INDIRA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & MANAGEMENT

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2 Δεκ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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INDIRA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING &
MANAGEMENT





























Subject: Hardware Lab



Experiment No. :
8


Experiment Name :
a) Study of PC setup,Installation.


b)
troubleshooting
,

PC diagnostics


tools & PC add
-
on cards


Roll No. :

Batch:


Date:








Sign:



ASSIGNMENT NO:
-

8


Title:

Study of PC set up &y Installation.



The main board in the computer also called the system board. The CPU, ROM
chips, SIMMs, DIMMs, RIMMs, and interfa
ce cards are plugged into the
motherboard.




Central processing Unit (CPU)
-

The CPU is the brains of the computer.
Sometimes referred to simply as the processor or central processor, the
CPU is where most calculations take place. In terms of computing powe
r,
the CPU is the most important element of a computer system.




Memory


Physical microchips that can hold data and programming,
located on the motherboard or expansion cards.




Random access memory (RAM)


Memory modules on the motherboard
containing mic
rochips used to temporarily hold data and programs while
the CPU processes both. Information in RAM is lost when the PC is turned
off.




Motherboard


the main board in the computer also called the system
board. The CPU, ROM chips, SIMMs, DIMMs, RIMMs, and

interface
cards are plugged into the motherboard.




Hardware


the physical components that constitute the computer system,
such as the monitor, the keyboard, the motherboard, and the printer.




Hard drive


The main secondary storage device of a PC, a sm
all case that
contains magnetic coated platters that rotate at high speed.




Basic input/output system (BIOS)
-

The built
-
in software that determines
what computer can do without accessing programs from a disk. On PCs,
the BIOS contains all the code requir
ed to control the keyboard, display
screen, disk drives, serial communications, and a number of miscellaneous
functions.




Cards


Adapter boards or interface cards placed into expansion slots to
expand the function of a computer, allowing it to communicat
e with
external devices such as monitors or speakers.




Chip Set
-

A number of integrated circuits designed to perform one or more
related functions. For example, one chipset may provide the basic
functions of a modem while another provides the CPU functio
ns for a
computer. Newer chipsets generally include functions provided by two or
more older chipsets. In some cases, older chipsets that required two or
more physical chips can be replaced with a chipset on one chip.




Expansion card


a circuit board inse
rted into a slot on the motherboard to
enhance the capability of the computer.





Expansion slot


a narrow slot on the motherboard where an expansion card
can be inserted. Expansion slots connect to a bus on the motherboard.




Firmware


Software that is
permanently stored in a chip. The BIOS on a
motherboard is an example of firmware.




Flash ROM


ROM that can be reprogrammed or changed without
replacing chips.




Jumper


Two wires that stick up side by side on the motherboard and are
used to hold config
uration information. The jumper is considered closed if
a cover is over the wires, and open if the cover is missing.




Parallel port


a female 25
-
pin port on a computer that can transmit data in
parallel, 8 bits at a time, and is usually used with a print
er. The names for
parallel ports are LPT1 and LPT2.




Power supply


a box inside the computer case that supplies power to the
motherboard and other installed devices. Power supplies provide 3.3, 5,
and 12 volts DC.




Universal serial bus (USB)


a type of

port designed to make installation
and configuration of I/O devices easy, providing room for as many as 127
devices daisy
-
chained together.




Video card


an interface card installed in the computer to control visual
output on a monitor. Also called displ
ay adapter.




Steps for Installing the Motherboard:



If your computer is plugged in, unplug it. Make sure you have your
antistatic wrist band on and open the computer's case.



Next, screw in the spacers that should have came with
you case into the hol
es that you selected above. Some
computers may also have snap
-
in spacers instead of the
screw in spacers. The spacers look like this:



Hold the motherboard just above the case to find which holes of the case
line up with the holes in the mother board.








Once the spacers are securely in it's time to install your motherboard b
y
gently

laying it in the case onto the spacers. When the holes of the
motherboard line up with the holes of the spacers, screw the motherboard in
place with the screws provided with the case.

Do
not

over tighten these screws as they can crack and ruin yo
ur
motherboard. If the screw's head looks too wide and it may disrupt the
motherboards circuitry you can place a rubber buffer between the screw and
the board.







Finally, the last step for installing a motherboard is to make some of the
basic connections. Which include the case's on/off switch, case indicator
lights, reset button, and speakers. The location of these connections are
different in every computer, so
check your motherboard's user manual.




Also connect the computer power

supply to the motherboard, usually two to
three connections depending on your motherboard, and you are ready to do
a preliminary test.





Testing a Motherboard

Got everything completed above? Good! The finally step of installing a
motherboard is to test it.



