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Newspaper Delivery System



Abstract

Mohamad Azri,
Zuwairiie,
Tan Yew
Boon
,

Nur
Fadzilah


Page
1

of
22

ABSTRACT


BSc (Hons) Computer Science


Year 2

So
ftware Engineering Workshop


Name


: Mohamad Azri Bin Azhar

(0413721 BscF)


Zuwairi
i
e

Bin Serajudin

(0423720 BscF)


Tan Yew Boon


(0413838 BscF)


Nur Fadzilah Bt Mohamed

(0413734 BscF)


Title


:

Newspa
per Delivery System

Supervisor

: Mr. Trevor
Ward


The aim of this project is to develop a delivery system which accessible through internet.
Newspapers subscribers will be able to view the details of their delivery information and
they can edit their subsc
riptions anywhere and anytime. Newsagents can manage their
products and customers. Delivery boy can also use the system to check which
publications needed by the customers for delivery.


The Newspaper Delivery System is capable of managing delivery informa
tion. This
system is designed for newsagents to manage their customers’ delivery information, for
delivery boy to check which newspapers to be send to customers and for customers to
make online subscription. This system is made available on the internet so

that users can
access it from anywhere at anytime. Users are able to register online, and modify any
appropriate information details. Any calculation required will be calculated automatically
by the system.

Newspaper Delivery System



Acknowledgement


Mohamad Azri,
Zuwairiie,
Tan Yew
Boon
,

Nur
Fadzilah


Page
2

of
22

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT


We would like to thank from th
e bottom of our heart to our project supervisor Mr. Trevor
and Mr. Sajilal for their helpful suggestions and guidance.


We would also like to thank to all who took part in our survey. Their honest answers are
very helpful for us in enhancing our system.


Many thanks to all contributors, including but not limited to the newspaper publishing
company and library assistant for co
-
operating with us.


Last but not least, we would like to thank our friends for their tremendous help and for
sharing their experien
ce and knowledge in completing this project.


We are indeed indebted with these great people. Thank You.

Newspaper Delivery System



Introduction


Mohamad Azri,
Zuwairiie,
Tan Yew
Boon
,

Nur
Fadzilah


Page
3

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22

Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION


1.1

Introduction

This Newspaper Delivery System is designed for newsagent to manage their products and
customer’s information, fo
r delivery boy to check which newspapers to be send to
customers and for customers to make online subscription.


Customers can view their personal and subscription details. The system will also store
their records of payment on monthly basis based on thei
r order. The newsagents will be
able to view the summary of which customer received what publication on each day.


Each of the customers’ bills will be computed automatically by the system and will be
sent to the customer by delivery boy every month. Cust
omers may come and go away
temporarily and they can cancel the deliveries temporarily as they like. However, this
cancellation only can be done upon terms and conditions. The system will also provide
appropriate map if requested.


This system is relatively

a small system by comparison with other systems. It is to help
newsagents to manage their customers’ information so that it will be more organized.


1.2

Background

This project is about a delivery system. This system is intended to manage the delivery of
news
papers and magazines in some small town or area of a larger town. It is intended for
use by newsagents who are only casual users of computer systems and should run on a PC
or similar hardware. This system must print a list of customer’s address and what
pu
blications to be delivered for each of the delivery boy. The system also should provide
a summary on who received what publications each day for the newsagents. Once a
month, bills will be deliver
s

to customers along with theirs newspapers by the delivery
boy. The bill will be computer automatically by the system. Customers come and go and
may be away temporarily on holiday or business. Customers not necessarily have a
delivery every day. The system also should manage to provide simple geographic
informatio
n for the delivery boy under request.


1.3

Aims

The aim of this project is to develop a delivery system via Internet. Through Internet, user
will be able to view the details of their delivery information and they can edit their
subscription anywhere and anytim
e.


1.4
Objectives

To assist

newsagents
in managing

the information on delivery of newspapers

and
magazines

in a sma
ll town or area.


Newspaper Delivery System



Introduction


Mohamad Azri,
Zuwairiie,
Tan Yew
Boon
,

Nur
Fadzilah


Page
4

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22

1.5 Conclusion

In this chapter we explain about the project background, aims and objective
s.
These give
an overview of t
he proje
ct we’re developing.

Newspaper Delivery System



Feasibility Report

Mohamad Azri,
Zuwairiie,
Tan Yew
Boon
,

Nur
Fadzilah


Page
5

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22

Chapter 2

FEASIBILITY
REPORT


2.1
Introduction

For all new systems, the requirements engineering process should start with a feasibility
study. Our system is no exception. We’ve done our feasibility study to help us determine
whether this project is worthwhile doing and has real value to the business.


