transportation operations across the State. This document is part of
Task 3 of the Communications Plan scope of services. The implementation Plan
contains two main parts:



Part A, which addresses the Albuquerque area, and includes the field devices and
communications in and around the Albuquerque Municipal Planning Area.



Part B, which addresses the remaining areas Statewide outside of the Albuquerqu
e area. Part B
is addressed within this deliverable.



2.

NMDOT Statewide
Communications
Implementation Plan Overview

The objective of this deliverable is to suggest an approach to meeting the requirements for statewide
center
-
to
-
center and center
-
to field co
mmunications. It includes planning
-
level project
recommendations and challenges to deploying and interconnecting ITS devices statewide.

The focus of this communications plan is to provide a process by which the operational goals that are
desired by deplo
ying ITS devices can be met. Therefore, this plan provides guidance regarding various
communications technologies via a discussion of their current coverage and capabilities. Specific
technology recommendations by location or device are not provided but a
process oriented approach
that can be modified as technology advances or new services are made available to NMDOT is
presented. This approach recognizes the challenges of deployment in rural environments, the fast pace
of change in telecommunications servi
ces and technologies, and the uncertainty of ITS funding and the
pace of deployment in New Mexico.


This plan is structured as follows:




Section 3


Overview of existing ITS and communications media



Section 4


Review of the communications requirements



Se
ction 5


An assessment of currently available technologies and services.



Section 6


Short term implementation approach and suggested plan including potential
research/tests



Section 7


Long term implementation discussion


A cornerstone to the implementat
ion of ITS devices is the
systems engineering process. There are many
documents which provide an in
-
depth explanation of
that

process, but briefly, designers will need to
perform a needs assessment and develop a concept of operations

on a project by projec
t basis
. This will
determine the mission, function and performance of the systems within
a
project. Technology and
communications selections will follow after the core functionality of
a
project is defined

and this
document is structured to supplement that

process with guidance on available communications
technologies and approaches
.

Once the core functionality of a project is defined, project designers can
begin selecting the communication type that is available in the area

per the requirements on bandwid
th,
Communications Implementation Plan

NMDOT ITS

2


04/09/2010


redundancy, and reliability as defined by following the initial components of the systems engineering
process
.

As

many project areas in New Mexico will likely be in a
rural
setting
, this
up front definition of
operational utility and requirements is c
ritical as communications infrastructure
is not
as
commonplace
as

within heavily populated areas and as such identification of proper infrastructure per the
requirements defined and determined by the systems engineering process is critical.


3.

Existing Stat
ewide Communications
Network Overview

The NMDOT consists of six highway districts: District 1


Deming, District 2


Roswell, District 3


Albuquerque, District 4


Las Vegas, District 5


Santa Fe, and District 6


Milan. The districts are
responsible for

the implementation, maintenance and operations of the ITS devices within their
respective areas.
Figure
1

indicates the district boundaries.


Figure
1
. NMDOT Highway Districts

Communications Implementation Plan

NMDOT ITS

3


04/09/2010


Districts within the state
have deployed and
are
responsible for maintenance of its own network to
facilitate communications to field devices. There is no direct network communications or shared device
control between districts.

District 3, which covers the Albuquerque area, has
the most developed communications infrastructure
and ITS devices, as shown in
Figure
2
. The full infrastructure was outlined in the Albuquerque Municipal
Planning Area Tech Memo series. Generally the area has fiber

communications along major stretches of
I
-
25 and I
-
40, which provides network communications backhaul from field devices to the Traffic
Management Center (TMC) located in Albuquerque.


Figure
2
. NMDOT District 3
-

Albuquerque Area

The other
five
districts
have not yet deployed extensive
communications and ITS
infrastructure at this
time
. Communications between
the
field devices deployed
and
central

are
typically
through cellular

connections with
District 3
having the on
ly
formal TMC.

Currently, ITS devices are often deployed in
remote areas with little to no other ITS device deployments for many miles which leads to a
communication system built for individual projects rather than as a well
-
defined and conceived network.

Statewide ITS inter
-
district communications infrastructure has also not been developed. Each district’s
ITS infrastructure essentially functions autonomously and does not provide any real
-
time data or access
to other surrounding districts.

Communications Implementation Plan

NMDOT ITS

4


04/09/2010


3.1.

Current
Sta
tewide
Deployment of
ITS and Communications
Devices

This section describes the ITS field devices, the communications field infrastructure, and central
communications infrastructure deployed by NMDOT outside of the Albuquerque area (District 3). Field
devic
es deployed in New Mexico include Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) cameras/encoders, Dynamic
Message Signs (DMS), Highway Advisory Radio (HAR), Road Weather Information Systems (RWIS), and
vehicle sensors. The field communications infrastructure category i
ncludes field switches, access points,
and cellular modems. The central communications infrastructure category includes switches, servers
and workstations. This section provides information about each of these categories to begin laying out
the requirement
s for a communications system.

3.1.1.


ITS
Field Devices

Outside of District 3, the NMDOT Statewide ITS field device inventory currently includes CCTVs and HAR.
(District 3 infrastructure is covered by the AMPA series of documents) There are no existing RWIS
s
tations, DMSs, or vehicle sensors in the Statewide planning area (defined as districts 1, 2, 4, 5, and 6).

Not accurate


DMSs are located in Gallup, NM

The HARs are accessed through the traditional telephone network to modify messages broadcast
through th
e HAR system. This allows operators to dial into the HAR system to change or activate
messages.

Cameras have been deployed in District 4 and District 5, as shown in Table 1. District 4 operates four
cameras and District 5 currently operates two cameras.

These cameras provide IP
-
based video through a
video encoder and a cellular modem at each site.