Insert your video graphics card into the AGP slot of your mother board
(more on this here(link)) and secure it to the computer case with a screw.



Hook up your monitor, keyboard, and mouse; and plug the computer into a
power outlet.



Your computer should be
ep and display the basic BIOS information on the
screen. If this doesn't happened or your computer doesn't turn on, check all
of the connections you made while installing your motherboard.

Steps to Install Power Supply Unit:




Place your power supply un
it in the proper location. Note the location of
screw holes and make sure they line up! Install the screws to secure it in
place.



Connect the power supply to the motherboard, the amount of connections
vary between motherboards, mine has three. Then connect

the power
supply to all of the drives and any extra fans you might have.




(Power Connector
-

20 pin)



(ATX 12V Power Connector)



Double check all of your work, make sure all connections are good and
secure. Also make sure that your power

supply is securely screwed in.



Plug in your computer and make sure it turns on and everything is running
ok. Then continue by placing the computer's case back onto the computer.

Install RAM memory & give your PC some speed:


I
t's extremely easy to install RAM memory onto your computer's motherboard.
Has your computer been getting sluggish lately? Installing new RAM is a very
cost effective way to give your computer some extra
juice
.

Upgrading your RAM memory gives you the most

bang for the buck when
attempting to make your computer faster and it doesn't take a specialist to do it.

Here's how to install RAM into your computer:

First, you need to unplug your computer from the wall and
open your computer
case

to get access to the motherboard.



In order to install RAM you must first locate where your current RAM is on
your motherboard and what it looks like. Chances are there are extra slot
s
next to your current RAM. The great thing about most types of RAM is you
can leave your current memory in your computer and place your new RAM
in the next available slot.








(click any image to zoom in)



Remove your RAM from its anti
-
static bag and hold it by the edges. Make
sure you have your
antistatic wrist band

on so t
hat you don't ruin your new
RAM.



The next step to install your RAM is to determine which slot to place it
into. You want to install your RAM in the lowest numbered slot or the
empty slot that is closest to your filled memory slots.



You can only install RAM

in one direction. Look on the bottom of the
RAM stick. You need to line up the notches in the RAM with the keys in
the slot on your motherboard.



Make sure the retai
ner clips for the RAM are all the way open. Place the
RAM in the slot and gently push it
straight

down with your thumbs. You
may have to press hard to "set" the RAM correctly. When you press down
hard enough the retaining clips on either side of the RAM wi
ll snap into
place, making a "clicking" sound.



Before closing the computer case up you should test to see if you were able
to install the RAM correctly. Power up your PC and everything should
work normally.









Troubleshooting:

So did

you attempt your RAM install and your computer is not working? Here are
some tips:



If you powered on your PC and it did not turn on,
IMMEDIATELY

turn
your computer off.



Check the simple things first, make sure your computer is properly
connected to a powe
r source. You'd be surprised how many times people
forget to plug their computer back in!



Make sure the RAM is set all the way down in its slot. The retaining clips
on either side should be all the way up. Also, make sure your RAM is
installed in the lowes
t numbered slot or in the slot closest to you current
RAM.


Installing the Hard Drive (An IDE hard drive):



The first thing to do after removing the case covers, is to locate the drive bay where
the hard drive will go (see
fig 1.3

below).






In our example in
fig 1.3

above we have a drive already in the bay so you can see more
clearly where it should be situated. We don't have a floppy drive installed, but if we did,
then it would be located in one of the free bays above

the hard drive.

If you are adding a second drive then try and leave a gap between the two drives for
ventilation (although this might not always be possible).



Jumper Settings
-

Jumpers are metal pins that have small black plastic sleeves that
slide over

the top of them, they are used to configure certain devices, including
hard drives.



For the location of the jumper selector see
fig 1.5
, the jumper settings should
be displayed on the hard drive label or in the manufacturer's book.


Single Drive

-

If this is your only hard drive then set the jumper selector to
master



Two Drives

-

if the new drive will be the main drive, set the jumper to
master
, if
you want it as a secondary drive then set it to
slave
. Alternatively, you could use a
separate IDE

cable on the motherboard's secondary IDE interface (see
motherboard manual).


Once you have set the jumper, gently slide the drive into the drive bay, line up the
holes (2 on each side of the drive bay) and insert the 4 fixing screws (should have
been su
pplied with your case).


The next step is to attach the IDE and power cables.


In
fig 1.4

below you can see a standard IDE Cable, note there are 3 connections
(also notice the difference in distance between the connectors). Connection
A

plugs into the mo
therboard and then the
slave

and
master

connections are used for
IDE devices such as hard drives. If you are only installing one drive, or the new
drive is to be the master, then use the master connector, if the drive is to be the
slave then use the slave
connector.