To fulfil this feasibility study, we have done a survey on newspapers delivery. We asked
several questions and analyze what the general public think about newspaper deliveries.


We sent questionnaires to about 100 people randomly. According to our survey, over 90
out of 100 respondent read newspaper daily. However, only 20 respondents subscribe the
newspapers through newsagent. The reason for this, according to our survey is becau
se,
the respondents find it hard to locate newspapers agent that is near their residential area.
This is a good indicator that online newspaper delivery system is much needed.


Considering the low subscription rates through newsagent, we asked whether the
respondents might consider subscribing it through internet. 89 respondents answered yes.
This is because, according to the respondents, this method is much more convenient to
them instead of having to locate the newsagent by themselves.


After that, we exa
mined which method of payment preferred by the respondents. Most of
the respondents prefer the conventional method which is paying the bill on monthly basis.
The reason for this is because most of them either do not feel secure revealing their credit
card
numbers to unknown parties or they don’t use any credit card.


Most of the respondents who subscribe newspapers through newsagents are having
trouble cancelling their subscription temporarily if they’re on holiday or business trip. So,
in our system, we sh
ould have a feature to enable them to temporarily cancel their
subscription. This might attract the conventional subscriber to use our online system.


Please refer to the
A
ppendix

C

for full questions that were asked in the survey.


2.2
Conclusion

The feas
ibilities study

that has been undertaken is to determine whether this pr
oject is
viable and worthwhile. We have made a few questions and ask several respondents to get
feedback from them. This feedback is valuable for us to make sure that this project is
v
iable and will be useful for customers. The feedback is also useful for us in determining
and enhancing the system.



Newspaper Delivery System



Requirement Analysis

Mohamad Azri,
Zuwairiie,
Tan Yew
Boon
,

Nur
Fadzilah


Page
6

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22

Chapter 3

REQUIREMENT ANALYSIS

3.1
Requirements Analysis

After initial feasibility studies, the next stage of the requirements engineeri
ng process is
requirement analysis. The user requirements for a system should describe the functional
and non
-
functional requirements so that they are understandable by users and developers.
These requirements are written using natural and simple language.


3.1.1
Functional Requirement

These are the functional requirement of the system:



Print list of customers’ address, name and registration number, and what
publication to be delivered for delivery boy.



Provide summary on who received what publications ea
ch day.



Reports on monthly bill.



The bill will be computed automatically.



The system must be able to manage customers who are temporarily away and
customers not necessarily have a delivery every day.



Provide simple map for delivery boy.

3.1.2
Non
-
function
al Requirement

These are the non
-
functional requirement of the system:



Bills will be computed automatically.



Customize customers and newsagents details.



Arrangement of customer for delivery boy.



System calculation.



Browse menu for customer.



User friendly.



Using the following tools and applications:



PHP



MySQL.



Macromedia Dreamweaver.



PHPMyAdmin



Zend Studio



Crimson Editor



Microsoft Project

Newspaper Delivery System



Requirement Analysis

Mohamad Azri,
Zuwairiie,
Tan Yew
Boon
,

Nur
Fadzilah


Page
7

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22

3.2

Requirements Management

The requirement for large software systems are always changing. Because the problem
cannot
be fully defined, the software requirements are bound to be incomplete. As we go
through developing this newspaper delivery system, our understanding of the problem is
constantly changing and these changes feed back to the requirements. This is because,
al
though difficulties with the current system may be known, to anticipate what effects the
new system will have on the customers.


New hardware and software may be introduced, it may be necessary in the future but we
can’t currently identify it.


3.3
Conclus
ion

The system is futile if
it

does not meet
s

the user requirements. In this chapter, we examine
what are the functional a
nd non
-
functional requirements.

Newspaper Deliver
y System



Critical Review


Mohamad Azri,
Zuwairiie,
Tan Yew
Boon
,

Nur
Fadzilah


Page
8

of
22

Chapter 4

CRITICAL REVIEW


4.1
Introduction

There are man
y tools and languages available on the mar
ket. We examined and choose
which one is the best and most appropriate for us. We omit tools and languages which are
totally not relevant and narrow down our choices where appropriate. To make things
clearer, we divide this chapter into three categories wh
ich are research on tools, languages
and databases.