Need to account for cameras at the following areas:
District 2


US
84/285 in Vaughn
,

NM

(DSL


Plateau)
;
District 6


I
-
40 @
Continental
Divide

(CDMA)
;
Distri
ct 6


US
550

@ Continental Divide

(GSM)
; District 4


I
-
25 at Raton Pass

(GSM)
;

District 5



US
84/285 @ NM 502

(CDMA)
;
District 5


I
-
25

& Cerrillos Road (CDMA)


All six cameras have public static IP’s, and the video feeds can be obtained readily by any
of the districts.
The feeds are also sent to NMDOTs ITS road condition website NMRoads.

Location

Communication Type

District

Interstate 40/
Santa Rosa West
Interchange

DSL

-

Plateau

District 4

Interstate 40/
Santa Rosa East
Interchange

D
SL

-

Plateau

District 4

Interstate 40/
Tucumcari West
Interchange

Cellular

District 4

Interstate 40/
Tucumcari East
Interchange

DSL

-

Qwest

District 4

Communications Implementation Plan

NMDOT ITS

5


04/09/2010


Location

Communication Type

District

Interstate 40/ State Route 285
Interchange

DSL

-

Plateau

District 5

Interstate 25/ Mi
le Marker 298

Glorietta

Cellular

District 5

Table
1
. Existing Statewide Cameras

3.1.2.

Field

Communications

Infrastructure

The NMDOT ITS field infrastructure consists of analog telephone lines (serving HAR sites) and cellular
modems (serv
ing CCTV
s & DMSs
)

and digitial subscriber lines (serving CCTVs)
. Other than these
communication media, the NMDOT Statewide ITS communications field network has not been
developed. Because Statewide field devices have been deployed hundreds of miles awa
y from each
other and from district offices, installing dedicated field communication infrastructure to a single device
has been difficult and cost prohibitive.

3.1.3.

Central Infrastructure Category

The Statewide districts do not have TMCs. They each have work
stations connected to the internet to
pull video and push messages to HARs and DMSs.



4.

Requirements

The communications requirements for ITS must be based not only on the bandwidth requirements for
the various devices, but on the concept of operations for t
hem. Although a formal statewide concept of
operations has yet to be developed, the following operational requirements can be derived based on
discussions with NMDOT staff.

4.1.


Network Bandwidth, Redundancy
,
Reliability
and Site / Project
Requirements

T
he Statewide NMDOT ITS communications network has neither been designed nor deployed beyond a
handful of CCTV and HAR sites. This provides NMDOT an opportunity to design a network which
provides the desired bandwidth, redundancy, reliability, at a desirabl
e cost. The following sections will
outline network requirements for bandwidth, redundancy, and reliability.

In addition to the key requirements of the system, requirements related to individual project sites will
be discussed. Looking at individual site
requirements allow planners to investigate and choose the best
communications medium for future projects.

Communications Implementation Plan

NMDOT ITS

6


04/09/2010


4.1.1.

Bandwidth

Bandwidth is a critical component for every communications network. Bandwidth is measured as the
amount of data transferred over a given ti
me. For the device level, bandwidth is often measured in the
amount transferred per second. Communications service providers, however, set the maximum
bandwidth speed and sometimes charge by the amount used. Bandwidth should be considered for every
device

that is added to any network. With careful considerations of bandwidth, adding devices such as
cameras will not impede communications by other devices connected to the same network.

To understand the needs of the network each ITS device currently instal
led or proposed will need to be
analyzed for its individual bandwidth usage.
Table
2

is a list of devices installed by NMDOT and assigns a
bandwidth category for each device. The Low bandwidth usage category encompasses devices wh
ich
only require periodic data transfers, typically being when a central based system queries a device for
status or data. Medium bandwidth usage category devices require constant polling and transferring of
data less than 128 kilobytes per second (kbps).

High bandwidth usage includes devices that require
more than 128kbps.

Device

Bandwidth

Camera/Encoders (CCTV)

High

Road Weather Information Systems (RWIS)

Medium

Dynamic Message Signs (DMS)

Low

Highway Advisory Radios (HAR)

Low

Vehicle Speed Sensors
/Counters
(RTMS/MVDS/Autoscope)

Medium

Table
2
. ITS Device Bandwidth Category

CCTV cameras typically are the most bandwidth intensive devices. Depending on how the
camera/encoder is configured video data can overwhelm a network co
nnection if improperly
configured. When deploying a camera the communications type and video quality configuration must be
optimized for the available bandwidth. For example existing NMDOT State CCTVs have been deployed
using dedicated cellular modems. Cel
lular modems vary in the amount of upstream bandwidth and
range from 56kb/s to 512kb/s based on location. CCTV encoders can be
configured in various fashions
(
modifying video
frame rate,
video feed rate, video
CIF size, number of allowable users,
…) all of
which
affect
the amount of bandwidth used
, which in turn,

typically impacts
image quality as well as

the
camera's response
to
Pan Tilt and Zoom

commands
.

Road Weather Information Systems (RWIS) and Remote T
raffic Microwave Sensors (RTMS)
(I thought
RTMS is a proprietary name


old EIS, now ISS

-

just as MVDS is that for Wavetronix
, is that correct
?)
are
classified as medium bandwidth usage devices. These devices are often set to send data at
predetermined in
tervals or polled by a central computer. Since these devices rely on a constant amount
Communications Implementation Plan

NMDOT ITS

7


04/09/2010


of data transfer to function correctly bandwidth utilization must be factored when adding additional
units.

Dynamic Message Signs (DMS) and Highway Advisory Radios (HAR
) use the lowest amount of bandwidth
when compared to other ITS devices. DMSs and HARs only have data transfer when actively managed.
For example data is only transferred when a DMS sign needs a new message displayed or it is queried by
a user. HARs also o
nly require data transfers when a new message is uploaded or the device is actively
managed. One caveat is that some HARs may be hooked up to analog phone lines which do not have any
bandwidth requirement as the HAR is controlled via voice commands and tel
ephone touch tone signals.