The IDE cable will be marked down one side with a red or black strip, this denotes Pin
1, match this with the Pin 1 indicator on the back of the hard drive.



The power cable can be found attached to you
r computers case's power supply, you
can see an example below in
fig 1.5







Plug the IDE and power cables in (see
fig 1.5
) and then move onto finishing
installation.


Finishing Installation




Double check all conn
ections and make sure the device is set correctly as master or
slave, also make sure you haven't loosened any connections while you have been
installing.



You may wish to make sure the hard drive is correctly installed before replacing the
covers, b
ut it is advisable to replace the covers before reconnecting the mains.



When you reboot your machine the bios should automatically detect the new hard
drive, then when your operating system (windows or other) has loaded, go to
My
Computer

(or simil
ar) and you should see your new drive there. The letter assigned to the
drive will depend on your machine's configuration.



If the drive you have just installed is the only drive, then you will need to install an
operating system (if none present).














Installing the Sound card:


Sound cards don't have a particularly high failure
rate, I believe but they get replaced more often than
any other adapter, with the possible exception of
modems. The reason is that older PCI sound cards
that came
stock with systems offered pretty lousy
performance, so gamers and musicians often find
they have to replace the sound card just to work with
the programs they buy. If you don't want to take your
PC apart, you can replace the internal sound card
with a
simple USB
. The first step is to unplug the PC
and open the case. Yes, you can use a power strip and
turn off the power switch to preserve the ground, but
I'll bet more p
eople blow up adapters sticking them
in motherboards with a live 5V rail than with static
electricity. You only need to remove the top lid on the
average midtower
-

two screw, slide back a couple
inches, and off. You can see the original sound card
connect
ors in the center of the adapter bay.


The original sound card is secured in the case with a
single screw. If you've done this before, you'll see that
there's something missing along the top edge. This PC
was built without an analog audio lead connectin
g the
CD drive to the sound card, which means it never
would have been able to play music CDs. This is an
extremely common issue with PC's that were built
without any quality control or a CD was installed at a
later date by somebody who had a lazy attack.
The
audio lead is a two cent part, and it's probably
generated more "my sound card/speakers don't
work" service calls than any other assembly
oversight, and who knows how many sound cards
replaced for no reason. We remove the old sound
card, and also a bla
nk bay cover next to it, because
our PCI 5.1 upgrade sound card needs two slots for
the SPDIF riser.


Speaking of the SPDIF (Sony/Phillips Digital
Interface), we now connect this daughter card, or
riser, to the new sound card. I like to do this before
a
ctually installing the sound card in the case because
the connectors aren't always keyed. This connector is
keyed the top left hole on this 2x5 connector is
blocked to match the missing corner pin on the board
connection block. In a bit of literary foresha
dowing,
you can also see just above my forefinger the 4x1
connector where we'll later connect the CD audio
lead. To the right of those connectors is the silk
screen explaining which is which. This information is
available ONLY on the sound card, the one pa
ge
paper manual that came with it had no info at all.
I've got a new page looking at
laptop sound failure

and USB replacement.



Here you can see the small SPDIF daughter board
held above the basic so
und card. It's a 5.1 sound card,
five regular channels (front left and right, rear left
and right, center) plus a low frequency or sub
-
woofer
channel. When you're upgrading a sound card, a 5.1
is pretty much the minimum I'd consider. Newer
motherboards com
e with 6.1 and even 7.1 sound built
into the motherboard, so this isn't anything you
should have to fool around with a a newer PC. The
game port is quickly becoming obsolete, replaced
with USB game controllers, but many replacement
sound cards, like this o
ne, still feature a legacy game
port.


Whenever you install a sound card or other adapter
in your PC, you should be careful not to touch the
contact edge (the gold stripes) when handling the
adapter, and ideally, you should only touch them on
the metal b
racket or unused real estate on the card. I
seated this adapter in the PCI slot with even pressure
on the bracket and the back edge of the sound card.
Immediately after installing the sound card, secure
both it and the SPDIF riser with one screw each
throu
gh the bracket on the back rail. That covers
how to install a sound card, now you have to get the
internal and external connections made right.


Now we attach the CD audio lead to the sound card.
Obviously, we have to attach the other end to the
CD/DVD
drive or it won't do much good, but I'm
going to let you take my word for it that it got done:
-
)
The other connector blocks on the top of the sound
card are for modem inputs, lets you play your phone
through the speakers or use a system mike with a
voice m
odem rather than plugging a separate mike
into the modem card. The truth is, I never fooled
around with voice on old PC modems, but the VOIP
(Voice Over IP) capabilities of PCs with broadband
Internet connections work pretty good. They use the
sound card f
or the mic and headset, not a modem.
Below, I just wanted to show the optical SPDIF input.
The clear plastic tube directly to the right, is the
protector I took off the optical connector, and the
black plug next to the clear tube protected the optical
port

on the adapter.