4.2 Tools

As for our webpage development tools, we take Micromedia Dreamweaver and Microsoft
FrontPage into consideration. These are the industrial standard and most hyped tools for
designing webpage.
Th
ere are many web page development tools available on the market.
We have narrowed down our choices to two leading softwares which are, the Macromedia
Dreamweaver and Microsoft FrontPage.
These are the research that has been undertaken.

4.2.1
Microsoft Fron
tPage

Microsoft FrontPage 2003 will be easier and quicker to learn due to its Office
-
like menus,
working system and site templates. FrontPage can also help us a lot in organizing our
site's structure, using a tree
-
structure for all files and folders in ou
r site. If we have a Web
page that is linked from many other pages and you rename that file, FrontPage will
automatically update links in the other files, we don't need to change links by ourselves
anymore.
1


FrontPage has a tool that uploads site to Web
Presence Provider (WPP), without the need
for an FTP (File Transfer Protocol) client, and most WPP's already support this new
feature. Using Microsoft Internet Explorer, we can preview our document directly from
FrontPage, without starting the browser; mak
e our work easier and quicker to check.

1


4.2.1.1

Advantages

Thes
e
are
the
advantages
of the Microsoft FrontPage



Very low
-
cost



Available in labs across campus



Easy to learn because of the familiar Microsoft menus and toolbars



Comes equipped with many p
re
-
designed web page templates



Very easy to edit on SOE servers



Easy to add some features, such as some forms, to web pages

2




1
http://www.microsoft.com/office/frontpage/p
rodinfo/servers.mspx

2
http://www.duxcw.com/digest/Reviews/Software/fp/fpvsdw.htm

Newspaper Deliver
y System



Critical Review


Mohamad Azri,
Zuwairiie,
Tan Yew
Boon
,

Nur
Fadzilah


Page
9

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4.2.1.2

Disadvantages

Thes
e
are
the
advantages
of Microsoft FrontPage



Doesn't produce code as cleanly as Dreamweaver.



Current edition is available for Windows only; Macinto
sh version is

outdated and
no longer being updated



Some features are specific to the Microsoft platform only



Lacks Dreamweaver's interactive development tools

2


4.2.1.3

New features

These are the new features of
the
Microsoft FrontPage



Dynamic Web Temp
lates



Flash support



Larger design area



ASP.NET controls



Code snippets



Modifying non
-
HTML files



Customized Data views



XML support



Site
-
building tools for FTP and WebDAV servers



Browser and resolution reconciliation



Optimized HTML



MS Office Application Integ
ration



Integrated Debugging

2


4.2.2

Macromedia Dreamweaver

Macromedia is one of the most popular Web development programs because of its
stability and incredible capacity for advanced users. Dreamweaver allows designing
pages with layers and then it will
automatically transform those layers into tables, without
losing any of document's structure. It also can create an image map from a normal image
inside the program itself. It has an HTML reference if you have any doubt about a tag and
it also create inter
active images without any external JavaScript, as it writes the scripts
itself.
3

Dreamweaver’s compatibility with other Macromedia products, such as Flash or
Fireworks, is as perfect as FrontPage is with other Office programs, even if you don't
have Flash
, Dreamweaver can create Flash Buttons or text, as it keeps your Web site's
files in order for future uploading. You can always keep Dreamweaver 4 up
-
to
-
date with
its Extensions (useful add
-
ons made by advanced users): from ASP or PHP server side
scripting

to new HTML tags. Also, it is compatible with the newest Web development
technologies, such as Cascading Style Sheets, which can be created inside the program.

3


2
http://www.duxcw.com/digest/Reviews/Software/fp/fpvsdw.htm

3
http://www.macromedia.com/dev
net/mx/dreamweaver/articles/dw_whatsnew.html

Newspaper Deliver
y System



Critical Review


Mohamad Azri,
Zuwairiie,
Tan Yew
Boon
,

Nur
Fadzilah


Page
10

of
22

4.2.2.1 Advantages

Thes
e
are
the
advantages
of the M
acromedia Dreamw
e
a
ver




Relatively low
-
cost educational price



Available in Education labs



Produces very "clean" HTML code; easy to transport and work with



Available in identical versions for both Windows and Macintosh platforms



Supports development of your own template for pages in a website



Relatively easy to set up for communicating with a server from office or home



Powerful set of features for adding
interactive elements to web pages



Extensible
-

many extensions are available on the Macromedia website



Has built
-
in tools to clean up HTML from other sources, such as Microsoft Word
4