Key Requirements



Verify the current bandwidth usage throughout all major communication links.



During the planning process of new projects, bandwidth consumption of new devices with
current infrastructure must be considered.

4.1.2.

Red
undancy

Redundancy is the concept of deploying additional network or communications infrastructure that is
configured to ensure continued operations if the primary communications infrastructure is offline.
Networks are designed with redundancy in mind whe
n loss of connectivity can lead to significant
disruptions during both normal and emergency operations as redundancy has the potential to greatly
increase cost. Redundancy concerns apply both for center
-
to
-
center communications (i.e., between
TMCs) and fo
r field
-
to
-
center communications (i.e., between field devices and a TMC).

From a center to center communications perspective, i.e. if District 1 operated a satellite TMC which
pulled its data from the TMC at District 3, it would not be cost effective to p
hysically install new fiber
between the offices due to the distance. Instead the offices most likely will be connected through a T
-
1
line provided by a private telecommunications provider

(Are you describing a frame relay here? If so,
because we are now
separated and operate on different switches, each would have to VPN into the
other)
. The T
-
1 may have service level agreements related to service up
-
time, but this would not
increase the redundancy of the link in the event of a failure. Possible solutions
to provide redundancy
would be to install a backup T
-
1 or a synchronous Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) to provide data
connectivity if the primary T
-
1 fails. Again, installing backup lease lines will add to the overall monthly
communications costs for each
district. One possible low cost consideration could be the use of the
existing agency data communications provided by NMDOT IT between the various districts as a viable
solution for backup connections

(see comment above)

. This linkage would likely need
to be used for
critical communications only as the NMDOT infrastructure would not be sized for center to center ITS
communications but could support critical operations during a failure.

For field devices, redundancy can be achieved by having multiple comm
unications types to a device. For
example, if a camera or DMS were critical to operations, a DSL line could be installed as its primary
communications link with a cellular modem for backup. Another possibility would be to use two cellular
modems

provided
by different wireless communications companies

if one of the devices or services
Communications Implementation Plan

NMDOT ITS

8


04/09/2010


failed. Thus, if one provider is having issues with its network, the other modem will most likely be able
to provide data. Again, note decisions regarding redundancy must be
tempered by a determination of
how critical operations for a device are as redundancy increases the cost and complexity of the various
field systems.


Key Requirements



Redundancy by using multiple links between sites.



Build network redundant paths using a
lternate communications mediums.



Attempt to create physical fiber communications rings with new projects if cost effective

4.1.3.

Reliabilit
y

Reliability is the availability of the network to provide service to the users. Reliability of networks has
increasingly
become essential for ITS a
s agencies continue to integrate a diverse range of devices
,

install
them onto existing communications networks
, and rely on them for ongoing traffic management and
operations
.

An existing communications network may have been reli
able with the originally
-
designed ITS
network, but may become unreliable as new technology stresses the usage levels. Failures in network
reliability can be attributed to:



Network Architecture



Human Error



Accidents/Environmental Hazards


Network Architectu
re is the backbone of how devices are interconnected. If the architecture of the
network is flawed in its design and implementation, the network will not be reliable. Unfortunately
human error is inevitable in all networks. Once networks are in place equi
pment may be tampered with,
upgraded incorrectly or rearranged in a way to impact reliability. Finally, accidents and environmental
hazards do occur which often take down networks. Cables cut, vaults are damaged or antennas are
damaged from windblown objec
ts. All these items plus many more affect network reliability.
Consequently, the communications plan should address these issues proactively, with a robust network
architecture and contingencies to address human error and accidents and environmental hazard
s.

Unlike District 3, the other statewide districts do not have the fiber infrastructure to connect ITS devices.
At a statewide level, the most cost
-
effective way to communicate with devices to date has been via
cellular data modems

or with DSL service
.
When using cellular modems for communications certain
reliability considerations must be

taken into account
. First, the infrastructure is entirely owned by other
entities. Issues beyond the modem or antenna are largely up to the carriers’ discre
tion to fix and if fixes
are implemented they will be implemented within a carrier’s timeline. The second major issue of using
cellular is that connectivity can be impacted due to time of day or nearby events due to the shared
capacity of nearby towers. Du
e to these issues devices at critical locations should be migrated to
, where
available,

other, more reliable, communication mediums.

Key Requirements

Communications Implementation Plan

NMDOT ITS

9


04/09/2010




Develop a plan to minimize the effect of human error or other hazards which may affect the
network.



Migrat
e devices deemed critical for operations away from cellular data delivery technology if
possible.

4.1.4.

Individual Site/Project Requirements

Beyond the key requirements which focus on the entire system, this section will focus on the
communications requirements

of individual projects and device sites. These requirements will be used
to influence the communications technology selection for any new ITS deployment.

Communication technologies will be assessed to contrast the different available communication
medium
s as well as its ability to meet certain requirements in later sections of this document. The
overview of each technology will allow project designers to implement communication technologies
which are applicable to individual projects. Within each requirem
ent, the technologies will be rated as
low
,

medium
or
high depending on the following requirements matrix, as shown in
Table
3
.


Requirement

Low

Medium

High

Maturity of the Technology

New technology


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Communications Implementation Plan

NMDOT ITS

10


04/09/2010


Requirement

Low

Medium

High

equipment that would
reside on a
n

NMDOT
or state owned
Wide
Area Network
,
meaning

if
communication was
lost,
port
s

on some
network switches
could

be reconfigured
to regai
n access?

Are
you referring to
equipment that we'd
have an ample supply
in our shelf inventory
on which to swap
things out?

Reliability

As
-
is service

NMDOT Owned
Equipment

Guaranteed via Service
Agreement or
Manufacturer

Location A
vailability

Major Construction


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Table
3
. Indivi
dual Project Requirements Matrix

The first requirement to compare technologies is the maturity of the communications type. Determining
the maturity of the network communications type allows project designers to select the correct
technology. For example ne
wer technologies often offer increased speeds and ease of install but are not
proven as a reliable communications medium in an ITS operational environment. However, newer
technologies should not be dismissed just because they are new.