Installing a Graphics Card :


Before you begin, you need to be aware of some important safety
considerations. You don’t want to go damaging your brand new spanking graphics
card!

Installing a graphics card in your computer is extrem
ely easy to do. It will take
you a matter of minutes before you're all done and ready to experience your new
graphics card.

Safety Precautions and Tools You Need


Ok, assuming you have chosen and bought your graphics card, we will start
off with some safet
y basics and the tools you will need. If you haven't decided on
a graphics card yet, you may wish to read the
gaming video card guide

first.


So let's move on. Installing a graphic
s c
ard will only require a non
-
magnetic screwdriver, and an anti
-
static wrist band. The screwdriver is used to
screw your graphics card into place, and the anti
-
static wrist band you wear to
protect your graphics card from static electricity.


Static elec
tricity can cause damage to your graphics card. You don't
want to skip on wearing the anti
-
static wrist band because even the slightest
of shocks can completely ruin your new graphics card. You've been warned!

Steps to Installing a Graphics Card

1.

Turn off
your computer and unplug all power cords. Remove the side panel
to gain access to the inside of your computer. Don’t touch any of the
components inside.

2.

With the side panel off, lay your computer on its side. Locate either the
AGP or PCI
-
Express slot on yo
ur motherboard, depending on which your
motherboard has.

3.

If you’re building this computer for the first time, the IO plate covering the
AGP/PCI
-
Express slot in the back of your computer should still be in place.
Remove it, being careful not to touch any co
mponents. Some cases have
their IO plates secured with screws or tabs, others simply require you to
twist them off.

4.

Now it’s time to get your baby out. Gently remove your graphics card from
its box, holding it by the edges. It’s a good idea to keep your gr
aphics card
in its box until the very moment you’re going to install it.

5.

Now you’re ready to plug your card into the AGP or PCI
-
Express slot. Do
this gently, but make sure its firmly slotted in. When your graphic card is in
place, you need to secure your c
ard to the case. This is usually done with a
screw, but yours may have another method.

6.

Once the graphics card has been secured to the case, you can re
-
install the
side panel of your case, connect your monitor to your graphics card, and
turn your computer b
ack on!

Installing the Drivers


Now that your graphics card has been installed, the only thing left to do is
install the drivers. Your graphics card should come with its own drivers

on CD, so
once you’ve turned your PC on, simply insert the drivers CD and
follow the
instructions. It’s important to note that the drivers that come with your graphics
card are usually outdated. So you will need to visit your video card manufacturer’s
website and download the latest drivers.


Installing operating system and driv
ers:

Installing Windows
XP

(Home or Professional Edition):

Installing Windows
XP

(Home or Professional Edition)
can be very simple,
even for those without much experience working with computers. This article
assumes that you are installing Windows XP directly from a disc onto a clean,
unpartitioned, unformatted hard drive, and that all computer components are
instal
led and working correctly.

Steps:

Ensure that your computer meets or exceeds the minimum system
requirements to run Windows XP
:



300 Mhz Intel or AMD CPU



128 Megabytes of system RAM (It can work with 64 Megabytes of
RAM but its not recommended)



1.5 Gigabyte
s of available drive space



Super VGA 800x600 Display Adapter



CD or DVD
-
ROM



Keyboard and mouse, or other pointing devices



Network Interface Adapter required for Internet and Network
Connectivity

Ensure you have a Windows XP Product Key
. It is printed on a s
ticker on
your software package. It is a string of 5 groups of characters (each 5 long),
separated by dashes, resulting in 25 characters in all.


It looks like this: HHHCF
-
WCF9P
-
M3YCC
-
RXDXH
-
FC3C6.


When the software has almost finished installing, you will

be asked for
it.
You need the product key to complete installing Windows.

Before inserting the CD, you'll have to enter bios (in most cases by presing
DEL on system startup) and select your primary boot device CDrom
. Insert
the Windows XP Installation Disc

and start your computer. When prompted
to "Press any key to boot from CD," press a key on the keyboard.

The installation program will check your hardware, install default
-
set
drivers, and load files necessary for installation
. When arriving at the
"Welcom
e to Setup" screen, Press ENTER to begin the installation process.

Read the License Agreement, and press F8 indicating you agree to its
terms
.