4.2.2.
2
Disadvantages

Thes
e
are
the dis
advantages
of the M
acromedia D
reamw
e
a
ver



More expensive than FrontPage



Not available in all labs across campus



Somewhat difficult to learn at first

4


4.2.2.
3
New features

These are the new features of the Macromedia Dreamweaver



Rich, Powerful CSS Support



Tight Integration with Other Macromedia Tools



Streamlined Design and Dev
elopment Environment



Built
-
in Graphics Editor



Increased Support for Today's Technologies & Standards



Code Editing Support



Seamless Integration with External Files and Code



Improved Support for the
Basics



Increased Security



Dynamic cross
-
browser validation



Support for ASP, PHP, XML name spacing, and JSP



The ability to copy and paste content from
Microsoft Word and Excel



Pre
-
Built Accessible Web Sites



Flash Elements



Integrated Accessibility Reference Content



Secure FTP Publishing

4


4.2.
3

Review
Conclusion

After the research has been undertaken, we’ve decide to use Macromedia Dreamweaver.
It’s an o
bvious choice because Macromedia Dreamweaver is considered as industrial
standard for developing professional web pages while Microsoft FrontPage is more
suitable for beginners looking for a quick solution in building less complex and plain web
pages. Furt
hermore, Microsoft FrontPage does not support PHP while Macromedia
Dreamweaver has great support on it.


4

http://mvp.wiserways.com/2003/compare.htm

Newspaper Deliver
y System



Critical Review


Mohamad Azri,
Zuwairiie,
Tan Yew
Boon
,

Nur
Fadzilah


Page
11

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4.
3
Languages

There are a few languages availab
le in the market in developing web applications site.
We have chosen two possible languages that will be used in our project. The two
languages are PHP (Personal Home Page) and JSP (Java Server Pages). Before deciding
on which is most suitable, we had done

a research based on their advantages,
disadvantages and features.


4.3.1
PHP

PHP or Personal Home Page is an open
-
source server
-
side scripting language for creating
dynamic web pages for e
-
commerce and other web applications. A dynamic web page is a
page

that interacts with the user, so that each user visiting the page sees customized
information. Server
-
side scripts have the main advantage of interacting with databases, as
well as performing all types of server manipulations directly. Server
-
side scripti
ng
languages can manipulate the data which is received from web forms, anywhere on the
Net.

5


PHP offers a simple and universal solution for easy
-
to
-
program dynamic web pages. The
interface allows programmers to insert PHP commands right in the HTML page.

Its
elegant design makes PHP significantly easier to maintain and update than similar scripts
in other languages.
5


PHP offers excellent connectivity to most of the common databases such as Oracle,
Sybase, MySQL, ODBC and many others. PHP offers excellen
t code performance. The
combination PHP
-
Apache
-
Linux features instantaneous access times, with even greater
performance boosts achieved by caching data structures on the server.

5





















5

http://www.webdevelopersjournal.com/articles/why_php.html

Newspaper Deliver
y System



Critical Review


Mohamad Azri,
Zuwairiie,
Tan Yew
Boon
,

Nur
Fadzilah


Page
12

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4.3.1.1
Advantages

These are the advantages of PHP



Speed
-

PHP is considered to be the fastest of the scripting languages.



Open source
-

This means users are given a free lice
nse to remodel or recode PHP.



Multi platform
-

PHP can be installed on almost all operating systems such as
Windows
-
x and Linux.



Stability
-

PHP uses its own resource management system and has sophisticated
method for handling variables.



Security
-

PHP pro
vides many levels of security which can be set in the .ini file to
the desired level.



Short development time
-

This means fewer programmers are needed to customize
solutions and add new services.



Easy to use scripting language
-

PHP code is easier to main
tain and update than
any other code such as Perl or ASP.



Cross platform compatibility
-

This means PHP scripts work on any of the
existing Internet servers such as Apache, Microsoft and Netscape service
solutions.



Database support
-

Which means it can acc
ess commercial and non
-
commercial
databases such as Informix, Microsoft SQL Server, mSQL, MySQL, ODBC,
Oracle and Sybase.



Popularity on high visibility sites
-

Which means PHP can be trusted as successful
on mission critical sites and applications.



Open
source
-

This means bugs are fixed and new features added to meet market
demands and there are no hidden costs.



Open API
-

This means easy to program modules can be added, extending the
language for particular users.

6


4.3.1.2
New features

These are the n
ew features of PHP



A complete re
-
thinking and re
-
programming effort headed by the core PHP team.