Another important req
uirement to consider is the maintenance needs of the type of communications.
The frequency of maintenance will impact ongoing costs as well as staff time. Depending on how remote
the site, monthly maintenance needs can become a large burden on Districts.

T
he next consideration is costs, both for implementation and the ongoing monthly costs. Generally
communications with high implementation costs have very low or no monthly recurring costs and vice
Communications Implementation Plan

NMDOT ITS

11


04/09/2010


versa. These two requirements are based on the amount of p
roject budget and district maintenance
budget.

Bandwidth, redundancy and reliability are essentially the same when comparing a system requirement
as when determining individual site requirements.

The final requirement is location availability, which ofte
n is the core requirement for defining which
communication medium is used. Especially in rural areas, if the technology cannot reach or is
nonexistent at a site, the technology cannot be used. The next best technology that is available must
then be chosen.



5.

Technology and Opportunities Assessment

Multiple communication technologies are available to each district. Each communication type has its
own advantages, limitations, and problems. For example, some provide high speed communications but
are expensive
to deploy. In addition certain technologies are limited in their transmission range and
installation distance. This section will provide details into communications technologies that are
available to NMDOT districts to install and lease.

Standard communi
cation technologies will be assessed to contrast the different available
communication mediums as well as their ability to meet certain requirements. The overview of each
technology will allow project designers to implement communication technologies which

are best suited
for individual projects.

Each communication technology will be compared against the requirements discussed in previous
sections. Within each requirement, the technologies will be rated as low, medium, or high.

5.1.

Lease
d

lines

Leased lines a
re categorized as any wire
-
based communications provided by a telephone company or a
3
rd

party service provider. Examples include T
-
1, DSL, Fiber, Cable and Dialup packages. Each is provided
by service providers, who provide the communications service, mai
ntenance, and support for an
ongoing monthly service charge. Service providers include telephone companies, value added resellers
of telephone company services, internet service providers, and cable companies. Each type of provider
essentially offers a dat
a pipe with different features, price ranges, and markets.

The primary benefit of each type of leased line is that the installation, maintenance and operation are
through the provider. Any issues on the provider’s side of the service demarcation point are

the
responsibility of the provider. However, the timeframe for repair can differ between technologies and
providers; different maintenance timeframes are often sold as options as part of the service provider
contracts. For example telephone companies prov
ide service level agreements for T
-
1 and sometimes
DSL services; for a fee, the telephone company will guarantee a specific up
-
time and response time. If
the up
-
time or response time contracted for are not met, then the customer receives a specified refund
.

Communications Implementation Plan

NMDOT ITS

12


04/09/2010


Leased lines also provide a wide range of speeds at different price points. Leased lines range from
analog dialup speeds of 30kbps through digital T
-
1 lines with 1.5 Mbps and beyond with the costs scaling
in parallel to bandwidth.

The first issue with

a lease line is the monthly recurring costs since the communication infrastructure is
owned by a provider. T
-
1 service charges average around $700 per month for ongoing service and can
be more expensive with added options. DSL and dialup lines are signifi
cantly cheaper but have lower
upstream bandwidth in the range of 30kbps to 1Mbps (depending on distance from telephone company
central offices) when compared to a T
-
1 which is synchronous 1.5Mps up and downstream. The next
major issue is the availability
of the actual lease line. For a site to receive lease line connectivity a
provider must have wire available nearby. Even if wire is available it must be qualified to serve the
location. For example, DSL service locations need to be less than 15,000 ft from

the central office to
qualify for the lowest speed

(should this be highest speed? Are you
referring

to a demarcation instead of
central office?)
. However such technologies such as T
-
1 and Dialup are not limited to distance but only
by availability of tele
phone service.

Table
4

categorizes generic lease line type and compares them to clearly demonstrate what each
communication technology can provide.

Requirement

T
-
1

DSL/Cable

Dialup

Maturity of the Technology

High


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Communications Implementation Plan

NMDOT ITS

13


04/09/2010


Requirement

T
-
1

DSL/Cable

Dialup

Redundancy

Low


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Table
4
. Lease Line Communications Re
quirements Matrix

5.2.

Cellular Wireless

Cellular wireless provides data connectivity through carrier specific modems. The modems communicate
with cellular radio towers which provide voice and data service to the surrounding area. Deploying a
cellular modem is
the easiest and fastest way to provide communication to field devices. The device and
monthly service costs are relatively low and do not require any construction or infrastructure
modification by any of the Statewide Districts. Thus this has become a popu
lar option for
communicating with ITS devices around the country.

The downside to cellular for ITS related projects is that it uses shared private infrastructure. Most
cellular providers use the same tower and tower bandwidth for both voice and data commu
nications. If
an emergency occurs, voice traffic often overtaxes the available tower bandwidth, leading to
unavailability of data communication for that the tower. Any field device utilizing the impacted tower
will lose network connectivity. In addition to

communications loss, carries have begun implementing
bandwidth usage limitations. For example Verizon Wireless provides 5GB/month of transfer and any
overages are charged by a per megabyte metered rate. If the modem is used at a location where high
amount
s of bandwidth are used, the monthly cost for service will be much higher than the normal
service costs.
Table
5

below lists the different plans among various cellular data providers.