On the next screen, you are presented with a summary of the available
partitions on your installed hard drives
. A
t this point, you should see only
one entry, "Unpartitioned Space." It will be highlighted in grey. Press C on
your keyboard to begin creating partitions for the drive.

Enter the size in megabytes for the new partition
. If you intend to install
only one dr
ive, enter the maximum amount shown. If you wish to create
multiple partitions on a single drive, remember that
Windows XP requires

at least

1.5 Gigabytes of space, plus swap space, and areas for temporary
files.

A good rule of thumb is not to install Wind
ows XP on a partition less
than 5 Gigabytes, unless you wish to impact performance. When
calculating, remember that there are 1,024 Megabytes per Gigabyte. Press
ENTER once you have chosen your desired partition size.

The system will create your new partit
ion, and you will now be at the
partition summary screen once again
. Select your new partition, usually
labeled "C: Partition 1 [Raw]" and press ENTER.

Select either "Format the Partition using the NTFS File System" OR
"Format the Partition using the FAT F
ile System," and press ENTER
.
NTFS is the preferred method, supporting a larger amount of disk space per
partition than FAT, and including security features at the file system level.
NTFS also includes system level compression. If your partition is larger
than 32 Gigabytes, you must choose NTFS. However, with a partition less
than 32 Gigabytes, you can choose FAT, and convert to NTFS later should
you desire. Be aware that NTFS cannot be converted back to FAT.


It is highly recommended to avoid Quick Format,

as this skips an important
process that checks the hard drive for errors or bad sectors.

This scan is
what consumes the majority of the time taken when performing a full
format. If there are errors on a disk at the physical level, it's best to catch
them
now rather than later.

The system will now format the partition
. The length of time this process
requires depends on the speed and size of the drive, and the type of file
system you selected earlier. In most cases, the larger the partition, the
longer the
process will take.

Windows will now start copying files from the installation disc and prompt
you to reboot the computer when the process is completed
. Press ENTER
when prompted to reboot, otherwise it will do so automatically after 15
seconds.

This is the

most time consuming part
. When the computer reboots, do not
press enter to boot from the disc this time, rather allow the computer to
boot from the hard drive. If you are greeted with the Windows XP Boot
screen, all is well so far.

Now the setup program w
ill display various marketing information to you
as it installs and configures itself to your system
. The estimated time
remaining is displayed in the lower left corner.


Note: it is normal for the screen to flicker, turn on and off, or resize during
this
process.

Sooner or later, a dialog window will appear, asking you to choose your
Regional settings
. Select appropriate settings native to your area. Click the
"Next" button when that is completed.

Enter your Product Key, (otherwise known as a CD or Install

Key,) at this
window
.
You will not be able to complete this process without a valid Key.

Click "Next" to continue.

If your computer is going to be on a LAN (Local Area Network) at home,
or even just for kicks, give it a name
.


Select your time zo
ne, and ensure that the date/time are correct

Leave "Typical Settings" selected for Network Setup, unless you have a
specialized access device or protocol required
. Refer to the documentation
for that device for installation procedures.

Setup will continue

to install other devices and peripherals connected to
your machine, give you marketing and capability information, then reboot
as before
.

Congratulations
! You've installed Windows XP. There are a few more
additional set
-
up routines required, but you have
completed the installation.
Remove the CD from the drive.

Upon Reboot, click Yes when you are informed Windows will be changing
your visual settings to improve quality
.

A similar screen to Part 2 of the install process will appear
. If your
computer is conn
ected to the internet, select your connection type. Press
Next to continue.

If connected to the Internet, Select "Activate Now
."

After the Activation Process, a window will appear allowing you to select
the users for the computer
. Enter your name, and the
names of others who
will be using the machine. Press Next to continue.
You will now be looking
at the default Windows XP Desktop
.


Steps for installing drivers:


Drivers are the brains that show hardware how to function. In this article I
will show you how

to install drivers for most any hardware. Some very common
driver installations are for network adapter, wireless adapters, CD
-
ROMS, Hard
Drives, Video Cards, and Printers.


Instructions:

1)

Right
-
Click on MY
COM
PUTER
.

2)

Click on MANAGE.

3)

Highlight DEVICE MANAGER.

4)

Choose the hardware category your hardware relates to and click the +
symbol next to it.

5)

Now Right
-
Click the specific device you would like to install the driver for
and click PROPERTIES.

6)

Click the DRIVER
tab located at the top of window.

7)

Click UPDATE DRIVER and browse to location where driver files reside.
This will install a new driver or update an existing driver for your H/W.

8)

At times, you will see devices in the UNKNOWN DEVICES category.
Devices here a
re hardware recognized by windows, but have no existing
drivers installed. It is the same procedure to install drivers for these devices
as mentioned in STEP 7.