Featuring 50 fold performance improvement and a wide variety of new features.



A new simple XML extension for easily accessing and manipulating XML as PHP
obj
ects.



It can also interface with the DOM extension and vice
-
versa.



A brand new built
-
in SOAP extension for interoperability with Web Services.



A new MySQL extension named MySQLi for developers who are using MySQL
4.1 and later. This extension includes an o
bject oriented interface in addition to a
traditional interface.



SQLite has been bundled with PHP.



Streams have been greatly improves, including the ability to access low
-
level
socket operations on streams.

6




6
http://www.faqts.com/knowledge_base/view.phtml/aid/4040/fid/28

Newspaper Deliver
y System



Critical Review


Mohamad Azri,
Zuwairiie,
Tan Yew
Boon
,

Nur
Fadzilah


Page
13

of
22

4.3.2
JSP

JSP or Java Server Pages is a technology that lets static HTML mix with dynamically
generated HTML. JSP are designed to create interactive pages

as part of a web
-
based
application. It enables developers to separate programming logic from page design
through the use of components that are called from the page itself. It is based on the
servlet technology. JSP are programs that run on a Web server a
nd build Web pages. The
Web page is based on data submitted by the user. For example the results pages from
search engines are generated this way. This is applied as well to e
-
commerce site. The
data changes frequently too. For example a weather
-
report or
news headlines page might
build the page dynamically. The web page uses information from corporate databases or
other.
7


4.3.2.1
Advantages

T
hese are the advantages of JSP



A way to get HTML out of servlet code.



Speeding web application development



Improv
e web page maintenance

8


4.3.2.2
Disadvantages

T
hese are the advantages of JSP



Java code too tempting.



Java code required.



Simple tasks are hard.



Lousy looping



Useless error messages



Need a compiler



Wasted space

8


4.3.2.3
New features

T
hese are the
new
features

of JSP



Simple Expression Language (EL)



JSP fragments



Tag files



Simple tag handlers

8


4.3.3
Review
Conclusion

Comparing PHP and JSP, JSP offers the advantage of moving code to servlets. For our
project, PHP is more suitable based on the features a
nd advantages. PHP is open source
which is the main advantage for developers who are using PHP. PHP also is fast
compared to other languages for its execution speeds. The performance of interactions
with the database, PHP is very good in it. To our knowled
ge, we couldn’t think of any
disadvantages of PHP, Therefore, we have decided to choose PHP instead of JSP.



7

http://java.sun.com/products/jsp/jsp
-
asp.html

8

http://www.devsphere.com/services
/taglib.html

Newspaper Deliver
y System



Critical Review


Mohamad Azri,
Zuwairiie,
Tan Yew
Boon
,

Nur
Fadzilah


Page
14

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4.4 Database



There is a lot of database software available in the market. We’ve narrow down our
choice to two leading database softwares which are MySQL and Oracle. The reasons why
we choose these two database software are because of their
capabilities of handling large
volume of data.


4.4.1
MySQL

MySQL is a Database engine that grew an SQL interface in 1995. MySQL are originally
under a 'Free Public License'. MySQL are prohibited commercial use without paid
license. It released under GPL i
n June/July 2000. It was started by three people who are
Monty, David, and Allan. MySQL is a SQL database server, it has become the most
popular open source database and the fastest growing database in the industry. This is
based on its dedication to provi
ding a less complicated solution suitable for widespread
application deployment at a greatly reduced TCO. Most of the products are available
under open source licenses.

9




4.4.1.1
Advantages

These are the advantages of MySQL



Reliability and Performance.
MySQL AB provides early versions of all its
database server software to the community to allow for several months of "battle
testing" by the open source community before it deems them ready for production
use.



Ease of Use and Deployment. MySQL's architectu
re makes it extremely fast and
easy to customize. Its unique multi
-
storage engine architecture gives corporate
customers the flexibility they need with a database management system
unmatched in speed, compactness, stability, and ease of deployment.



Freedom

from Platform Lock
-
in. By providing ready access to source code,
MySQL's approach ensures freedom, thereby preventing lock
-
in to a single
company or platform.