Regarding below, we are paying $
66

per /month

with AT&T
unlimited (though the key is upload not
download)

Carrier

Monthly Price

Monthly Max Download

AT&T Plan 1

$35

200MB

AT&T Plan 2

$60

5GB

Communications Implementation Plan

NMDOT ITS

14


04/09/2010


Sprint

$59

5GB

Verizon

$59

5GB

Verizon (Unpublished Plan)

$109

10GB

Table
5
. Ce
llular Data Provider Pricing

In its current form, third generation (3G) cellular services provide theoretical download speeds of
approximately 3
-
14Mbps and uploads of 1.8
-
5Mbps depending on the provider’s equipment. Real
world speeds are much lower and r
ange from 0.5
-
3Mbps download and 0.1
-
1Mbps upload. The
fluctuations are due to the type of equipment used by cellular providers, data transfer overhead, and
ultimately, the current data load of the cellular towers.

Latency on 3G networks also vary dependin
g on the cellular technology used and the current cell tower
load. Real world latency often ranges from 100 to 300ms. However, latency can increase to 1000
-
4000ms when bandwidth is over utilized between the modem and tower.

Over the next few years, cellul
ar service providers will be upgrading their networks to fourth generation
(4G) services which promise to increase both download and upload speeds. In addition to speed
improvements providers will be able to provide a lower latency connection and increased

capacity at
cellular towers to handle increased data loads. Providers have indicated that they will begin deploying
and selling services to their 4G networks the second half of 2010 in select markets.

5.3.

Fixed Wireless Internet Service Provider

Fixed Wirele
ss communications is essentially a point to point wireless link with service sold by a Wireless
Internet Service Provider (WISP). The wireless devices are installed and maintained by the contracted
WISP in the same way as a lease line. Wireless speeds are
dependent on location and the service level
procured. In general fixed wireless T
-
1 speeds can be obtained around the same monthly rate as a wire
based T
-
1. The drawback of fixed wireless is that it is only available in certain areas of New Mexico. In
addi
tion, direct visual line of sight must be established to maintain a solid connection. Providers will
often prequalify the location using signal radius maps but final availability depends on individual onsite
surveys.

The number of fixed wireless providers

is limited. Providers must have an antenna within the area to
provide wireless services to a specific coverage area. CNSP Wireless and Lobo Internet Services provide
service in New Mexico to the cities and regions shown in
Table
6
.

Roswell


We are in discussions with PVT (Penasco Valley Telecommunications) for communications
with a DMS about to be installed there.

Area

CNSP Wireless

Lobo Internet Services

Albuquerque

Yes

Yes

Communications Implementation Plan

NMDOT ITS

15


04/09/2010


Area

CNSP Wireless

Lobo Internet Services

Cerrillos

Yes


Edgewood


Yes

Eldorado

Yes


Espan
ola Areas

Yes


Estancia


Yes

Galisteo

Yes


Highway 14

Yes


La Cienega

Yes


La Terra

Yes


La Velarde

Yes


Lamy Area

Yes


Las Campanas

Yes


Los Alamos

Yes


Macintosh


Yes

Moriarty


Yes

Pojoaque Pueblo

Yes


Rio Rancho


Yes

San Ildefonso Pueblo

Y
es


Santa Fe

Yes

Yes

Tesuque Pueblo

Yes


White Rock

Yes


Table
6
. Fixed Wireless Provider General Availability

Pricing for fixed wireless communications, as with all communications technologies, varies depending on
the service
level. Listed in
Table
7

and
Table
8

below are samples of business packages offered by the
two Fixed Wireless Providers in New Mexico. The monthly costs vary greatly between providers because
Communications Implementation Plan

NMDOT ITS

16


04/09/2010


of the servi
ce level of the connection. Lobo Wireless states that it can provide synchronous speeds as
well as 99.9% uptime whereas CNSP Wireless does not. These two differences in service level drastically
increase the costs but provide solid bandwidth and reliabili
ty to connected devices.

Speed (Synchronous)

Monthly Price

Installation

256 Kb/s

$129

$395

1.5 Mb/s

$450

$395

4 Mb/s

$750

$395

Table
7
. Lobo Wireless Sample Pricing


Speed (Download
-

Upload)

Monthly Price (Service + Equipment)

Installation

768 Kb/s


768⁋bIV

$59

$169

1⸵.MbIV


1 MbIV

$69

$169

5⁍bI猠


2⁍bIV

$149

$169

Table
8
. CNSP Wireless Sample Pricing

5.4.

Satellite Based Internet Communications

There are several companies offering satellite based
communications solutions. Each are based on the
principle of using an onsite satellite dish to transfer and receive data to an orbiting satellite, which relays
the data to a land
-
based network operations center connected to the internet. This allows sites
to be
linked to the internet from any location in the state with an unobstructed south facing view.

There are limitations to this technology which may prevent it from being used for ITS installations within
the state. The primary limitation is the latency
, or the time it takes data to be transmitted, of the
connection. Satellite providers emphasize that their service should not be used for latency sensitive
applications. Latency in a satellite link begins at 500ms and increases as traffic loads increase on

the
satellite. The latency cannot be reduced due to the distance the data needs to travel.

Another limitation is that the satellite dish requires an unobstructed south
-
facing view. Normally if
installed correctly in a temperate climate area, this would n
ot be a problem. However, due to New
Mexico seasonal climate changes, snow may accumulate on the dish, which would affect the
performance of the system.

Similar to cellular technologies, satellite providers also cap the amount of bandwidth used. The caps
vary between plans as shown in
Table
9
,
Table
10
, and
Table
11

below. Data usage beyond the caps are
metered at a per megabyte rate.

Communications Implementation Plan

NMDOT ITS

17


04/09/2010


Below are three pricing examples for three
different satellite data providers.