C
-
MOS SETUP:


Many of motherboard currently shifting auto
-
detect the parts in your system
asse
mbly & do not require the adjustment of BIOS to work properly.

Configure system for internet access:


Steps:



Go to control panel.



Click on N/W & internet connection.



Click network connection and next to skip welcome page.



Select connect to internet on the
N/W connection type page and click next.



The new connection wizard displays the getting ready page which has
following 3 options.

1.

Chose from the list of Internet Service Provider (ISP).

2.

Set up my connection manually.

3.

Use CD
-
1 got from ISP.

Choose from the
list of Internet Service Provider:


If you select Chose from ISPs on getting ready page and then click next, the
new connection wizard displays the completing. The new connection wizard page
you can select get online with MSN or select from a list of other

ISP’s when you
have made your selection, click finish.

Set up my connection manually:


Following 3 options are available in the internet connection page.

a)

Connect your dial
-
up MODEM:

Select this option if your connection uses a MODEM & regular
ISDN phone.

If you select connect using dial
-
up connection & click next you are
prompted to enter following.



Connection name : The name of the ISP is typically used as
the connection name for dial
-
up connection to the internet.



Phone number to dial: the phone number

you use to connect
your ISP.



Internet account information: you will be prompted to enter
ISP account name and password. You can select or clear the
following check boxes.

o

Use this account name and password when anyone
connect to the internet from this co
mputer.

o

Make this default internet connection.

o

Click finish to create connection.

b)

Connect using Broadband connection that requires user and password:

Select this option if your high speed connection uses either a DSL or
cable or MODEM.

c)

Connect using broadb
and connection that is always on:

Select this option if your High
-
speed connection uses a cable
MODEM/DSL or LAN connection.

Use CD1 got from an ISP:


Select this option and click next, the wizard displays completing the new
connection wizard. You are int
roduced to click finish and then insert CD
-
ROM.


You require from ISP. The setup program on CD
-
ROM should start
automatically to assist you in connecting to the internet.

Aim:

Study of troubleshooting devices & PC diagnostics tools & PC add
-
on



cards


Theory:


Trouble shooting:


Verifying a rcal problem, analyzing symptoms and isolating and connecting a
failure in the PC is called troubleshooting.



Types of maintenance:


In PC there are two types of maintenance:

1)

Preventive Maintenance

2)

Remedial Maintenance

The maintenance those taken before problem occurs is called preventive
maintenance(also called as periodic maintenance).

Maintenance taken after the problem occurs is called remedial maintenance. It is
called trouble shooting.


Troub
leshooting of devices:

I)

Troubleshooting motherboard:


When we suspect a MBD problem, make sure to do very careful check
and check the cable connections, BIOS settings and jumpers. A large
percentage of what appears to be in failed MBDs is misconfigured
h/w.

II)

Troubleshooting of memory:


a)Backup your system. If your system is bootable but unstable, backup
your data as soon as possible. Computer memory problems can result in
data compution.


b)Check your h/w and system configuration. If your memory
modules
are installed, then check whether they are compatible with your system or
not.


c)Reinstall the computer memory modules. Remove the memory
modules, check for damages, examine system baud for damage &
reinsert it & use a clean cloth to clean it o
r a vaccum to clean the contact
pins.


d)Swap the position of the memory modules so that it can
check/determine if any there is any damage or the module is bad.


e)Update BIOS settings.


f)Test modules using various s/w and h/w based memory testin
g tools.
This testing will help to know whether there is memory module fault or
something else.


g)Use an updates antivirus s/w because a few viruses can cause
memory problems.

Troubleshooting of video:



PROBLEM:

No display



CAUSES:
1)BAD VIDEO CAB
LE


2)BAD DISPLAY ADAPTER


3)BAD 8284 GENERATOR


SUGGESTED ACTIONS:

a)

Check video cable for monitor.

b)

Try another monitor.

c)

Clean the display adapter edge & reset the board.

d)

Check for proper sys. Configuration



PROBLEM:

No horizontal sy
nchronization


CAUSES:
1)BAD VIDEO CABLE


2)BAD DISPLAY ADAPTER


3)BAD MONITOR

SUGGESTED ACTIONS:

a)

Check for cable continuity.

b)

Install different known good display monitor.

c)

Clean the adapter edge & reinstall
.


PROBLEM:

Bad cha
racters

CAUSES:
1)INCORRECT SYS CONFIGURATION


2)BAD DISPLAY MONITOR


3)BAD ADAPTER


4)BAD MONITOR CABLE


5)BAD 74LS157


SUGGESTED ACTION:

a)

Check system configuration.

b)

Clean edge connector of adapter .

c)

Check monitor cable.