Cross
-
Platform Support. MySQL is available on more than twenty different
platforms including maj
or Linux distributions, Mac OS X, UNIX and Microsoft
Windows



Millions of Trained and Certified Developers. MySQL is the world's most popular
open source database, so it's easy to find high
-
quality, skilled staff











9
http://openacs.org/philosophy/wh
y
-
not
-
mysql
Newspaper Deliver
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Critical Review


Mohamad Azri,
Zuwairiie,
Tan Yew
Boon
,

Nur
Fadzilah


Page
15

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4.4.2
Oracle

Oracle has grown from its humble beginnings as one of a number of databases available
in the 1970s. In its early days, Oracle Corporation was known as an aggressive sales and
promotion organization. Over the years, the Oracle datab
ase has grown in depth and
quality, and its technical capabilities now match its early hype. With the Oracle8,
Oracle8i, and Oracle9i releases, Oracle has added more power and features to its already
solid base. Oracle9i adds an advanced version of Oracle
Parallel Server named Real
Application Clusters, along with many additional self
-
tuning, management, and data
warehousing features. Oracle is a software tool for optimizing the performance of your
database environment. Oracle assists with the initial confi
guration of a database and with
the collection and evaluation of performance characteristics of existing databases. Oracle
automates the process of collecting and analyzing performance tuning data and provides
expert database tuning recommendations. Additi
onally, Oracle generates scripts that
assist with the implementation of tuning recommendations.
10


4.4.2.1
Advantages

These are the advantages of Oracle



Helps to ensure continued performance as the database environment changes over
time



Provides consiste
nt and complete recommendations



Performs interdependency checking during analysis



Detects and reports symptoms of poor performance



Sifts through vast quantities of data quickly to identify performance problems



Identifies situations where advanced perfo
rmance features of the database may be
applied


4.4.3
Review
Conclusion

We have chosen MySQL in our project, mainly because it’s free and open source
database. MySQL is also easier to tune compared to Oracle because it has many separate
memory caches that

can be adjusted. MySQL also has great documentation available
freely on the internet. And last but not least, MySQL is faster than Oracle.


4.5 Conclusion

A
fter we
have done the research, we have chosen Macromedia Dreamweaver for our
webpage development t
ool, PHP as the scripting language and MySQL for the database.











10

http://www.oreilly.com/catalog/oracledes/index.html

Newspaper Delivery System



Cost Estimation

Mohamad Azri,
Zuwairiie,
Tan Yew
Boon
,

Nur
Fadzilah


Page
16

of
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Chapter
5

COST ESTIMATION


5
.1
Justification of Choosing Cost Estimation Technique

There are a few cost estimation techniques t
hat we can use in estimating software costs.
These are:


5.1.1
Algori
thmic cost modelling

A model is developed using historical cost information that relates some software metrics
(usually its size) to the project cost. An estimate is made of that metric a
nd the model
predicts the effort required.


5.1.2
Expert judgement

Several experts on the proposed software development techniques in the application
domain are consulted. They each estimate the project cost. These estimates are compared
and discussed. The

estimation process iterates until and agreed estimate is reached.


5.1.3
Estimation by analogy

This technique is applicable when other project in the same application domain has been
completed. The cost of new project is estimate by analogy with these com
pleted projects.


5.1.4 Parkinson’s Law

Parkinson’s Law states that work expands to fill the time available. The cost is
determined by available resources rather than by objective assessment. If the software has
to be delivered in 12 month, and 5 people a
re available, the effort required is estimated to
be 60 person
-
months.


5.1.5.
Pricing

to win

The software cost is estimated to be whatever the customer has available to spend on the
project. The estimated effort depends on the customer’s budget and not on

the software
functionality.

11


5.2 Conclusion

In our project, we have chosen to use algorithmic cost modelling because other
techniques are not appropriate for us. For example, we cannot use pricing to win
technique because the customer has not stated an
y information on how much he’s willing
to spend on the project. As for the estimation by analogy technique, we have no other
project in the same application domain that has been completed.









11
Ian Sommerville (2001)

Software Engineering
, 6
th

Edition
, Addison Wesley.



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Cost Estimation

Mohamad Azri,
Zuwairiie,
Tan Yew
Boon
,

Nur
Fadzilah


Page
17

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22

5
.
3

Estimating the Software Cost

We’ve made an assumption that this project requires 2,500 LOC (lines of code).
Estimation of project effort (E) in person
-
months:


E = ab X KLOC bb


Software

A
b

bb

Organic

2.4

1.05

Semi
-
Detached

3.0

1
.12

Embedded

3.6

1.20


EOrganic = 2.4 x 2.5 1.05

= 6 person
-
month


Estimation of developer time (D) in months:


D = Cb x Edb


Software

Cb

db

Organic

2.5

0.38

Semi
-
Detached

2.5

0.35

Embedded

2.5

.032


DOrganic = 2.5 x 6 0.39

D = 5month

N = 6/5

N = 1 p
eople


The system can be completed by one person within 5 month. We have 4 people working
on this project, so it can be completed within 1 and a half month.


