Year 11 Case Studies


22 Φεβ 2014 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 4 μήνες)

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Year 11 Case Studies

Rivers and Coasts


causes, effects & management of river flooding in an MEDC


causes, effects & management of river flooding in an LEDC

River Tees

river valley & its landforms


coastal area & its landforms


coastline management including its reasons for protection,
measures taken, resulting effects & possible conflicts

Natural Hazards

Sichuan Earthquake

tectonic event in a LEDC

Mount Etna Volcano

tectonic event in a MEDC

Cyclone Nargis

climatic hazard in a LEDC

Australia Drought

climatic hazard in a MEDC

Economic Development

WaterAid in Mali

aid project in a LEDC

South East Brazil

factors that affect location of economic activity in



factors that affect location of economic activity in a MEDC

Nike in Vietnam

MNC investment in specific areas

Pearl River Delta

economic development and environmental

MEDC Flooding



Over 60 mm of rainfall (typically a month's rainfall) fell in two hours.

The ground was already saturated due to the previous two weeks of above average

The drainage basin has many steep slopes, and has areas of impermeable slate causing
rapid surface run

Background: A flash flood on 16

August 2004 in the small village in North Cornwall


is at the confluence (where tributaries meet) of three rivers

, Jordan, and Paradise. A large quantity of
water all arrived within a short space of time causing the rivers to overflow.

The flooding coincided with a high tide, making the impact worse.




Homes swept away

Cars swept away

No lives lost

rapid response by
emergency services

People trapped in buildings

Stress and

anxiety of local people

Income lost

from tourism

90% of
income comes from it in summer

Huge number of insurance claims

£20 million

25 business properties destroyed

Visitor centre destroyed

Trees were uprooted

and swept into
peoples’ gardens

周攠e敩杨琠潦 瑨攠eaW敲e敲潤敤 物r敲e
banks, damaged gardens and

Roads and bridges were blocked off

Burst sewage pipes


Immediate: Emergency services responded speedily and efficiently

helicopters lifted 80 people off rooftops

Long term: In order to reduce the flood risk in the future a £4.6 million flood scheme was completed by 2008,
improvements include:

River bed deepened by six foot so more water can be held in the channel

Raised car park so above flood level

Increased drainage

Channel widened so can hold more water and create slower flow

Remove vegetation from the channel, but
encourage landowners to plant trees on
valley sides

Build new flood defences

LEDC Flooding


Background: Bangladesh is one of the world's most densely populated countries. It has

has a population of 125m inhabitants. The Ganges

& the Brahmaputra run through Bangladesh. It experiences
floods and tropical storms every year and a particularly bad year was 1998.



Human Causes

Most of the country consists of a huge flood plain and delta

70% of the total area is less than 1 metre above sea level

卮潷m敬e 晲潭o瑨攠e業慬ay慳at慫敳ep污l攠en 污t攠ep物湧r☠

Bangladesh experiences heavy monsoon rains, especially
over the highlands

Tr潰楣慬ast潲m猠b物湧⁨rav礠r慩a猠慮d c潡ot慬a晬潯d楮i

周攠浡楮 c慵獥sw慳a瑨攠慢潶攠av敲慧攠e 汯n朠p敲楯搠潦
h敡v礠r慩a 睨楣h c慵獥s 慬氠a 物r敲猠t漠oav攠瑨e楲ip敡e 晬潷

䑥f潲敳ta瑩潮t楮⁎数慬a慮d 瑨攠䡩浡污y慳a楮ir敡獥猠牵r 潦映
慮d 慤d猠t漠o数潳楴楯渠慮d 晬潯d楮i d潷ns瑲敡e

啲U慮楳i瑩潮t潦 瑨攠晬潯d p污楮⁨慳l楮ir敡獥e m慧a楴id攠☠
frequency of floods

The building of dams in India has increased the problem of
sedimentation in Bangladesh