Troubleshooting for keyboard:


PROBLEM:

Keyboard won’t respond

CAUSES:
1)BAD CABLE


2)LOOSE CONNECTION

SUGGESTED ACTIONS:

a)

Clean the keys with tuner cleaning spray.

b)

Check keyboard cable for continuity.

c)

Else replace the keyb
oard.


PROBLEM:

Keyboard remains in upper or lower case

CAUSES:
1)BAD CAPSLOCK KEY


2)BAD SHIFT KEY


3)BAD KEYBOARD CONTROLLER

SUGGESTED ACTIONS:

a)

Check keyboard cable for continuity.

b)

Check connector pins.

c)

Clean the keys

d)

Check if

cable is connected properly.


PROBLEM:

No key recognized

CAUSES:
1)BAD KEYBOARD INTERFACING CABLE


2)CABLE NOT CONNECTED PROPERLY


3)BAD KEYBOARD CONTROLLER



SUGGESTED ACTIONS:

a)

Check keyboard cable for continuity

b)

Check connecto
r pins

c)

Clean the keys

d)

Check if cable connected properly

Troubleshooting HDD(Hard Disk Drive)


Problems related to HDD are classified into 3 types:

a)

Mechanical failure

-

Worn
-
out ball bearings of spindle

-

Winding burned out motor

-

Head crash due to dust

-

Hea
d crash due to physical shock

b)

Electronic failure:

-

Related to output PCB

c)

Data failure

-

Bad spot on plotter

-

Dust & contamination on plotter surface

-

Dust on r/w head


Steps to troubleshoot HDD:

1)

Check power supply connections

2)

Check interface connections

3)

Chec
k the position of m/s jumper of HDD.

4)

Does the BIOS see the drive?

5)

Check if any error is needed to be removed for proper working of HDD
contained in boot sector.

6)

Check if drive is active or not.

7)

Check if drive formatted is recognized by O.S.

Troubleshooting

Serial and Parallel ports

1)

Ensure that the latest BIOS code is installed for our system.

2)

Remove any switch boxes,cable extensions or port sharing equipments
between system and device.

3)

Verify the cable being used which meets the required specializations.

4)

Ru
n a self
-
test on the external device to ensure if it is working properly.

5)

Check if ports are enabled.

6)

Run diagnosis on port.

Troubleshooting Mouse:

1)

Because of wear and tear of rolling contact we may have to replace the
mouse.

2)

Check if cable is connected p
roperly, if fault in cable then replace.

3)

If port not working then connect to another port
.


Troubleshooting Printer:

PROBLEM:

Printer won’t point

CAUSES:
1)BAD PRINTER CABLE


2)BAD PRINTER ADAPTER


3)INCORRECT PRINTER CONFIG/DRIVE
RS


4)BAD POWER SUPPLY OR CONNECTION

SUGGESTED ACTIONS:

a)

Check printer cable.

b)

Conduct printer self
-
test.

c)

Clean printer adapter edge.

d)

Check the printer is configured & works properly.


PROBLEM:

Printer locks up or prints garbage

CAUSES:
1)BAD PRI
NTER CABLE


2)PRINTER NOT INSTALLED CORRECTLY


3)BAD PRINTER ADAPTER

SUGGESTED ACTIONS:

a)

Check cable continuity.

b)

Verify the printer is configured properly.

c)

Conduct a printer self
-
test.


STUDY OF PC DIAGNOSTIC TOOLS




DIAGNOSTIC
SOFTWARE
:


They are stand

alone program which are used to check proper working
of different PC components and to diagnose various problems related to
PC.


Types of diagnostic softwares are:

1)

Advanced diagnostic IBM

2)

Q by Intern solution

3)

Norton Utilitie
s

4)

PC tools

1)

Advanced Diagnostic by IBM:


IBM’s AD is available on CD which is loaded by booting from CD and
it is loaded successfully when post successfully executes its last routine i.e.
Bootstrap loader. It is organized into supervisory control program

and
individual test program. AD has four local test menu’s and one utility
menu.

SUPERVISORY CONTROL PROGRAM


The user interacts with the supervisory control program and issues
appropriate command in order to run different tests.


The program also iss
ues various messages and offers different options to
user.

INDIVIDUAL TESTS


AD contains different test programs. Each test is organized into multiple
test routines to test different aspects of a particular system. Some of the 14
tests and their function
s are:

a)

System tests:

--
Test MBD circuit.

--
Test functioning of supported chips, DMA and interrupt logic etc.