Speed (Download
-

Upload)

Monthly Price (Service
+ Static IP)

Installation

Daily Download Max

1.6 Mb/s


250 䭢OV

$100

$300

500MB

2⁍bI猠


300⁋bIV

$130

$300

500MB

3⁍bI猠


512⁋bIV

$200

$300

500MB

Table
9
. HughesNet Business Sample Pricing


Speed (Download
-

Upload)

Monthly Price

Installation (Estimated)

Monthly Max
(Download


Upload)

1.5 Mb/s


256 䭢OV

$130

$150

24 䝂G


6 䝂

Table
10
. Wild Blue Skylink Sample Pric
ing


Speed (Download
-

Upload)

Monthly Price

Installation (Estimated
Equipment +
Installation)

Monthly Max
(Download


Upload)

1.5 Mb/s


256 䭢OV

$250

$700

7䝂G


7GB

4⁍bI猠


512⁋bIV

$700

$2000

20 䝂G


20⁇

Table
11
. Broad Sk
y Networks Enterprise Sample Pricing


Table
12

compares the various wireless and satellite technologies.



Requirement

Cellular Technology

Wireless Internet
Service Provider

Satellite Technology

Maturity of the Technology

Medium



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Communications Implementation Plan

NMDOT ITS

18


04/09/2010


Requirement

Cellular Technology

Wireless Internet
Service Provider

Satellite Technology

evolve

Still many issues with
technology.

Maintenance Needs

Low
-

No maintenance
required unless
modem is broken.

Low


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Table
12
. Wireless Communications Requirements Matrix




5.5.

NMDOT Wire Based Communications

Communications Implementation Plan

NMDOT ITS

19


04/09/2010


Another option is for NMDOT to install its own wire
-
based communications. Depending on the
communications medium this will allow NMDO
T the greatest amount of bandwidth and control over the
communications network. For example, fiber communications can provide up to 1 gigabit/s of
bandwidth over a pair of fiber. With multiple pairs, the amount of bandwidth and reliability can be
increased
.

If copper twisted pair is available it can also be used to provide bandwidth up to 40 Mbps using off the
shelf Ethernet extenders. This allows districts to utilize existing infrastructure to provide IP connectivity
to existing and planned devices.

Ownin
g large scale communication infrastructure does have its drawbacks. Initial costs for installation of
cable, equipment and cabinets can be very high depending on the density of new devices and the
distance the cables must be installed. Once completed, dist
ricts must be able to maintain and repair any
failures. Maintenance staff may not have the expertise so districts might need to contract the work to
contractors.

NMDOT should also contact other public agencies to borrow or lease available unused fiber. Ag
encies
often design and install large bundles of fiber with much of the bundle remaining unused. If districts
have this opportunity this would greatly reduce the cost of deploying a high speed network.

Table
13

below shows a matri
x listing Wire Based Communications Requirements.

Requirement

Twisted Pair


Ethernet Extender

Fiber

Maturity of the Technology

Medium


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Communications Implementation Plan

NMDOT ITS

20


04/09/2010


Requirement

Twisted Pair


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Fiber

Bandwidth (upload)

M
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Table
13
. Wire Based Communications Requirements Matrix

5.6.

NMDOT Wireless Based Communications

NMDOT districts have a wide range of wireless options that can be implemented to provide
communications to field devices. As with ev
ery communications medium, the type of wireless
technologies deployed depend on the required bandwidth, number of sites and distance between sites.

District 3 has implemented some point

to
-
point sites based on 802.11 technologies which use
unlicensed radi
o frequencies. This is the same technology used in home Wireless LAN networking but
utilizes directional antennas to span larger distances. Depending on obstructions, antenna type, and
distances speeds for this type of wireless can reach up to 54megabit/s.

Under ideal conditions links can
reach 2
-
5 miles. Depending on the project requirement, the radios can be configured to provide point to
point as well as point to multipoint links. Point to multipoint links allow multiple devices to be
connected to a cent
ral location where the data can be backhauled to central thus reducing the backhaul
communications requirements. 802.11 based radios are also relatively inexpensive to procure and install
when compared to traditional wire
-
based communications. The equipmen
t can be installed on existing
poles or buildings without the need for extensive construction and trenching.

( What
we a
ctually
have
deployed is
a hybrid system of Wi
-
FI and WiMax 802.16

in the Bernalillo area and Microwave

radios for
some wireless hops i
n the ABQ area to accommodate sensors)

Communications Implementation Plan

NMDOT ITS

21


04/09/2010


802.11 wireless technologies do have limitations, however. As with any wireless technology,
interference with the wireless path can disrupt the communications link. The result is lost packets and
sometimes downtime wh
ile the link re
-
associates. Weather also affects this technology in that rain
degrades the wireless signal, which can again lead to connection disruptions.

Other wireless technologies include licensed wireless devices to create wireless links. Since the
f
requency is licensed there is less interference from radios using the same frequency. Within the
licensed radio product arena there are numerous devices that use many different frequencies. Many of
these devices use very low frequencies which are not affe
cted by rain and can provide gigabit speeds at
distances over 3 miles with very high reliability.

Table
14

below shows a matrix listing Wireless Communications Requirements.

Requirement

802.11 WLAN

Unlicensed
Proprietary

Licensed

Proprietary

Maturity of the Technology

Medium


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Communications Implementation Plan

NMDOT ITS

22


04/09/2010


Requirement

802.11 WLAN

Unlicensed
Proprietary

Licensed

Proprietary

Bandwidth (upload)

High


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Table
14
. Wireless Communications

Requirements Matrix


6.

Short Term Implementation

In the short
-
term, NMDOT will need to focus on a cohesive plan to provide communication to existing
and future projects statewide. Since the statewide infrastructure has not been developed NMDOT can
implement

a communications plan which meets its current communications requirements. The
following section details recommended technologies for particular ITS devices, possible test projects,
and a short term plan to manage the communications between districts.

6.1.

R
ecommended technologies

This section will recommend specific communications types for various ITS devices used by NMDOT.
These recommendations will also include alternate communication types and detail any compromises
with using the alternative.

Generally
, in the short term, any new ITS device communication integration will not include installing
NMDOT owned fiber. Due to the vast distances between devices and district offices, installing fiber
would be very costly. There is a possibly that some projects m
ight benefit from utilizing NMDOT
-
owned
point
-
to
-
point wireless, depending on distances from NMDOT district offices. For the most part, though,
the recommendations will focus on securing communications through private service providers.