䝬Gb慬aw慲a楮i 楳⁢污l敤 f潲 獥愠汥v敬e物r攬 楮ir敡獥e 獮潷
m敬e ☠楮ir敡獥e r慩af慬氠楮 瑨攠r敧楯n

P潯牬礠m慩at慩a敤 敭b慮歭敮瑳t(汥v敥猩s汥慫 ☠&潬污l獥s楮i
瑩t敳e潦 h楧i d楳捨慲ge


Over 57% of the land area was flooded

Ov敲eㄳ〰 p敯灬e w敲攠歩汬敤


㈵ m楬汩潮op敯灬e w敲攠m慤攠桯浥汥獳l

周敲攠w慳a愠獥物su猠獨潲t慧攠潦 d物湫楮i wat敲e☠dr礠

Diseases spread such as


䅳 瑨攠eat敲猠r散敤敤

楴i汥晴⁦楥汤猠潦 r潴瑩t朠cr潰猬

睲散k敤 r潡摳⁡nd b物摧敳e慮d d敳瑲oy敤 癩汬慧敳e

㈠m楬汩潮ot潮o敳e潦 物捥 w慳⁤敳瑲oy敤

ㄯ㈠浩汬楯n cat瑬t 慮d p潵汴o礠w敲攠汯s琠

Ov敲慬氠ah攠晬潯d猠c潳琠瑨攠e潵o瑲礠慬a潳琠␱ b楬汩潮o

Short Term Management

Boats to rescue people , Emergency supplies for food, water,
tents and medicines, Fodder for livestock

Repair and rebuild houses, as well as services such as
sewage etc , Aid from other countries

Long Term Management

Reduce Deforestation in Nepal & Himalayas

Build 7 large dams in Bangladesh to store excess water $30
million and 40 yrs to complete

Build 5000 flood shelters to accommodate all the population

Build 350km of embankment

7 metres high at a cost of $6 billion
to reduce flooding along the main river channels

Create flood water storage areas

River Landforms

River Tees

The river is unable to erode the hard rock as much as the underlying softer rock and therefore
the river plunges over the waterfall, it undercuts the weaker rock, creating an overhang, which
eventually collapses under its weight. The subsequent plunge pool is deepened by the
abrasion of loose pieces of rock. A few kilometres to the south
east of Darlington the River
Tees starts to meander through farmland. Here the river has more energy and a higher volume
of water. The gradient here is gentle and erosion is lateral rather than vertical as it was in the
upper section. As the river erodes laterally, to the right and left, it forms large bends that are
known as meanders. As the river reaches its mouth, just to the North of Middlesbrough, the
vast flat valley floor leads into an estuary. Formed by the flooding of river
eroded or glacially
scoured valleys, this area has been extensively developed for industry because of its wide river
mouth for its shipping and safe harbours.

The River Tees flows for 128km from its source high in the Pennine
Hills at Cross Fell to its mouth in the industrial conurbation of
, where it flows into the North Sea. The river exhibits many
classic landforms. In the upper section you will find High Force
waterfall, here the waterfall owes its formation to a band of hard rock
which cuts across the river valley.

LEDC Tectonic Hazard


Background detail: On 12

May 2008 at 2.28pm an earthquake struck measuring 7.9 on
the Richter scale. People were at work and school and out shopping in the southern
province of Sichuan in China.

: Along the Longmensham Fault line, which is a transform boundary ,where plates
move alongside one another, building up friction and pressure that eventually is released
as the earthquake

Primary effects
: the tremor lasting over 2 minutes that led to landslides occurring

Secondary effects
can be split into economic , social and environmental




69,172 dead

374, 159 injured

17, 420 missing

45 million affected

7000 schools destroyed

5.4 million homes destroyed

15 million buildings


5000km of pipes damaged

839 water tanks collapsed

1300 water treatment plants

2 chemical factories destroyed
spilling over 80 tonnes

of toxic liquid


It was a very slow response but eventually after 72 hours the Army were brought in to rescue people with the help of 29

It took millions of dollars of international aid to help the people of Sichuan, but there are many areas that are still piles



MEDC Tectonic Hazard

Mount Etna

Etna is a strato volcano that has formed as a result of repeated volcanic eruptions, it has
been erupting gently since 2001 but there was a significant eruption in Nov 2002.

Cause: the volcanic eruption was created by a convergent plate boundary. The denser
African plate was subducted under the Eurasian plate and it melted creating new magma
that was released in the explosion. There was also a series of earthquakes before the
eruption as the pressure and friction built up as the plate was subducted and was
eventually released.

Primary effects
: the release of magma, ash and gas

Secondary effects
can be split into economic , social and environmental




100 homes destroyed

Planes grounded

Crop damage

Restaurant and ski

lift destroyed


hectares of forest destroyed

There was significantly less damage than in a LEDC because of their ability to plan for the
hazard and respond to it. Responses included:

Government caused State of Emergency

People were evacuated away from the lava flows with the help of the Army

Medical ships were dispatched from mainland Italy

In the long term $5.6 million given to help people rebuild the area. This included tax breaks.