Staff

Number of people

Salary

Total Salary

System Analyst

2

RM 5000.00

RM 10,000.00

Programmers

2

RM 5000.00

RM 10,000.00



Total Salary

RM 20,000.00

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Academic Objectives

Mohamad Azri,
Zuwairiie,
Tan Yew
Boon
,

Nur
Fadzilah


Page
18

of
22

Chapter 6

ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES


6.1
Research on the system
d
evelopment
m
ethodology

By
following

and implementing

the

system development methodology,
we can

improve
system development productivity and
quality of the project. System development
methodology refers to the paradigm that used to improving the management, control the
process of developing a system, structuring, simplifying the process standardizing the
development process and product. There a
re many paradigms
has been proposed over the
years. These paradigms are divided into five major categories which is linear, iterative,
parallel, disruptive and rapid respond. Each of the paradigms has it own strength and
weakness


After we have done a res
earch

we found out that

most of the
software
development
companies do not really followed the paradigms because
some of the stage was
not
sufficient
to their
project.
Therefore
in this
project we have
decided

to use waterfall
model and modi
fied the stage o
f the paradigm. (
Please refer to Appendix B)


6.2
To
g
ain
e
xperience in
w
eb
-
based development

Web
-
based application is undoubtly an important technology for businesses and
education. We hope to gain
more
experience in developing web
-
based application from
this project. They are many languages that can be used for developing web
-
based
application but we’re more interested in going
towards
open
-
source
technology
. So in this
case, LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL,
and PHP
) is the perfect answer for us.


6.3
To gain
experience in using s
tructured approach

methodology

We have decide to use structure approached because we feel that benefit of object
oriented appr
oach for scripting languages (
PHP) are less obvious and most debatable in
the case of web scripting. To obtai
n more understandings in structured approach, we had
applied context diagram, data flow diagram (DFD) and Entity Relationship Diagram
(ERD) in our design.


6.4
To practice software management skills and techniques

Software

management

skills

have at least a
s much influence on project success as
technical skills do
. In this project, we hope that we can practice these skills and
techniques
though sometimes not explicitly
such as but not limited to project estimation,
risk analysis, project planning, testing, a
nd software maintenance
.


6.5
Better understanding on

c
urrent trend of technologies

Information technology is one of the fastest growing field today. By developing this
system, we hope to learn and have better understanding on the current trend of
technolo
gies.


6.6

Grasping practical

a
nalysis
s
kills

Having the capabilities of analysing something properly is crucial in determining the
software requirements and specification. If the analysis is wrong, the project is ultimately
failed. We hope that we can dev
elop our analysis skills
in building this project and gain
more experience as we go through.


Newspaper Delivery System



Academic Objectives

Mohamad Azri,
Zuwairiie,
Tan Yew
Boon
,

Nur
Fadzilah


Page
19

of
22

6.7
To increase confidence level for next projects

Each project that we finish will give us more confidence for the next project. If this
project is a success, w
e are

confident

that what ever our
next

project

is, we will achieve
the same success we are going to have
.


6.
8

Team Work

We’ve been asked to complete this project in group of four. By having four
people

working on this project, we need to have a good team

work. Everyone should have equal
responsibilities and doing it full heartedly. If there’s one or more
team

members being
lazy and take things lightly, the project could either fail or the burden could goes to other
team members. Unfortunately, as in real
working life, we can’t really have the choice to
choose our
team

members. Choosing the good ones and expelling the bad ones as we like

is not an option
. So in this project, we hope that we can gain more insight on this matter.


6.9
Conclusion

In this chapt
er we stated the academic objectives of this project. We hope that we can
learn as much as possible and fulfil these objectives explicitly and implicitly.



Newspaper Delivery System



Conclusion

Mohamad Azri,
Zuwairiie,
Tan Yew
Boon
,

Nur
Fadzilah


Page
20

of
22

Chapter 7

CONCLUSION


It’s not an easy task to build good softwares. Thus in our project, we
striv
e

to make the
initial design as so
lid and complete as possible. Part of our philosophy in building this
system is to keep it small and simple.
We started off
by

conducting the feasibility studies
to make sure this project is

viable. There’s no point of bui
lding something without
considering its practicality.


After the study has been conducted properly, the functionality of the software and
constraints on its operation
are

defined.