--
Also perform ROM BIOS checksum calculations and verification


b
) Memory Test:


Tests total RAM installed

& verifies correct address.

b)

Keyboard Test
:

Tests all keys, keyboard cable and reset functions.

c)

Diskette drive and adapter test:

Tests FDC, FDD and also HDD.

d)

Asynchronous communication adapter:

Tests COM1 port interface.

e)

Alternate asynchronous communicatio
n adapter
:

Tests COM1 port interface.

f)

SDLC adapter tests:

Tests the serial port in SDLC communication adapter.

g)

HDD test
s:

Test HDD and HDC and cable.

h)

Expansion option test
:

Tests expansion unit, cable, extender cord and receiver cord.


2)

PC to
ols:

It is a very useful disk utility program when something goes wrong with
the disk.

Features:

-

Data recovery using DISKFIX, FILEFIX,etc.

-

Unfragmenting facility using compress prog.

-

Antivirus program also provided.

-

Directory maintenance program.

-

File find

option available

-

System information prog.

PC tools perform following:



DISKFIX:

It is used to detect ans prevent potential problems.

-

Repairs most disk problems.

-

Thoroughly scans disk for defects and damages data and removes if any.

-

Recovers lost cluster ch
ain

-

Detects cluster going bad before it causes any problem

-

To find out viruses hidden in system



DISKEDIT:


It can be used for viewing and editing any sector on disk including
partition table, FAT, directories and boot record


It can do:


a)

SELECTING:


To select any drive, directory,file,disk sector,logical sectors,etc.


Select anyone to edit and view selected area

b)

EDIT:

--
Undoing edits

--
Setting date, time, and attributes

--
Link facility for file, directory,etc

--
Marking blocks and co
py to clipboard


c)
VIEW:

Shows all changes made by users


3)
NORTON UTILITY:


It is another very common data recovery utility.


Features:

-

Provide facility for undelete deleted files

-

Repair damaged files

-

U
nformat formatted disk

-

Protect disk against data loss

-

Diagnose problems with computer network

-

Protect computer from virus infection

-


-

Increase computer performance by using disk cache

-

Secure data from unauthorized read and write operation.



STUDY OF PC ADD
-
ON CARDS


PC add
-
on card just adds an extra hardware to our PC.


Due to this feature, users can configure plugin boards which are installed
on PC as per their need. Peripheral component interconnect bus(PC1) enables
extremely hig
h speed data transfer between the plugin boards and the host memory


i)

NIC(Network Interface Card):

It allows computer to communicate with each other thr’ the network.
Each NIC has a 48 bit unique hexadecimal address called NAC
address. A computer or device
on a n/w can be reached to NAC address
thr’ NIC card

Eg: og NAC address
-
> A1B2C3D4E5F6

The first 6 digits here are NAC address which are the
OUI(organizationally unique identifiers) assigned by IEEE to each
manufacturer. The rest of NAC address can be assi
gned in any way by
manufacturer.


ii
) SOUND CARD:


It consists of
---

a)

AGP & PCI:

AGP is a high speed point to point channel for attaching a graphics
card to MBD.

It is used to assist in acceleration of 3D computer gr
aphics.

PCI is an expansion card format which is faster, interface to replace
PCI, PCI
-
X and AGP.

b)

GPU(Graphics Processing Unit)

Main chip on graphics card

A special stream processor used for manipulating & displaying
computer graphics and implements a no.
of operations faster than
CPU.

c)

Cooling Device:

Graphics card has many transistors & hence GPU gets heated. So.
Cooling device fan is needed.

d)

Video RAM:

It stores graphic data which is accepted by GPU.

It handles graphics at higher rate and very quick acc
ess
.



BEEP INDICATION CODES:


Beep error indication is given from built in speakers.

1)

One short beep: Normal post sys. Is OFF

2)


Two short beeps: Post error, error code shown on screen

3)

No beep: Power supply or sys. board problem or disconnect
ed beep

4)

Continuous beep: Power supply sys board or keyboard problem.

5)

Repeating beep: Powersupply, system board problem or keyboard
problem.

6)

One long one short beep: System board problem

7)

One long two short beeps: Display adapter problem(CGA) short
beeps

8)

One

long three hort beeps: Enhanced graphics adapter problem

9)

3 long beeps: 3270 keyboard card position

SYSTEM GENERALISED ERROR DATA


CODE NO

1)

100

Checko/p switches, possibility of h/w configuration mismatch
exists

2)

101

System MBD manufacturing

3)

201

RAM failure

4)

301

Keyboard failure

5)

401

MGA failure

6)

501

CGA card problem

7)

601

Floppy disk sub assembly problem

8)

1701

HD sub assembly problem

9)

999

Printer problem

10)

1300

Game port problem