Communications Implementation Plan

NMDOT ITS

23


04/09/2010


Each of the commu
nication types will be listed in order with the first being the recommended
technology. Each technology will have notes detailing their individual advantages and disadvantages for
the particular ITS device. In addition to the listed communication a generic

decision tree is also included
to provide further detail of communication type section based on device usage.

6.1.1.

CCTV

Due to the high upload bandwidth requirement
Table
15

lists recommended communications
technologies.

Type

Advant
age

Disadvantage

Lease Line (DSL/Cable)

Solid relatively fast connections

Not Always Available

Fixed Wireless

Solid relatively fast connections

Not Always Available

Cellular

Readily available along most
Highways

Slow upload and high latency for
Camera
PTZ control.

Satellite

Readily available with clear
south facing view

Slow upload and extremely high
latency Camera PTZ control.

T
-
1 Lease Line

Solid Fast Connection

Expensive for single sites and
Not Always Available

Table
15
.

Recommended Communications for CCTV


Communications Implementation Plan

NMDOT ITS

24


04/09/2010


Camera Communications
Full Motion Video Streams
Snapshot Video
DSL
Cellular
I
f

N
o
Satelite
I
f

N
o
I
f

N
o
I
f

N
o
Fixed Wireless
DSL
I
f

N
o
I
f

N
o
Cellular
Satellite
T
-
1
Lease Line

Figure
3
. Camera Communication Decision Tree

6.1.2.

Road Weather Information Systems & Vehicle Speed Sensors

Both RWIS devices and vehicle speed sensors are capable of constantly streaming real
-
time

data, though
the amount of bandwidth used is much less than video from cameras.
Table
16

lists recommended
communication types for these two devices.

Type

Advantage

Disadvantage

Lease Line (DSL/Cable)

Solid relatively fast con
nections

Not Always Available

Cellular

Readily available along most
Highways

High latency but has been used
widely for RWIS/RTMS
installations

Fixed Wireless

Solid relatively fast connections

Not Always Available, Expensive
for this application

Satell
ite

Readily available with clear
south facing view

Slow upload and very high
latency. May affect data.

T
-
1 Lease Line

Solid Fast Connection

Expensive for the amount of
data transferred by RWIS/RTMS
and Not Always Available

Table
16
. Recommended Communications for RTMS & RWIS

Communications Implementation Plan

NMDOT ITS

25


04/09/2010



RTMS
/
RWIS
Constant Polling
Low Periodic Polling
DSL
Cellular
I
f

N
o
I
f

N
o
I
f

N
o
Cellular
DSL
I
f

N
o
I
f

N
o
Fixed Wireless
Satellite
T
-
1
Lease Line

Figure
4
. RTMS/RWIS Communication Decision Tree

6.1.3.

Dynamic Message Signs

Dynamic Message Signs (DMS) use very little bandwidth. Most installations only require communication
when the
sign is turned on and off.
Table
17

lists recommended communications for DMS locations.

Type

Advantage

Disadvantage

Dialup

Inexpensive but is the most cost
effective for the bandwidth
requirement of these devices

Not Always Avail
able

Lease Line (DSL/Cable)

Solid relatively fast connections

Not Always Available

Cellular

Readily available along most
Highways

High latency

Satellite

Readily available with clear
south facing view

Very high latency

Fixed Wireless

Solid relatively

fast connections

Not always available, Expensive
for this application

Communications Implementation Plan

NMDOT ITS

26


04/09/2010


T
-
1 Lease Line

Solid Fast Connection

Expensive for the amount of
data transferred by RWIS/RTMS
and Not Always Available

Table
17
. Recommended Communications
for DMS

DMS
I
f

N
o
I
f

N
o
DSL
Dialup
I
f

N
o
I
f

N
o
Cellular
Satellite
Fixed Wireless
I
f

N
o
T
-
1
Lease Line

Figure
5
. DMS Communication Decision Tree

(One of the things we are
moving toward

at both remote locations
and

in the abq area where DMSs are outside of our camera’s view is installing a boom extending from the face
of th
e sign (~12
-
15ft) and fixed camera
for message verification

and weekly sign testing


we
are not using
dialup at any location)

6.1.4.

Highway Advisory Radio

Highway Advisory Radios (HAR) are traditionally controlled by analog voice lines or dialup. This
continue
s to be the most reliable communication technology to control HAR’s. If an analog voice line is
not available Cellular can be used to virtualized a land line via equipment that converts cellular voice to
Plain Old Telephone Service (POTS) lines useable by
HAR systems. At this point there is no compelling
reason to move this technology to an IP based network.


Communications Implementation Plan

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27


04/09/2010




Type

Advantage

Disadvantage

Dialup/ Analog Voice

Inexpensive but is the most cost
effective and currently used for
all HAR locations within the
sta
te.

Not Always Available

Cellular

Readily available along most
Highways

More expensive than Dialup
monthly costs.

Table
18
. Recommended Communications for HAR

HAR
I
f

N
o
Cellular
Dialup
/
Analog Voice

Figure
6
. HAR Communication Decision Tre
e

(we’re using both CDMA and DSL for those to be depl
oyed along I
-
10).

We are not using dial
-
up at any location)

6.2.

Research and Test Projects

Because NMDOT is cost
-
constrained, districts must look into ways to reduce capital as well as ongoing
maintenance a
nd monthly costs while implementing new ITS devices. Especially in the more rural areas
cellular data is used because it is easily installed and coverage is widely available. Along with optimizing
use of cellular links a few other general research and test

projects are listed below. These projects can
be adapted to any location and district and presents alternatives to the more common communication
types discussed above.

Possible projects for individual districts based on provided lists of proposed ITS dev
ices and locations will
also be briefly outlined below. These projects were developed to showcase possible projects that would
begin implementation of ITS devices statewide.