LEDC Climatic Hazard Cyclone Nargis

Beginning in April 2008 over the Bay of Bengal, the warm water caused rapid evaporation, as the
water vapour rose, cooled, condensed and formed clouds the Coriolis force meant the clouds
began to spin. The evaporation also caused the rapid onset of low pressure, which drew air in
from the sides and caused high wind speeds of up to 217mph. Alongside this, there was
torrential rain and storm surges.

When Cyclone Nargis eventually made landfall it did considerable damage, including 140, 000
dead, 450,000 homes destroyed making 2
3 million people homeless, 1700 schools destroyed,
200, 000 farm animals killed, $4 billion worth of damaged, crops destroyed and water became
polluted and toxic.

The response in Myanmar was heavily criticised. The national
government did not have the money to either prepare for the
cyclone initially, cope with the short term impacts or help people
in the long term to rebuild their lives. Additionally, for 3 weeks
Myanmar refused the help of international bodies such as the UN
and Red Cross as they did not want ‘outsiders’ to be in the
country. To begin with they even dropped leaflets, insisting that
people should stop taking the aid on offer to them.

MEDC Climatic Hazard

Australian Drought

Australia is prone to a number of climatic hazards and one that occurs regularly is severe

Caused by the a meteorological event called El Nino, Australia suffered from drought
particularly badly in 2002.

The El Nino effect is when normal atmospheric and ocean patterns switch so that
instead of the warm water being found off the west coast of Australia, this switched and
the trade winds now carried warmer water to the east cost of Peru and Chile. This
meant that they got the heavy rain as water evaporated, cooled and condensed and
Australia, with the cooler water, did not get this happening.

The effects of this can be split into economic, social and environmental:





to sell their home and move
elsewhere because could no longer
afford to live in the farming regions


failure led to both local and
national loss of income

Cattle and sheep died

People had to borrow large amounts
of money to buy food for their

Soil erosion due to the severe loss of


Dust storms

Water quality reduced because of
release of toxic algae

As Australia is an MEDC it can respond in a number of ways.

Hosepipe/sprinkler ban for certain things

such as watering the lawn

Time restrictions on water use during the day

Installed high technology irrigation systems to prevent unnecessary water loss

Move surplus water from some regions to other regions that need it

Monitor weather patterns via satellites etc. to predict when will need to start conserving water

Plant drought resistant crops

WaterAid in Mali

The Non Governmental Organisation (NGO) WaterAid was established in 1981, first
helping the country of Zambia. In 2000 it started projects in Mali and continues to
work in the country.

WaterAid prides itself on trying to promote sustainable living for the poorest of
nations. Mali comes into this category and is particularly vulnerable to problems
because of its harsh physical geography. It has very low rainfall and this is decreasing. It
is 65% desert already and desertification is increasing this all the time and only 50% of
people have access to a sustainable water supply.

WaterAid recognised that privatising water in Bamako, Mali’s capital, was leaving the poorest of people in
rural and urban areas without access. They wanted to the national government and other potential donors
that Mali could have a socially and economically stable water supply.

They did the following things to aid Mali

built a new water network

trained local people to manage the system

raised money to keep it working

encouraged investment by local people to start improving all the infrastructure

educated people about the importance of a clean water supply

The impact on people was huge, with the health benefits that came from clean water and sanitation having
a significant impact on making the local people stronger and able to attend school and work and thus
encouraging economic growth into the future.

Economic Activity in U.K (S.E.)

Primary Industry

Secondary Industry

Tertiary Industry

Quaternary Industry

Top farm, Huntingdon, is 200 hectares in size and is run as an
agribusiness. On the flat Eastern counties of England, arable
farming is the main activity because of the favourable physical and
human factors.

The area is characterised by gently undulating and low relief and
deep, fertile, drained alluvium boulder clay deposited on chalk.
The area has warm sunny summers (18
C) for ripening crops
and cold winters with frosts that break up soil and kill pests. The
area tends to get 650mm rain mainly in the growing season.

The farm traditionally grows wheat, barley and sugar beet.
Although more perishable crops such as salad vegetables are also
grown. The produce is generally sold to the large nearby markets
in South England, assisted by the excellent communications with
the A1 and the A14.