Basically we are building a software for
managing and automating the proces
s related to newspapers delivery. This system is
intended for casual users which are not technical
-
inclined. The users are newspaper
subscribers, newsagents, and delivery boy.


There are a lot of technologies that we are looking at in realising and
buildin
g

this
software, but we are facing some of the issues which concerned on using the right tools
for the right job.

The critical review on chapter 4 is made to clarify this issue.
We are not
just following the

fad du jour
.
We
carefully

choose the ones that b
est suit our
requirements and needs.


After everything is relatively complete, the software is developed. The design is turned
into codes to produce the software that meet the specification. This is undoub
t
ly a crucial
part. Any drawings, design, and such

form of technical writings are useless unless it can
be realised into reality. We have too much people who can just draw
, design

and talk

about softwares but they can hardly code anything.



The software then needs to be tested. First and foremost it need
s to be tested to make sure
everything works flawlessly. Though sound impossible, as what everyone says, nothing is
perfect. Our
objectives are

to
minimise

the errors by avoiding faults and by having
relatively good fault tolerance.


As any other softwares
, there must be room for improvement in what we do and how we
do it. We realised that our system or application is not perfect. We hope that we can
improve it in the future as we gain more experience and knowledge in various fields of
expertise.
Newspaper Delivery System



References

Mohamad Azri,
Zuwairiie,
Tan Yew
Boon
,

Nur
Fadzilah


Page
21

of
22

Chapter 8

REFERENCES


Books


Hoffer J.A., George J.F.

& Valacich J.S. (1999)


Modern System Analysis & Design
,

2
nd

Edition
,
Addison Wesley Longman, Inc.


Bois, P.D. (2000)


MySQL
, New Riders Professional Library.


Yarger R.Y., Reese G,

& King T. (1999)


MySQL &
MSQL
, O. Reilly



Rob P & Coronel C. (1997)



Database Systems

(Design, Implementation &
Management
)
,

3
rd

Edition
, Course Technology.


Kendall K.E &

Kendall, J.E. (1998)


Systems Analysis and Design
,

4
th

Edition
, Prentice Hall
International, Inc


Pflec
ger S.L. (1991)




Software Engineering (The Production Of Quality
Software
),

2
nd

Edition
,

Maxwell Macmillan International
Editions.


Ian Sommerville (2001)


Software Engineering
,

6
th

Edition
, Addison Wesley.


Pressman, R.S. (1997)




Software Engineerin
g

A Practitioner Approach
,

4
th

Edition
, McGill Hill International Editions (Software
Engineering Series).


Penny a. K
endall



Introduction to System Analysis And Design: A
Structured Approach,
3
rd

Edition, Irwin


James A. Senn



Analysis

and Design Of In
formation System,
2
nd

Edition, McGraw
-
Hill Publishing Company


Converse

Tim
, Park Joyce
,
Morgan &
Clark

(2004)


PHP and MySQL Bible
,
Wiley Publishing.





Newspaper Delivery System



References

Mohamad Azri,
Zuwairiie,
Tan Yew
Boon
,

Nur
Fadzilah


Page
22

of
22

Website
s



http://www.sqatester.com/documentation/testplansmpl.htm

http://www.faqts.com/knowledge_
base/view.phtml/aid/4040/fid/28

http://ww.zend.com/

http://ww.php.ne
t
/

http://www.webdevelopersjournal.com/articles/why_php.html

http://java.sun.com/products/jsp/jsp
-
asp.html

http://servlets.com/soapbox/problems
-
jsp.html

http://developer.novell.com/tech/10
60.html

http://www.devsphere.com/services/taglib.html

http://www.duxcw.com/digest/Reviews/Software/fp/fpvsdw.htm

http://www.macromedia.com/devnet/mx/dreamweaver/articles/dw_whatsnew.html

http://www.mvp.wiserways.com/2003/compare.htm

http://www.p3t3.soe.pur
due.edu/faqdream.htm

http://www.microsoft.com/office/frontpage/prodinfo/servers.mspx

http://dsonline.computer.org/0308/d/bks_b.htm

http://www.onjava.com/pub/a/onjava/2003/11/05/jsp.html

http://www.oreilly.com/catalog/oracledes/index.html

http://openacs.org
/philosophy/why
-
not
-
mysql

http://technet.oracle.com/doc/server.804/a58244/ch04.htm

http://download
-
west.oracle.com/otndoc/oracle9i/901_doc/erver.901/a90237/transfor.htm