Beyond selecting a communication type, infrastructure will need to be installed.
This is outside the
scope of this document but is worth noting. The project below all will require power, poles, cabinets and
ITS devices to be installed. The challenge is to implement all these items in areas where infrastructure
Communications Implementation Plan

NMDOT ITS

28


04/09/2010


does not exist beyond a h
ighway. To provide power, solar and batteries can be used but must be
designed for the climate conditions in the area.
(In remote locations, these carry the risk of vandalism
and theft).
Poles cabinets and ITS devices must be installed while considering e
nvironmental impacts.
Lastly ITS devices must be selected to best provide the needed information to operators. This may
include fixed cameras, low resolution solar cameras, low cost weather station and possibly wood post
mounted signs. These factors are no
t mentioned below but affect the design of the project and the final
selection of the communication type.

6.2.1.

General Projects

Cellular Links

When cellular is used, a single modem is often installed with a single ITS device. In order to gain
efficiencies, NMD
OT should look into linking multiple non
-
critical and low bandwidth ITS devices
together to use a single cellular modem. For example, if a speed sensor and a CMS are within a few
miles of each other, a point to point wireless link could be established. N
MDOT should install point to
point Fixed Wireless radios to share the cellular modem with the two sites, which would halve NMDOT’s
monthly communications costs for those locations.

Cellular coverage amongst the three largest carriers covers a vast majorit
y of populated areas. However,
if there is no coverage, ITS project designers can turn to satellite communications with the
understanding that satellite has limitations. As long as the installed satellite dish has an unobstructed
view of the southern hemi
sphere a link can be established. This technology may possibly provide
communications service in very remote areas where an ITS device is required. Since this technology is
seldom used for ITS device deployments NMDOT has an opportunity to test if this t
echnology is feasible
for future projects. The test would not need to be complex, but would ultimately need to determine if
this technology would benefit NMDOT device deployments. The test could be as simple as procuring the
service and hooking up the vari
ous types of NMDOT ITS devices and testing whether the devices
continue to function properly. The test will ultimately determine what devices are compatible with the
technology’s limitations.

Meteor Burst

Meteor burst communication technology can provides

a low bandwidth high latency communication link
to remote sites. This type of communication uses the ionized particles in the atmosphere left by meteors
to reflect radio waves which carry data packets. The remote site would use a radio and antenna to send

the data packets to a Master Station which is composed of a controller, radio, amplifier antenna.
Because this is infrastructure is installed by NMDOT there are no reoccurring costs other than periodic
maintenance.

Meteor burst communications is only cap
able of transferring a average of 4kbps of data. Thus it is only
acceptable for low bandwidth applications. Latency is approximately 10 minutes thus it is not usable to
many IP based applications.

Communications Implementation Plan

NMDOT ITS

29


04/09/2010


This technology would mainly be used for Remote Weather St
ations (RWIS) and possibly non critical
Automatic Closure Gates. This is due to the low bandwidth and the non latency critical requirements.
RWIS stations only need to periodically transfer small packets of data. Bandwidth for automatic closure
gates is al
so low due to packet transfer only when the gate is activated. Latency is not a problem as long
as operators understand that RWIS data or gate commands are delayed approximately by 10 minutes.

This technology is used by the New Mexico State University and

the Natural Resource Conservation
Service to gather data from their remote sensors for the Snowpack Telemetry (SNOTEL) program. There
are approximately 22 SNOTEL sites within the state of New Mexico. Since the system is operational and
a Master Station se
rvers the entire state, this is an excellent opportunity to deploy this technology for
rural ITS devices in the state and partner to use existing infrastructure and gain knowledge from other
agencies

Satellite Voice/ Low Bandwidth Data

One of the lesser us
ed technologies is to use Satellite voice and data systems based off of the Globalstar
company of satellites. These are the same satellite phones used in areas where there is no cellular or
landline coverage. This technology has evolved to now provide voic
e and data. The new fixed location
modems can mimic landline voice service and provide burst data communications. Burst data
communications is a 15 second session of data between the modem and satellites. The data plans
revolve around how many 15 second se
ssions of data is transferred as shown in the figure below. Data
speeds can reach up to 9.6 Kb/s which is very slow compared to dish based satellite services which
provide much higher bandwidth.

Communications Implementation Plan

NMDOT ITS

30


04/09/2010



Figure
7
. Globalstar Voice and Da
ta Burst Pricing


This solution can be viable for CMS, Automatic Gate Control, HAR, and low polling RWIS locations as
messages are send/received from them just a few times a day. For example if a CMS is turned on and off
four times a day that would equal 1
20 data burst sessions per month. This however, is dependent on the
amount of data sent by the software and how many times the software must communicate to the sign.

As HAR’s are traditionally controlled via a land line, this solution could also be used if

a land line is not
available. This would unburden the project from trenching or hanging phone wire to bridge the distance
from the nearest telephone pole to the project site.

UHF
-
VHF Data

UHF and VHF data modems which provide between 4.8kb/s and 19.2kb/s

of bandwidth can also be used
for low bandwidth ITS devices. The wireless spectrum that these communication modems operate under
license by the FCC and often used by law enforcement agencies. There are partnership opportunities
with agencies which own and

operate this frequency. These partnerships will allow for UHF/VHF
modems to be installed at ITS sites and provide both partnering agencies with information and device
control.

Communications Implementation Plan

NMDOT ITS

31


04/09/2010


Implementations of UHF/VHF data modems vary by the manufacturer of the modems
and central
equipment. Generally installations will require a wireless data modem and an antenna. The modems
provide a serial output to connect ITS field devices.

6.2.2.

District Projects

The following research and test projects are structured around various IT
S device future project lists in
Appendix A. The projects described below can be implemented in the short term. These projects all are
near each individual district offices and seek to provide recommendations for providing communications