Although small industry is
found in the area, there is not
a lot of secondary industry as
the area has been through the
deindustrialisation process and
most manufacturing of British
products is done abroad.
Areas further North such as
Newcastle, Manchester and
Liverpool are home to more

The City of London is the most important
concentration of tertiary industry in the U.K. 300,000
people work there and 75% of those work in banking,
finance, insurance and business services. There is also
specialist services such as entertainment and retailing
in the West End. London is seen as one of 3 global
cities, as it offers highly skilled workers, impressive
communication facilities, quality living and working
environment and ability to attract all the sought after
companies in the world.

Cambridge is home to a well known Science Park that offers
high quality research and development facilities. Built in the
1970s the park is located in this area for a number of regions

Access to the highly skilled graduate workforce of Cambridge

Excellent road links to A14 and M11

A local airport nearby

Large flat land, that has potential for easy expansion

Popular residential areas close by, such as Milton village

A lot of Greenspace for those wanting to work in attractive

Excellent facilities on site , such as a nursery and gym.

Economic Activity in South East Brazil

Primary Industry

There is a lot of primary industry in SE Brazil because of the
raw material availability. People find work relatively easily
compared to the rest of Brazil, and this is why it is called
the core region. Primary industry includes

Farming coffee, beef, rice and sugar cane

Mining/extracting gold, iron, oil and gas

Creation of energy through HEP because of appropriate
river systems

Fishing as areas such as Rio de Janeiro are on the coast

Secondary Industry

There has been a lot of domestic (Brazilian) and foreign

investment in this area. It has been designated as a hub
for roads and railways and is has NIC status within its
own country. There are more MNCs in S.E. Brazil than
everywhere else in the country put together. Foreign
and domestic companies are encouraged to locate there
because of the good facilities, the easy access to raw
material, the established competition and skilled
workers. It is particularly famous for its car
manufacturing, including brands such as Fiat, Toyota,
Ford and VW.

Tertiary Industry

With the development of secondary economic activity you
also get the growth of the service as businesses need

financial services and
employers and
employees have
money to spend. Sao
Paulo in S.E. Brazil is
the financial capital of
South America and is
home to most of the
foreign and domestic
banks headquarters.

Quaternary Industry

Due to brazil being a developing nation Quaternary
industry is relatively small. However , there are some
public and private research and development facilities.
For example 83km from Sao Paulo is Sao Jose dos
Campos, which is the Aerospace Technical Centre,
where a lot of education and research is done about
the aerospace industry.

Nike in Vietnam

Nike is one of the world’s leaders of supplying sports footwear,
apparel and equipment. Founded in 1972 it has its headquarters in
USA but contracts out production to South Korean and Taiwanese
companies. The subcontracted companies operate not only in their
home country but also in lower
wage Asian economies such as
Vietnam and the Philippines.

Nike is an example of the New International Division of Labour, because it has 650,000
contract works in 700 factories worldwide. Over 75% of the workforce is based in Asia.

There are potential benefits and problems for countries such as Vietnam, where production
occurs and also in the USA.




Substantial employment



Cumulative causation improves hard and soft infrastructure


Exploitation of the workforce

Poor working conditions

Political influence

of MNCs is too great



paid/high skilled jobs in headquarter

Improves local tax base


Loss of manufacturing jobs

for low skilled workers

Products are now imported so potentially more expensive

Pearl River Delta

The Pearl River Delta region is an area the same size as Belgium in South
East China. It is a focal point
of massive foreign investment into China. The regions manufacturing industries already employ 30
million people, but this will undoubtedly increase in the future.

There are 3 main environmental problems that have occurred due to increased economic activity.

1. Air pollution: The high concentration of factories, car ownership and power stations means
emissions of nitrogen oxides and sulphur dioxides have increased. When combined with water
vapour this creates acid rain. In 2007 8 out of every 10 rainfalls in Guangzhou was classified as acid

2. Water pollution: half the waste water in Guangdong urban areas is not treated before being
dumped in rivers.

3. Deforestation: almost all the urban areas have over exploited their
neighbouring uplands, causing a considerable reduction in vegetation cover.
This has resulted in serious soil erosion.

The Environmental Protection Bureau classifies the
environmental situation as severe, and says that the government is
committed to taking the necessary measures to reduce pollution. These
measure include:

Guangdong government is reducing chemical pollution of water by 15%
from 2005 levels

Stricter pollution regulations on factories

Tougher national regulations on vehicle emissions