A pioneer of research in Artificial Intelligence

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20 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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A pioneer of research in Artificial Intelligence


Jordan W. Bennett

Comp. 1631

Winter 2011



Marvin Lee Minsky was born into a Jewish family
August 9
th
, 1927 in Ney York, NY.


His father was a successful eye surgeon, his mother, a
Jewish activist.


Marvin attended three separate grade school
institutions throughout his youth.


The Ethical Culture Fieldston School, an Ivy League
preparatory in New York city.


The Bronx High School of Science, a public school in
Bedford Park, Bronx, renowned for its discipline in Math
and Science.



Phillips Academy, a boarding school and member of the
G20 schools group, located in Andover, Mass.


From 1944
-
1945 Minsky served in the
United States Navy, completing his basic
training at the Great Lakes Naval Training
Center. In an interview with
New Yorker
reporter Jeremy Bernstein he stated “They
provided my first, and essentially my last,
contact with nonacademic people.”



He was accepted to Harvard University in
1946 with ambitions to major in physics.
He graduated in 1950 with a Bachelor of
Mathematics.


Minsky began his doctorate
studies at Princeton in 1951.
During his time there he built
SNARC (Scholastic Neural
Analog Reinforcement
Computer). This was the first
artificial Neural Network.
This became essential to
development in the field of
Artificial Intelligence.

Artificial Neural Network


In his doctorate studies, Minsky attempted to
extract human attributes, such as logic and reason,
and implement them in a “learning machine”
(SNARC). If successful, this machine, would be able
to make rational decisions based on past results
stored in its memory.



Marvin completed his graduate studies and
received his PhD in Mathematics from Princeton in
1954. His doctoral dissertation “Neural Nets and
The Brain Model Problem” was published the same
year.



After completing his PhD at
Princeton, Dr. Minsky accepted
a three year junior fellowship
back at Harvard, strictly to work
with microscopes and develop
his theorems.



Within these three years Marvin
accomplished a patent on the
Confocal Scanning Microscope.
This is one of many inventions.



In 1958 Marvin joined the
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
as an assistant professor of
Mathematics.


With the help of John McCarthy, he
founded the MIT Artificial Intelligence
Project in 1959 which became the MIT
AI Lab in 1964.


Remained director of the a lab until 1974
before he was named Donner professor
of science in the department of
electrical engineering and computer
science.


In 1989 he moved to
MIT Media Arts
where he became
Toshiba professor of
Media Arts and
Sciences.



He remains in this
position still today.


MIT Media Lab


The term “Artificial
Intelligence” was first used by
John McCarthy in 1956.


It is the study and applied use of
technology used to build
intelligent/humanoid machines.


The goal is that these machines
would be able to examine their
surroundings and make
decisions that would optimize
their chance of accomplishing a
specific task in the most
efficient way possible.


McCarthy describes it as "the
science and engineering of
making intelligent machines.”

John McCarthy


Diversity of Methods used
for problem solving among
researchers and institutions.


An extremely vast study
with many sub subjects. The
majority of the time, these
sub divisions do not
communicate their findings
with each other.


Ethics come into question
when attempting to
recreate the workings of the
mind.



Lack of focus on one
common goal within the
study of AI.


Repairing “bugs” rather
than developing
systems without “bugs”


Most of our
developments in the
field have only revolved
around one problem at a
time. Thus, each
“intelligent machine” is
built for one specific
task.




When AI Research began it was dominated by the
MIT AI Research Project.


Minsky made huge contributions in many sectors
of this study including:


Visual Perception


Computational Geometry


Basic theories of AI and


Computation




He founded Logo, which is used to teach
computer programming to children and also
helped found the Thinking Machines
Corporation.



He devoted much of his intellectual energy in
developing his theories that say
consciousness is only an illusion and that
there is no difference between humans and
machines.



Turing Award (1969)



Japan Prize (1990)



IJCAI Award for
research excellence
(1991)



Benjamin Franklin
Medal



Perceptrons


1969



Communication with
Alien intelligence


1985



The Society of Mind


1987



The Emotion Machine
-

2006


www.wikipedia.org


www.answers.com


www.bookrags.com/bio


Science in the Contemporary World: an
Encyclopedia
by Eric Gottfrid Swedin